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Preface.

For several years past my friends have suggested to me that I write the recollections of my long and somewhat eventful life. I hesitated to undertake the task for the reason that I had not been accustomed to write for publication. A year ago I reached the conclusion that if such a work was ever to be done, it should be begun at once. My memory has always been exceptionally good and reliable. In giving to the world my recollections of seventy years, as found in the following pages, I have made no effort at fine writing, but have endeavored to state facts in such a way as to make them intelligible. What I give in these pages is not an autobiography, but rather my impression of men and things, especially of men, as I have seen and known them. The readers, whoever they may be, old or young, cannot fail to find something in this book which will interest them. With best wishes to them for health, prosperity and long life, I am, Sincerely,
THE AUTHOR.

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Errata.

Page 15-6th line from bottom should read "Jeremiah Wood."
" 28 — 11th " " " " " "Thomas Drummond."
" 193 — 9th " " " " " "There also was my friend."
" 200 — l8th " " " " " "whose death in 1891."
" 209 — 9th and l0th line from top should read "draw" and "make."
" 299 — 20th line from top should read "Superintendent of Public Schools."
" 304 — 2d " " " " " "while on their way."
" 304 — 3d " " bottom should read "requiescat in pace."
" 304 — 5th " " " " " "garlands dead."

Chapter I.

EARLY GALENA.

The lead mine region of the Northwest is about fifty miles square, lying in the northwestern corner of Illinois and the southwestern part of Wisconsin, with a narrow strip on the west side of the Mississippi river, in the vicinity of Dubuque, Iowa. A few adventurous men came into the region as early as 1821 to engage in mining lead ore, and a larger number in the succeeding five years. They were mostly from Missouri, Kentucky and Southern Illinois, making their way to the mines on horseback, by ox-teams and by keelboats up the Mississippi river. The early best paying "diggings" were located west of Fever river, from five to ten miles from La Pointe (afterwards Galena). Their supplies were obtained at a small store or trading post, kept by a Frenchman named Bouthillier, just below and on the opposite side of the river from Frederic's Point, the landing for steamboats, and the head of navigation at an ordinary stage of water. Crude log furnaces were constructed to smelt the ore, and the product of these furnaces was taken to St. Louis by keelboats and by ox-teams overland. The teams occasionally hauled loads to Juneau's Point (afterwards Milwaukee), and to Fort Dearborn (afterwards Chicago). During these years and prior thereto, the Winnebago Indians did some mining, which

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gave them lead to mold into bullets and buckshot for their guns. They never exported any lead.

By 1826 the mining operations, which had proved lucrative, began to attract the attention of the country and brought in a large immigration, not only of miners, but also of farmers, merchants, mechanics and a few professional men. The next year brought in a still larger number, and mining centers were formed, each with its store, blacksmith shop, etc. The locating of Galena on Fever river was a matter of accident. Prior to 1826 all supplies for the miners were brought up Fever river and landed at Frederic's Point, a natural landing, and prior to 1827 this landing was known as La Pointe. In the summer of 1826 a street was laid out under the bluff, just below the landing, and named Main street, and the lots were leased for building purposes. A few log houses were erected for dwellings, stores, shops, etc. The fall of that year brought in the greater part of the French-Swiss colony from the Selkirk settlement on Red river. These people having become dissatisfied with the condition of things at the settlement, emigrated in a body to the lead mines to join some of their compatriots already there. Traveling overland to Fort St. Anthony (now Fort Snelling), they obtained passage on a steamboat which had carried supplies to the garrison stationed there, and by it were taken to their destination. The new coiners, all well-to-do financially, chose to locate on government lands and engage in farming.

The favorable reports from the mining region during the latter part of 1826, induced capitalists to locate there for the purpose of trading, smelting lead ore, etc. In the spring of 1827 two additional streets were laid out in the new town and lots were sold. Steamboats began to run at regular intervals between St. Louis and

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Fever river. By fall the village had more than doubled in population. When the question of obtaining a town charter was being discussed it was proposed to name the town Jackson, in honor of Gen. Jackson, who was popular in the West. Others suggested that it be named Harrison, called after the hero of Tippecanoe, but wiser counsel prevailed, and the more appropriate name Galena, was chosen. The character of the settlers in the lead mines during this year, either to locate in Galena or elsewhere, was much better than that of the previous years.

Among the large number of enterprising men who located in the town of Galena in 1827 and during the two succeeding years. I can call to my mind Dr. Horatio Newhall. Charles S, Hempstead, Col. James M. Strode, Captain W. B. Green, James G. Soulard, Captain J. B. Atchison, Captain D. B. Morehouse, Captain Orrin Smith, Captain Smith D. Harris, Captain W. H. Hooper, Captain Edward Beebe, Captain G. W. Girdon (the last seven named well-known steamboat captains), Scribe Harris, Ben C. St. Cyr, H. F. McCloskey, Frederick Stahl, Nicholas Bowling, Lucius and Edward Langworthy (afterwards prominent citizens of Dubuque), Thomas Ford (later governor of Illinois), Henry Dodge (general in the Blackhawk war and subsequently U. S. senator), Charles R. Bennett. Daniel Wann (Collector of the port of Galena for a score of years), William Hempstead and Moses Hallet (the first sheriff of the county).

For the most part the young men named above were as energetic and wide awake as any to be found. Nothing pleased them better than a horse race, a turkey shooting match or a country dance. Shrewd, enterprising and industrious, most of them were successful in their various vocations, W. H. Hooper, trader as well as a steamboat captain, moved west, engaged as a freighter west of the

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Missouri river, joined the Mormon church, settled in Utah, and was for sixteen years a delegate to congress. Although a Mormon, he never practiced polygamy. He had great energy, much practical intelligence and a charm of manner that won the respect and confidence of his brother members in both houses of congress.

George W. Campbell, who was a successful wholesale grocer at Galena for nearly twoscore years, moved to Chicago during the early part of the civil war and filled a position in the United States commissary department there, with the rank of colonel. A quiet, careful, conservative business man, he always kept his affairs well in hand. He was a member of the First Presbyterian church at Galena and a ruling elder for more than a score of years. His Christian zeal and benevolence led him to do much for the poor and unfortunate in alleviating their needs. It could truly be said of him that he was the poor man's friend.

My parents came to the lead mines in the spring of 1826, from St. Louis, Mo., where they had lived for two years and where I was born. They were members of the French-Swiss colony which emigrated via Hudson Bay to the Selkirk settlement in British America in 1821 and left there in 1823. They made their way to the Mississippi and down that river in open boats to St. Louis. The climate of Missouri did not agree with them, and when Col. Henry Gratiot, the newly appointed agent to the Winnebago Indians, left St. Louis for the lead mines in 1826 to establish an agency, my parents, with a few of their fellow colonists who were in St. Louis, joined him. The party took passage on one of the first steamboats that ascended the Mississippi above the mouth of the Illinois river, and reached Fever river on the 14th day of April. A beautiful grove on the south side of an undulating prairie, twelve miles north of La Pointe

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(afterwards Galena), was chosen as the site of the new agency. Col. Gratiot's family, as well as that of my father, were left at La Pointe while suitable buildings were being erected at the agency for their accommodation. Col. Gratiot was joined the next spring by his two brothers, Bion and Paul, who became his partners in the business of mining and smelting lead. There were good "diggings" in the vicinity of the agency. They constructed several log furnaces and employed a large number of men to dig ore, run the furnaces, cut and haul wood, etc. The men so employed were usually Canadian ex-trappers and voyageurs, among whom were some half-breed Indians. My father engaged in mining and teaming. The teaming business was a large one, as all the ore dug had to be hauled, to the furnaces to be smelted, and the lead in "pigs" was then hauled from the furnaces to La Pointe, on Fever river, for shipment.

In the three or four years succeeding the establishment of the agency at Gratiots' Grove, the mining operations on the prairie north of there were so successful that it became the attraction for many miners. In after years this tract, known as "Shullsburg's Survey," developed into one of the richest sections of the lead mine region. The flourishing town of Shullsburg, Wisconsin, was built on this tract.

The rapid increase in the products of the mines in what was called the Galena District brought in a large number of men of capital, who constructed smelting furnaces within fifteen miles of Galena. Some of the earlier ones were the Gratiots, H. H. Gear, Lockwood, Magoon, Hughlett, Meeker, Strawbridge, Hamilton and January. The government, through the war department, exacted from the miner one-tenth of the mineral dug by him as a tax. The miner usually arranged with the smelter to pay this tax, consequently the relations

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between the miner and the smelter were very close, and, to a certain extent, confidential. The furnaces in these early days were crude and inexpensive, and in the process of smelting there was much waste. In the early 30's Burton & Sons constructed near Galena a new, improved and more expensive furnace, patterned after the English furnace style. It was called the "Cupolo" furnace and is in general use now.

The teaming business increased in importance as the mining interests of the country developed. The opening of valuable mines in the northern portions of the lead mine region about Mineral Point increased the number of teams engaged in the carrying business. In the spring teams of four yoke of oxen and a strong canvas covered wagon would leave Southern Illinois for the mines, haul lead to the furnaces, or from the furnaces to the place of shipment, usually Galena, and take a "back load" in goods for the traders or supplies for the miners. The teamsters lived in their wagons and cooked their food, which consisted of corn bread, bacon and coffee. The oxen browsed at night, and so obtained a living. Late in the fall these "outfits" would return to their southern homes for the winter, sometimes, in the early days, taking a load of lead to St. Louis. These were called "sucker teams," after the sucker fish, which ascends the Mississippi river in the spring and returns late in the fall.

As early as 1827, Col. James M. Strode, a Kentuckian, located at Galena and put out his "shingle" as attorney and counselor at law. He was one of the first lawyers in the village, preceded by only one other, viz: Judge John Turney. He was of splendid physique, tall and straight, and dignified and courteous in manner. He had ability as a lawyer, especially in jury trials. His affability and good nature drew men to him, and he

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soon became well known and popular in all that region, When the Blackhawk war broke out, he raised a company of mounted men, and later was elected a colonel of a, small regiment, to which was assigned the duty of scouting in the mining district and in the country east and south of it. His men were ever on the alert and did some efficient work as scouts. The colonel was never engaged in a battle with the Indians, but had a few lively skirmishes with them. During the short war he achieved considerable distinction as an Indian fighter. For many years after the war stories were told of his exploits. Many were doubtless exaggerated, but they never failed to interest the people. His vanity was great, and he seemed to enjoy being thus made a hero. Col. Strode moved to Chicago about the early '50's, and will be remembered by the old Chicago bar and by old citizens of the northern part of the state, as one of the counsel in the famous Birch-Stewart divorce case, which was tried at the county seat of Du Page county.

One of the most noted men who came to Galena in 1827 was Hezekiah H. Gear, a New Englander, nearing middle life. He was tall, slender, wiry, of irrepressible energy, and soon proved to be a successful business man. He engaged in mining on a large scale, hiring men by the score to do his work, built furnaces and ran them, and also engaged in trading at Galena. At this time he was the wealthiest man in the lead mines. When the Blackhawk war broke out in 1832, he raised a company of mounted volunteers, which he himself commanded. He was elected to the state senate and made a very creditable record. While senator he warmly favored the project to build a railroad from Cairo to Galena, called the "Illinois Central Railroad," and was an active factor in developing the resources of the lead mine region. Later in life he became somewhat erratic, the result of

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long mental strain, and "his right hand forgot its cunning."

The Rev. Mr. Gear, a brother of Captain Gear, was a Protestant Episcopal clergyman, and in the early 30s was rector of a church at Galena. His son, John H. Gear, who was a schoolboy at this time and whom I knew, moved to Fort Snelling Minn., with his father, who had been appointed a chaplain in the United States Army. After the completion of his education he went to Burlington, Iowa, and became a merchant. He was elected to the legislature and was chosen speaker and served two terms. He was soon afterwards elected governor of the state and served four years, and is now one of the United States senators from that state. Governor Gear is a man of quiet disposition, of sound judgment and of fine administrative ability, and has always been popular with the people of his state.

Among the young men who came to Galena in 1827 were two from New England and who were prominent figures in that place for nearly a half century. They were Charles S. Hempstead and Dr. Horatio Newhall, a practicing physician. The former was a quiet, dignified, urbane man, and an able lawyer, who practiced his profession until past middle life, when he devoted his entire attention to his private affairs. He was a promoter of the Galena and Chicago railroad, the first road to be constructed west of Lake Michigan, and was one of its board of directors for many years. He served in the civil war as a paymaster and was one of Galena's early mayors. His two sons, Edward and Charles, became prominent citizens of Galena, and both moved to Chicago and engaged, the first named in the lumber business, and the second in the practice of his profession as a physician, in which he became distinguished. Dr. New-hall was a man of liberal education, of superior natural

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ability, and was recognized as a skillful practitioner. Both were ruling elders in the First Presbyterian church at Galena during all these years. They were both public spirited citizens, in whom the community had unbounded confidence and held in high esteem. No two other citizens did more to advance its every interest, social, moral and material.

In the same year (1827) a young Kentuckian made his advent in Galena in the person of John H. Rountree. He was tall, handsome, genial and generous. He turned his attention to mining and located in a mining center near Galena. His industry, energy and rare practical intelligence attracted the attention of his neighbors. Not long after he moved to the village of Platteville, Wis. His success as a business man soon made him prominent, and his kindly manner naturally won for him the friendship of all classes. His cordial greeting and handshake was often regarded by the recipients as a benediction. So much confidence did his neighbors have in his integrity and good judgment, that not infrequently when disagreements arose among them instead of going to a court, they would mutually agree to leave it to Major Rountree for decision. He served in the Blackhawk war as a captain of volunteers, was elected a member of the constitutional convention of his state, was a state senator several terms, and held other positions of trust in his state. He was one of Wisconsin's best known and most highly esteemed citizens.

The first clergyman to settle in Galena was the Rev. Aratus Kent in 1829. Having completed his theological studies, he came to the lead mines under the auspices of the Home Missionary society. When he made application for a mission he said that he wanted a "place so hard that no one would take it." With commendable Christian zeal he began to canvass the village, to as

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certain if it contained any members of the Presbyterian church. A few were found, who gave him a cordial welcome, and arrangements were at once made by them and their friends, without regard to sect, for holding Sunday meetings. A suitable room was secured at the rear of a grocery store and saloon — a combination not unusual in those days. It is related that while the young clergyman was preaching in the rear room, a few citizens, who evidently "esteemed all days alike," were having a quiet game of "seven up" in the front room. Mr. Kent organized the first Presbyterian church in Galena in 1831, and bought a frame building adjoining the present stone church building, in which services were held for several years. He was its pastor for nearly a quarter of a century. In the '40s it was the largest and most influential church in the Northwest outside of Chicago. About 1855 he was appointed the General Superintendent of Home Missions for the Northwest. He continued in this work for nearly a score of years, and by his untiring energy accomplished what few other men could have done in establishing religious societies, organizing churches, and in securing missionaries to take charge of them. He also took an active interest in educational matters, and was an important factor, with Elder John Edwards, an old and influential citizen of Rockford as an assistant, in founding Beloit college and the Rockford Female college. During the first decade of his ministrations at Galena he was in the habit of giving one day each week to visiting the villages and hamlets in the lead mine region, going frequently from house to house to ascertain the religious needs of its inmates. He took with him Bibles, tracts and other religious books, which he distributed freely, thereby doing the work usually done by the colportuer. He was generally known at an early date as the "pioneer missionary," and in the

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later years of his life as "Father Kent." He was a man of wonderful energy and of deep and earnest piety. I united with his church at an early age, and have always felt deeply grateful to him for his faithfulness in giving me so many valuable moral and religious lessons in my youth, lessons which I have never forgotten.

Soon after the beginning of the '30s Mr. Kent induced Amasa B. Campbell, a graduate of a New England college, to come to Galena and open a first-class school. He intended to enter the ministry, but lack of physical ability caused him to change his mind, and he resolved to be an educator. Mr. Campbell began his work with zeal and energy. He had a well-trained mind and a disposition well adapted for teaching. For fifteen years he carried on his work with untiring devotion, and his school at Galena was regarded as the best in the Northwest. Soon after its opening he had the valuable assistance of his wife, who was a lady of fine natural ability and thoroughly educated. For several years I was a pupil in his school, attending every winter from four to five months. He was of great assistance to his pastor, Mr. Kent, in his arduous work, frequently filling his pulpit when the latter was absent or disabled. Mr. Campbell took a lively interest in his pupils and did more than merely teaching them. In the latter part of the '40s he gave up teaching on account of impaired health, and turned his attention to farming. He was succeeded by George S. Magoun, afterward Rev. Dr. Magoun, President of Iowa college, at Grinnell, Iowa.

Mr. John Wood, a college graduate, came to Galena a few years before Mr. Campbell to establish an academy, His project did not succeed. He moved out to Gratiot's Grove, opened a boarding and day school there, ran it for a few years and returned to Galena. I attended his school at Gratiot's Grove one winter. He was a man of

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ability and superior education, and one of its prominent citizens for nearly fifty years. He served as a deacon and ruling elder in the first Presbyterian church during most of these years.

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Chapter II.

THE BLACKHAWK WAR Of 1832 — GALENA, 1832 TO 1836.

The Blackhawk war broke out in the early summer of 1832. For six years prior to this event the emigration to the lead mine region had been phenomenally great. The settlers during the latter part of this period were largely of the agricultural class, who had been induced to locate on government lands, not only in the mining districts, but also on the fertile lands south and east of the district. Thus it happened that when roving bands of Indians began their depredation of stealing cattle and horses, burning farm houses and occasionally murdering their inmates, there was a considerable though scattered population in Northwestern Illinois and South western Wisconsin. It will be remembered that the Winnebago Indians in 1827 had become dissatisfied and restless and threatened to take the war path. They asserted that they had received bad treatment from the white settlers in the lead mine region, that they could get no redress, etc. The Indian agent, Col. Henry Gratiot, who had always been on friendly terms with this tribe, at once went to their camps on upper Rock river, and had a "talk" with its chiefs, and induced them to delay all action and meet a high official of the government, Gen. Cass, of Michigan, and lay all their grievances before him, promising them that he would rectify all their wrongs and have the wrongdoers punished. The result was that a conference was held and a treaty of peace was made and signed by all the leading chiefs

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of the tribe. These Indians were the allies of the whites during the war of 1832.

The Sac tribe of Indians, of which Blackhawk was the chief, had two years before (1829), by treaty, ceeded to the government their lands on Rock river, and had moved to their new reservation on the west side of the Mississippi river in Central and Southern Iowa, and nearly directly west of their reservation in Illinois.

For some reason never fully understood, Blackhawk moved the greater part of his tribe in the spring of 1832 to his old reservation on lower Rock river. Blackhawk always asserted that his intentions were not hostile. He simply desired to spend the summer on his old hunting grounds, where game was more plenty than on the Des Moines and Iowa rivers, and that lie had brought his squaws and papooses with him showing his peaceful intentions. There was a garrison of United States troops at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, in command of Gen. Atkinson. The authorities at Washington construed this action on the part of Blackhawk as a violation of the treaty and a declaration of war, and Gen. Atchison was ordered to move his troops against Blackhawk and force him to recross the Mississippi river. Fearing that the force at Fort Armstrong might not be sufficient, the governor of Illinois was ordered to issue a call for volunteers, Blackhawk, finding that he could not recross the Mississippi river below Rock Island without coming in conflict with United States troops, moved his tribe up the valley of Rock river, fighting the white troops, regulars and volunteers, wherever attacked by them.

Small bands of the younger Indians, on the plea of scouting, went out and began to steal, pillage and burn hay and grain in the stack, burn houses and in some instances committed murder; such bands are now called "pillagers." Blackhawk claimed that he had no control

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over them and was not aware at the time of their conduct. The act of these pillagers created intense excitement among the white settlers, and their outrages were charged directly to Blackhawk. It has always been evident to me that Blackhawk, finding his retreat cut off, pushed northward, hoping to cross the Mississippi above the Wisconsin river, which he ultimately succeeded in doing, after having lost nearly one-half of his warriors and many of his women and children.

Three years before the war my father located about a half section of government land on Apple river, six miles south of the agency, and lying in Jo Daviess county, Illinois, for a farm. He began to improve it at once, and by the time the war began he had one of the best farms in that section of the country. The family lived on the farm and he divided his time between the farm and his business at the agency. This farm, as I remember it, was an ideal one. On the north side of this beautiful river, large enough to run mills, was an undulating prairie with soil of great fertility, and on the south side, gently rising from the river, was a thick grove, mostly of hard wood, from which no wood or timber had ever been taken. The prairie land and timber or wood land were of nearly equal area. We were near the Indian trail from the agency to the Indian camps on lower Rock river. After the war began reports were circulated to the effect that the Winnebagos would join the Sacs in their war. In the early summer of 1832 the bad conduct of Indians south of us caused the settlers some anxiety, and they became suspicious of the hitherto friendly Winnebagos.

I remember well in the early summer of the war a band of ten or twelve Winnebagos stopping at our farm house at nightfall and asking for food. Bread and meat were given to them and they left. Their conduct led my

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mother, who understood the Indian character well, to believe they might be bent on doing mischief. Father was at the agency, and she was alone with her five small children, the eldest being only nine years old. The nearest neighbor was nearly a mile away. She barricaded the door for the night, and took as a weapon of defense in case of attack a large four-pronged iron pitchfork. The next evening at about sun down we heard a noisy hand of Indians on the trail less than half a mile distant. It was evident that a part or all of them were under the influence of liquor. Mother was alarmed, and hurriedly gathering up a few valuables took her five little ones to a secluded spot up the river, where stood a stack of hay. She made beds of hay at the foot of the stack for the smaller ones and with the two oldest boys (I being the younger of the two) sat up the livelong night. Father came home the next day, and the family was at once taken to the agency for better protection.

My father soon after joined a company of mounted volunteers that belonged to Col. Strode's regiment. The company was active as scouts, but never had an engagement with the Indians. One day about the middle of July, about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, our village was startled by the news brought by a scout that a large force of hostile Indians was moving on Galena from the east and would attack it by daylight the next morning, and that Gratiot's Grove might be attacked first. As Galena had a stockade and a small force of volunteers, all were ordered to leave for there at once. There we had no stockade nor troops and were entirely unprotected. All the horse teams and saddle horses were brought out. The women and children were crowded in the wagons. The men and boys took the horses, two on a horse. When it came my turn to mount, I found that my only chance to ride was the third seat on a horse, a Canadian and a young

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colored girl of eighteen were to ride in front of me. A few men with arms volunteered to stay and defend the government stores at the agency warehouse. Soon after 3 o'clock the procession moved off at a rapid rate. When we had made about two-thirds of the twelve miles to Galena, we were met by a messenger, who informed us that the alarm was a false one, that no Indians had been seen, etc. Most of the villagers turned back to their homes. A few went on to Galena. I was permitted to go, and boy like, had a good time.

The big scare narrated above induced the villagers and the settlers in the vicinity to begin the construction of a stockade around the two buildings used as a store house for the government Indian supplies. As nearly all the able-bodied men had joined the mounted company of volunteers, it was left to the old men, women and boys to do the work. Men were set to work felling trees and cutting logs about eighteen inches in diameter and twenty-five feet long, which were dragged a half a mile or more to the agency storehouse. A trench three feet in depth was dug, when the logs were set up on end in it. Every log had its upper end sharpened. It fell to ray lot, though less than eight years of age, to drive two yoke of oxen to drag the logs from the forest. It took several weeks to complete the stockade. All the settlers felt greatly relieved after its completion, and only once were they all brought into it for one night before the close of the war, about a month later. During the time we were constructing our stockade the settlers at Elizabeth, fifteen miles east of Galena, were attacked by a small force of Indians, probably "pillagers." Their stockade had been completed and the Indians were repulsed after an irregular fight of several hours. Much ammunition was expended, and when the supply of bullets was exhausted the women went to work moulding a new supply. The settlers lost only one man.

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This Indian war, as well as the serious trouble with the Winnebagos five years before, which came nigh to an open conflict, were unnecessary. In both instances the white settlers were to blame. In 1826 and 1827 the miners and keelboat men treated the Indians and their squaws not only harshly, but often brutally. In the latter case, had the military authorities been more prudent, and, instead of sending an armed force to fight, instituted an inquiry into the reasons for Blackhawk's violation of the provisions of the treaty of 1829 in leaving his reservation on the west side of the Mississippi, all would have been explained satisfactorily and a bloody war averted. To show how unfair and unmilitary was the conduct of the volunteers, I will state that when Blackhawk was camped some distance north of Dixon, where were rendezvoused some three hundred volunteers in command of Major Stillman, one company was detailed under command of Major Stillman to find the Indians under Blackhawk. After a short day's ride, they went into camp not far from the Indian encampment. Towards evening Blackhawk sent a flag of truce to the camp of the volunteer company to say "that he wanted to talk to them; that he did not want to fight. Some of the white men, probably under the influence of liquor, deliberately fired upon the Indians with the flag of truce, and killed three of the five. The two who escaped injury reported to Blackhawk what had happened. He immediately sent out a force of men to do battle. After a few volleys at long range the volunteers fled, some going to Dixon to report a great and bloody battle, but most of them to their homes, and were not seen again during the war. The whites lost eleven men, mostly killed while retreating, and the Indians five men. The

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above describes the battle of Stillman's Creek, of which much has been said and written. The foregoing account is from the written statement of J. W. Spencer of Rock Island, a participant in the battle and a man of respectability and probity.

After the war, matters generally in the Northwest assumed their normal conditions. The miners suffered but little loss from the war but the farmers in many localities lost their entire crops. The influx of settlers continued, both as miners and farmers, and by the year 1836 there seemed to be a general condition of prosperity. In 1831 a newspaper was established in Galena called the "Miners' Journal." Drs. Phileo and Newhall the editors and proprietors, continued its publication until 1834. Dr. Phileo was the war correspondent of the "Miners' Journal," and much information given by him of the Blackhawk war is reliable and has historical value. In 1834 the "Miners' Journal" was bought by H. H. Honghton, a practical newspaper man, who changed the name to the "Galena Gazette and Northwestern Advertiser," Mr. Bartlett becoming publisher and business manager. Mr. Bartlett, after a few years, discontinued his connection with the paper and went to Armenia, Turkey, as a missionary, where he took charge of the first missionary paper published in that country. Mr. Houghton continued as editor until about 1860, when he retired, and J. B. Brown succeeded him as editor and proprietor. Mr. Houghton was a man of broad education, general intelligence, quiet energy and always intensely loyal to his country and true to his friends. The "Gazette" is still published, now as a daily and weekly, and is in its sixty-fifth year. I read the paper first in 1834, and have read it continuously since. It has followed me to the army and to Europe during my four years' residence there.

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In the spring of 1834 my father sold his Apple River farm, gave up his business at Gratiot's Grove and moved to Galena, where there were good schools to which his children could be sent. He rented a farm near Galena, known as the "Bennett farm," on which his family could live while he was improving attract of government land a mile and a half west of Galena on the Mineral Point road. His neighbors north of him who located lands at the same time were James G. Soulard, Captain John Atchison and E. Lytle, and south Francis Longet and Alfred Quinch. This farm or homestead was increased in area in after years, so that in the '60s it was generally regarded as the best farm for stock breeding and the growing of mixed crops of any in the county. Although reduced in size, it is still in the family and owned by Captain H. B. Chetlain, my younger brother, who is one of the best known and highly esteemed men of the lead mine region.

For nearly a score of years after the death of my tattler in 1872, this large property was managed by my eldest brother, Frederic Chetlain, a man of sound Judgment, of excellent executive ability, of genuine kindliness of disposition, of unostentatious piety and of sturdy honesty.

I remained with my father on the farm until after the middle of the '40s, when I took a position in a wholesale mercantile house in Galena as clerk. When I was seventeen years of age. I obtained a practical knowledge of horticulture and floriculture from my father's old friend and neighbor, Mr. James G. Soulard, who had for years given his personal attention to these branches of industry, especially the former. He had wealth, and was ardently attached to the business, from sheer love of it He spent large sums of money in bringing from the East, and often from Europe, rare fruit trees, plants and

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shrubs, constantly making experiments to ascertain what kinds were best suited to the climate and soil of Northern Illinois, and all this was done, not for personal gain, but from a desire to give to the settlers of the region the best that could be cultivated with success. He introduced in the early '40s, the Bed River Beardless wheat and the Bolles variety of corn, both well adapted to the soil and climate of that region. In all this he proved himself a public benefactor. My object in familiarizing myself with horticulture especially, was that my bent of mind and taste led me to choose this industry and follow it after reaching manhood. Both myself and my older brother, Frederic, had inherited this taste in this matter from our mother, who was an ardent lover of plants and flowers.

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Chapter III.

GALENA, 1836 TO 1850 — SKETCHES Of PROMINENT CITIZENS.

The great financial depression which swept over this country in 1837 was felt more keenly in the older sections of the country than in the newer. The lead mine region, settled at first by miners and traders, had received after the Blackhawk war of 1832 a large influx of people, who settled on government lands and cultivated them. The inducements for engaging in farming were great, as the miners could get their supply of flour, meats, potatoes, etc., near home, instead of having to rely for such supplies from Missouri and other points south. The farmers who located on lands in the mining district and on lands south and east of it, as far as Rock river, always had a ready sale for all their farm products, cattle and hogs, for ready money at satisfactory prices. In the early '40s lead ore commanded a good price, and the total yield or output of the mines amounted to over a million dollars a year. Moreover, the miners having refused currency for their mineral, and the American gold being difficult to get, English sovereigns were imported and paid to the miners at $4.90, being a little more than their real value. Many failures occurred throughout the country among business men, owing in a great measure to depreciated paper money then in general use Few failures occurred in the mining district, and a time of comparative prosperity was enjoyed by all classes.

This favorable condition of things in the lead mine region attracted the attention of people all over the

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country, and naturally the wide-awake and enterprising, especially among the young men, sought the new Eldorado. From 1838 to say 1845, a large number of lawyers, physicians, traders, mechanics and some capitalists made their way to Galena, the principal town of the district, and settled there. Among those who were thus attracted were a number of young lawyers, principally from the Atlantic states. Many of them, after having practiced their profession from a half score to a score of years, and when other places offered greater inducements to make money, left Galena, some going to Chicago and others to California and other western states. Out of the large number who located in Galena and moved to other places, an unusual proportion met with phenomenal success, some achieving great distinction. I was acquainted with nearly all these professional and business men and can write of them knowingly. In the following pages I will give my own impressions of these men and of others who settled here at an earlier time.

The bar of Galena received an accession in the latter part of the '40s in the advent of a young lawyer from Massachusetts named Benjamin R. Sheldon, who began the practice of his profession in an unostentatious way. He was liberally educated, of a retiring disposition and of courteous manner. As a business lawyer he had few equals at that bar, and his practice as a counselor was large and lucrative. Moreover, he was regarded by his associates at the bar as not only a sound, but a profound lawyer as well. He was elected judge of the circuit court of the district of Galena, and after several years' service, was elected associate judge of the supreme court of the state, and later was chosen its Chief Justice. Judge Sheldon had the reputation of being one of the best judges of that court. His opinions were regarded as sound, and were treated with consideration. He never

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married. At his death in 1896 he left an estate valued at nearly two million dollars.

Ben H. Campbell located in Galena in 1835, and soon after began business as a wholesale grocery merchant and continued in that business for over thirty-years. In the '50s his business, extending into the lumber district of Central and Northern Wisconsin, was the largest of any other in the Northwest. In the latter part of the '60s he moved to Chicago to assume the duties of United States Marshal of the district of Northern Illinois, to which position he had been appointed as the successor of the Hon. J. Russell Jones, formerly a successful wholesale merchant at Galena, who had been appointed by President Grant United States Minister to Belgium. I remember him well when he came to Galena at that early time. He was a handsome young man of vivacity, genial manner, kindly disposition, and evidently the leader of a group of young men with whom be associated. In later years he was regarded as one of the shrewdest business men of that region. During his term of service of eight years as United States Marshal be became well known to the business men of Chicago and to the bar of the state.

Among the young lawyers who came to Galena in 1836 was Thomas W. Drummond. He was from the state of Maine, had received a college education, was well versed in law, and soon took a high position at the bar. Of a retiring disposition and courteous manner, he became popular with his fellow citizens. He took an active interest as a Whig in the noted political campaign of 1840, was elected a member of the state legislature and soon after judge of the circuit court of the Galena district and served for several years, proving a learned and impartial judge. He was appointed judge of the United States district of Illinois in 1850. Some years

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later he was appointed judge of the United States Circuit Court and moved to Chicago. He served in that court until 1884, when he resigned and retired to private life. During his long term of service on the bench he earned the reputation of being one of the ablest judges on the Federal bench. I knew him well all these years, and admired him for his simplicity of character, amiable disposition and varied and profound learning. He was one of the most entertaining men in conversation I ever knew. Some time after the civil war, while in conversation with him, I said: "Judge, the first time I saw you at Galena I thought you were the best dressed man I had ever seen. You wore a silk hat, dark blue swallow-tail cloth coat with gilt buttons, and a light drab vest and pantaloons." He laughed and replied: "I remember well that suit of clothes. When I was about to leave Boston, I was told that I was going to a town where professional men dressed well, and that I must do the same. I bought the suit you mention, wore it a few times at Galena, when I came to the conclusion that it was not just the thing, and laid it away." The judge was always neatly but inexpensively dressed.

In the latter part of the '30s William H. Bradley, a young lawyer, arrived in Galena. He was bright and good-looking, of a charming personality, great energy and of much business tact. He did not practice his profession, but entered into business. An active and ardent Whig, he soon became a power in local politics. He was appointed clerk of the circuit court, which position he held for several advancing the moral and material interests of the community years. He was a natural leader of men. In church, in politics and in business affairs he proved himself such. His popularity was great, and he became an active factor in advancing the moral and material interests of the community. He was appointed clerk of the United States district court (Judge Drummonds) in

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the '50s and moved to Chicago. He filled the position with marked ability for over twenty-five years. During that time he became well known to and was highly esteemed by all the people of the state. I knew Mr. Bradley for nearly half a century, and I regard him as one of the strongest and best characters I ever knew.

A few years after Judge Drummond had opened a law office in Galena, there came into his office a young lawyer from Eastern New York named J. M. Douglas. Modest and studious, and of more than average natural ability, he began his profession and soon won a reputation as a successful lawyer in the trial of mining cases. His success was largely due to the pains he took in the preparation of his cases. Often before the trial of such a case he would hire a horse, ride out to the "diggings," carefully inspect the premises by going down the mining shaft, and then try the case, usually before a justice court, for which expense and work he would receive the fee customary in such cases. His industry and careful saving of his earnings were known to all his friends, On one occasion, after the trial of a mining case, while pacing the floor of the office, he turned to Judge Drummond and putting his hand on his pocket, with his characteristic smile, said: "Drummond, money in a man's pocket is his best friend." There was in his pocket the comparatively small fee just received from a client who had had his claim "jumped." Douglas became the attorney of the Illinois Central railroad and moved to Chicago. His ability as attorney induced the board of directors to place him at the head of the management by electing him president. Under his forceful energy and tireless industry the affairs of this great corporation prospered. With him it was work, work, early and late, and all employes under him had to do the same. Douglas worked too hard. His brain gave way in time, and he was compelled

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to seek rest and quiet on his farm in Jo Daviess county.

In the latter part of the '30s there appeared at Galena two young lawyers whose advent created some stir among the half score of lawyers who composed the Galena bar. They were Joseph P. Hoge and Thompson Campbell, the former from Maryland and the latter from Pennsylvania. Both were well educated, and equally excellent lawyers. Both had the rare gift of oratory, but Campbell the keener intellect and was the wit of the bar. Hoge was tall, of symmetrical figure, and dressed with exquisite taste. Both were Democrats and intensely partisan, and became leaders in the Democracy of the state. They stood high at the bar and each had a lucrative practice. Hoge was elected to congress in 1849 and served one term, and made an enviable record as a representative. Not long after he moved to California and practiced his profession in San Francisco and was elected district judge. He was a prominent candidate for United States senator just before the civil war, but his affiliations with Southern men who had left the South to avoid the discomfort incident to war, which was regarded as inevitable, cast a shade of doubt as to his loyalty to the Union, and, although the favorate of the Democrats of the state, Satterly, a man of inferior ability, was chosen. It became clear later that Hoge had been misjudged, for his loyalty to the Union was sincere. Campbell, who had been the secretary of state under Governor Ford, was elected to congress from the Galena district to succeed Hoge and served one term. He was succeeded by E. B. Washburne. Campbell, whose ability as a lawyer was everywhere recognized, was appointed by President Pierce judge of the United States Land Court of California, which position he held for many years before his death.

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Campbell was a favorite with the bar of the state. His slight but graceful figure, keen and ready wit, and gentle and polished manner made him a favorite in society as well.

Samuel M. Wilson located in Galena as a lawyer about 1840 and became Hoge's law partner. He was a close student, of untiring industry, and as a business lawyer had few equals at the bar. He removed to California with his partner and practiced his profession in San Francisco. He took a high position at that bar and was elected attorney for the Bank of California at an exceptionally large salary, which position he held for nearly a quarter of a century before his death. He has two sons in San Francisco, who have inherited much of their father's ability and who are successful practitioners at the San Francisco bar.

Two young lawyers came to Galena about that time and opened the law office of Higgins & Higgins. The elder, Van H. Higgins, took a prominent position among the lawyers of the place. He was broadly educated, learned in law, of exceptional ability in the trial of cases, and had the rare faculty of attracting men to him. He moved to Chicago in the early '50s and began his practice there. He was elected judge of the Superior Court of Cook county just before the civil war. He filled the position one term, proving himself an able and conscientious jurist. After leaving the bench he devoted himself to his private affairs. He had great industry, fine administrative ability, and met with success. At the time of his death, in the latter '90s, he had accumulated a very large fortune.

One of the most unique figures that came to the lead mines in the early '40s was Thomas Hoyne, a young lawyer from New York city, who began the practice of law in Galena. His industry, intense energy and superior

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attainments as a lawyer, brought him into prominence at the bar. He was, although at times brusque in manner, kind-hearted and affable. He was an ardent Democrat and became a leader in his party. His convictions were decided and firm, and he was bold and fearless in their advocacy. After a few years' residence in Galena he removed to Chicago. His strong personality impressed itself on the people of that city, and he soon became one of its most prominent citizens. He was foremost in every scheme or enterprise undertaken to benefit the community. He won distinction at the bar of the state, and had the reputation of being, not only a learned lawyer, but also that of a forceful and convincing speaker. He had much of the spirit of the philanthropist and humanitarian, and was identified with many local charities. His untimely death by a railroad accident some years ago, was a great and almost irreparable loss to his adopted city.

Phil A. Hoyne, brother of Thomas Hoyne, accompanied him to Galena and entered a business house as a clerk, and not long afterwards engaged in business on his own account. In 1852 he followed his brother to Chicago, when, after studying law, he was appointed United States commissioner and commissioner of deeds for all the states, which position he held for over a quarter of a century. He became one of the best known and most highly esteemed citizens of that city. He was a pronounced Republican, and in his quiet way was a power in the party, not only in the city, but in the county and state as well. Large-brained, large-hearted, of frank manner, and of amiability of disposition, he was one of Chicago's most popular citizens.

Col. Edward D. Baker came to Galena from Springfield, Ill., where be had served in both houses of the legislature and had been elected a member of congress and

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served one term. He was regarded as the most brilliant orator in the state and had ability as a lawyer, but lacked industry and application. In the Mexican war he commanded a regiment and won distinction. He was elected in 1848 to congress as a Whig, to represent the Galena district, and served one term without gaining much reputation. Soon after he removed to California and practiced his profession in San Francisco, ran for congress and was defeated, then removed to Oregon, and was there elected United States senator. When the civil war broke out, he raised and commanded a regiment of volunteers, was soon appointed a brigadier general, and was killed at Ball's Bluff early in the war. I knew Col. Baker well at Galena. He was a man so full of good nature and of manner so charming, that one was naturally drawn to him. As a stump speaker I have never heard his equal. He was positively fascinating.

In 1839 there came to Galena a singular character, in the person of Cyrus B. Denio, from the state of Mississippi; a Whig of the most pronounced type, who immediately attracted notice. Without much education he was intelligent, tactful and gifted as a fluent and forcible speaker. He entered the political campaign of 1840 and canvassed, not only the lead mine region, but other portions of the state. He was a bricklayer by trade and was known as the "Mississippi Bricklayer." He was originally from Buffalo, N. Y. This man, with the certain kind of energy he possessed and shrewdness withal, became a prominent and influential leader of the Whig party. He was elected a member of the general assembly of Illinois and made a most creditable record. He was re-elected and served a second term. His frank and easy manner, kindness of disposition and peculiar kind of homely wit made him a favorite, not only among his brother members, but also with the average citizen. He

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was appointed by President Lincoln superintendent of the force engaged in the construction of the public works at Mare Island, Cal, which position he held fur several years. He also became a political leader in Northern California.

About 1842 another young lawyer appeared in Galena named C. W. Churchman, and located there to practice law. The advent of this brilliant lawyer from the South had been heralded, and there was general curiosity to see and know him. In physique he was of medium height and size, with dark complexion, piercing black eyes, and a manner both dignified and courteous. He had the gift of oratory and was a pleasing and forcible speaker. He soon took a high position at the bar and business came to him rapidly. His success in jury trials was exceptionally great. An old practitioner at that bar told me years afterwards that Churchman was the hardest man to beat in a trial before a jury he had ever met. His habits were somewhat irregular, which militated against his success as a practitioner. After having practiced his profession in Galena for a decade, in a fit of anger or disgust, he left for the far West, on foot with a rifle on his shoulder, joined an emigrant train near the Missouri river starting for California, and crossed the plains with it. He continued the practice of law in some flourishing mining town and became an active politician, affiliating with the Democrats. His reputation as a stump speaker soon became known and the honors were divided between him and my old friend, Frank M. Pixley, editor and proprietor of tin San Francisco "Argonaut." Churchman ran as a Democrat for congress, made a brilliant canvass, but was defeated. Pixley was also nominated as a Republican in another district and was also defeated. Churchman, when making his canvass in the villages and hamlets of mining districts,

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rode a spotted broncho horse and Pixley a large mouse-colored Kentucky mule. Each was advertised in his district by posters "‘Churchman and his Broncho’, and Pixley and his Mule will he here to address the citizens," etc,

In 1868, when I was in Utah as United States assessor of internal revenue, I had occasion to visit officially the newly discovered gold mines of the Sweetwater Pass, in the northwestern corner of Wyoming. While there, Lawyer Churchman called upon me and made himself known. He was well dressed and had the look of a man doing well. His face, however, indicated that he had been living fast. He said he was doing well and gave me some account of his "ups and downs" in California in the twenty-five years previous. During the next early winter I had occasion to visit the city of Echo Canon, in Utah, forty miles east of Salt Lake City. I met Churchman again, who was in a very dilapidated condition; in fact he was a tramp and in the last stages of alcoholism. He died a few months later, utterly destitute and friendless, and was buried in a pauper's grave. Alas, poor Churchman — he had been good to every one except himself.

About the middle of the '40s Robert S. Blackwell, a young lawyer, located in Galena to practice law, and attracted the attention of the bar and the citizens generally by his unique appearance. He was a tall, blackhaired, well dressed, jovial young fellow, who made friends rapidly. Well educated, industrious and energetic, he soon won the respect of his confreres in the profession. He was a good speaker and a good story teller. When he could get a group of his friends together he would indulge in recitations, story telling, etc. greatly to their gratification. He removed to Springfield and then to Chicago, where he became well known to

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the bar of Chicago and the state through his valuable book "Blackwell on Tax Titles," which had a wide circulation and was regarded as a reliable work.

About 1845 an accession to the Galena bar was made in the person of a young lawyer named Orville C. Pratt, from the state of New York. He was a handsome man, who had just married a lady of rare beauty and accomplishments. He was associated with Van Higgins in practice for a while and was regarded by his brothers at the bar as a young lawyer of unusual ability, was a speaker of fluency and force, he was elected a member of the legislature and made a creditable record. He removed to California and then to Oregon, where he was appointed chief justice of the supreme court of the territory, which position he filled for many years. Besides being learned as a jurist, he was a successful man of affairs and accumulated a large fortune before his death.

One of the most remarkable men who settled in the Northwest in the early '30s was George W. Jones, who without being a really great man, was conspicuous for half a century as a public man, much of the time being in the National Legislature as a representative and senator. He was a native of Virginia. For some years after going west he resided at Sinsinawa Mound, ten miles northwest of Galena, and filled the position of surveyor general of the territory of the Northwest, which included Wisconsin and Iowa, He moved to Dubuque, Iowa, and was elected a member of congress and afterwards United States senator, which position he held for twelve years, when he was appointed United States minister resident at Bogota, New Grenada, by President Buchanan. He became acquainted with Jefferson Davis when he (Davis) was a lieutenant in the United States army at Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, and was a close friend ever after. At the breaking out of the war,

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and when United States minister at Bogota, some of his correspondence with President Davis, of the Confederate states, was accidentally discovered, which led to his recall and imprisonment at; Fort LaFayette. He was subsequently released, but never again entered into politics Gen. Jones had great energy, general intelligence, a handsome person, and his suavity and attractive manner led to his being called the "Chesterfield" of Washington society. I saw the general a short time before his death (1896), when he was 92 years of age and still active and his mental faculties unimpaired. For a half score of years before his death he appreciated and regretted the mistake he had made in 1861, and became a thoroughly loyal citizen.

The spring of 1840 witnessed the advent in Galena of Elihu B. Washburne, from the state of Maine, a young lawyer recently a graduate from the Harvard Law school. I saw him for the first time at a Whig political meeting, where he made his maiden speech in the West as a politician. The address was described by an old citizen who had heard it as a "rattling good speech." It was the talk on the streets for several days after. As I remember him he was of medium height, of slight build, fair faced, well dressed, with an air about him that indicated energy and pluck. He took an active part in the memorable political campaign of 1840, and won laurels everywhere as a stump speaker. He associated himself for the practice of law with the Hon. Charles S. Hempstead, and at once took a high position at the Galena bar, which had at that time a large number of very able lawyers. All I will say about him now is that his career in public life, beginning in Galena, where he lived thirty years, was a remarkable one, and has hardly a parallel in this country. His indomitable will, forceful energy and untiring industry, keen discrimination

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and sturdy integrity carried him from the country printing office in Maine through twelve years of successful practice as a lawyer, eight consecutive terms in congress, the Department of State as its Secretary, and United States Ambassador to France for eight years, where he achieved a world-wide reputation as a fearless, able and efficient official. I knew Mr. Washburne during his brilliant career, and for a quarter of a century before his death he was one of my most intimate friends.

Cadwallader C. Washburn, a younger brother of Elihu, came to Galena in 1842 and studied law with the Hon. Joseph B. Wells, a distinguished lawyer at the Galena bar, and afterwards moved to Mineral Point, Wis., in the northern part of the lead mines, where he formed a co partnership with Cyrus Woodman (now of New York city), a banker and extensive land agent. He never practiced his profession. He soon developed into a shrewd, practical and successful business man. In energy, will power, industry and tenacity of purpose he resembled his brother Elihu. His firm was the agent of the "New England Land Company," and when, in 1846, the state of Wisconsin put several million acres of school lands (mostly pine) into the market, the firm of Washburn & Woodman was made one of its agents. The lands were sold at an average of fifty cents per acre. Cadwallader bought all he could and induced his brother Elihu to do likewise. The latter bought some ten thousand acres of choice pine lands at the low price given above. Washburne like, he held these lands, paying the taxes which were nominal, until in the '80s, when he began to sell them. The greater portion were sold for over $20 per acre. The result of this venture made a large part of the handsome fortune he left at his death in 1887. In the '50s Cadwallader Washburn engaged largely in the manufacture of lumber at La

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Crosse, Wis. and afterwards began the manufacture of flour at Minneapolis by an improved process with great success. He had as a partner in this enterprise his cousin, Dorilus Morrison, who for many years before had been an extensive manufacturer of lumber at St. Anthony Falls (Minneapolis). Mr. Morrison was an exceptionally shrewd and level-headed business man, who operated on lines that invariably led to success. He also established extensive woolen mills in Minneapolis. At his death, a few years ago, he was regarded as one of the wealthiest men in Minnesota. Mr. Washburn was elected to congress twice from the La Crosse, Wis., district, and made a splendid record as an able, conscientious and conservative representative. At the breaking out of the civil war he raised a regiment of cavalry, and before the end of the war was made a major general of volunteers. He was later elected governor of Wisconsin. At the time of his death he was a multi-millionaire.

There sat in my Sunday school class at Galena in the latter part of the '40s a bright-eyed, large-headed, quiet boy of ten or twelve years of age, named Moses Hallett, the son of the first sheriff of our county. When he reached his majority, he studied law and was admitted to practice, and soon after went to Pike's Peak, Colo. He located in Denver, practiced his profession there, and was elected to the Territorial legislature. His strong practical sense, good judgment, industry and correct habits brought him to the favorable notice of the bar and of the citizens of Denver. President Lincoln appointed him chief justice of the supreme court of the territory, and, after Colorado had become a state, Judge Hallet was elected chief justice of the new state. He has filled the honorable position ever since. Of such a record few men in the far West can boast. His wise and able decisions, especially in litigation growing out of

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mining claims, have been accepted by the bench in other states as sound. Judge Hallett has a judicial mind, cold blood judgment, and is impartial and conscientious.

Madison Y. Johnson, a lawyer from the South, located in Galena the latter part of the '30s. He was a Whig and an ardent partisan and took an active part in politics, doing much effective work as a "stump speaker." His presence was striking; he was tall, broad-shouldered, of swarthy complexion, bushy black hair, and had a strong face. A man of much vanity, but of popular manners and a certain kind of dogged tenacity. He had the reputation of being a good jury lawyer, hence his success. After the Whig party had broken up, he affiliated with the Democrats and become a leader of prominence in the party. After the breaking out of the civil war, being an intense Southern sympathizer, he was charged with discouraging enlistments, arrested and sent to Fort LaFayette. He was soon released, and returned to his practice in Galena, a more quiet and probably a wiser man.

Of the score or more of lawyers practicing at the bar of the small commercial town of Galena in the '40s and '50s, many of them remarkable men who afterwards achieved great distinction in other parts of the country, only four are now (1899) living, and strange to say, three of the four are residents of Galena: Mr. J. N. Jewett, the fourth, is in Chicago in the active practice of his profession. The rest have all died. The three in Galena are Wellington W. Weigley, Robert H. McClellan and David Sheean. The first named (now retired from active practice) was one of Galena's earliest lawyers who always stood high in his profession. His industry, tact and ability, to which was added the rare gift of oratory, assured him success as a practitioner. As a jury lawyer he had few equals.

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Robert H. McClellan, who in the early '40s came to Galena from the law office of Martin I. Townsend at Troy, N. Y., afterwards a prominent politician and distinguished member of congress, had a strong and well-trained mind, a keen intellect, great industry, and was regarded by the old bar of Galena as one of its most learned members. In 1861 he was elected a member of the lower house of the legislature, and in the '70s to the state senate. He made a most excellent record in both instances. He was a prominent Republican, and after leaving the state senate, had he been as ambitious for preferment as the average citizen, he could have received the nomination for congress in his district, which would have been equivalent to an election. I have no doubt that had he tilled the position he would have made such a reputation as would have assured him still higher honors in his state. He has been a shrewd and discriminating business man and has accumulated a very large fortune.

David Sheean who was associated with General Rawlins in Galena in the practice of law before the war, has a judicial mind, is a careful, studious, able and successful lawyer, and has been a leader in the Democratic party for many years. Had he been ambitious for political preferment, he might have filled high positions of trust in his state. His younger brother, Thomas J. Sheean, who is associated with him in practice, has a high reputation for learning, tact and energy.

In the autumn of 1847 I went to Elyria, Ohio, to marry Miss Emily Tenney, a young lady whose acquaintance I had made the year before in Galena. She had a fine physique, a strong intellect, and was well educated, unassuming and amiable. To give the reader some idea of the difficulties of travel in the West fifty years ago, as compared with the present, I will say that to reach

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Elyria I had to go by stage from Galena to Milwaukee, where I took a steamer for Cleveland, and there a stage for twenty-five miles to my destination. After our marriage, it having become too late in the season to return by the lakes, we took a carriage and crossed the state of Ohio to the nearest point on the Ohio river, where we took a steamer for St. Louis, and then an Upper Mississippi river steamer for Galena. It took me eight days to reach Elyria, and twelve days from Elyria to Galena. The journey from Galena to Elyria is now made in twenty hours. Eighteen months after our marriage my wife died, leaving a little boy, Arthur Henry, only a few days old. Miss Tenney, before our marriage, lived for some time with intimate friends, the family of Dr. Norton S. Townshend in Elyria, a practicing physician of some celebrity. I became well acquainted with the doctor in after years. He was born in England and brought to this country by his parents when a child: was an original abolitionist and one of Ohio's earliest and most active Freesoilers, and when a member of the lower house of the Ohio legislature was an important factor in the election of Judge Salmon P. Chase to the United States senate. The legislature on joint ballot was equally divided between Whigs and Democrats; with Dr. Townshend and another member as Freesoilers who held the balance of power. A deadlock of several weeks was the result. A compromise was finally effected by the choice of Judge Chase for United States senator, the nominee of the two Freesoil members. Dr. Townshend was elected a member of congress soon after, and when in Washington was a prominent figure in a group of Freesoilers headed by Senator Chase, with the "National Era" as the party organ, edited by Dr. Bailey, assisted by the graceful and forcible writer, Louis Clephane. Judge Chase's election to the United States senate was

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the beginning of his brilliant career as a statesman, which gives the foregoing facts in regard to his election much interest.

The Democratic party of the lead mine region was usually in the majority during the '40s. Unlike the Whig party, which had a well conducted organ in the Galena Gazette, its organ at Galena was decidedly a "weakling." Its leaders determined on making a change. Two young men from Ohio, who were practical newspaper men were induced to come to Galena and start a first-class paper to be the organ of the party. Horace A. Tenney and Henry W. Tenny, brothers, in 1845 bought out the old plant and began the publication of the "Jeffersonian." They were both graduates of Middlebury college, Vermont, and both practical printers. Horace, the elder, assumed the business management and Henry was editor-in-chief. As he was a polished and forcible writer, his editorials were able and practical and were often reproduced by other papers in the Northwest. At the end of two years it was found that the paper "didn't pay." A chronicler of events in Illinois at that time, when writing of newspapers, said that the "Jeffersonian," under the management of the Tenneys, was unquestionably the best newspaper in the state. The Tenneys sold out their paper and Horace moved to Madison, Wis., and assumed the management of the "Wisconsin Argus, a Democratic paper of prominence. At that time the politics of the state was badly "mixed" and party feeling ran high. The "Argus" fought the Whig officials, past and present, and known as "Barstow and the balance," with vigor. Horace Tenney's editorials were bold, fearless and trenchant. "My purpose," he said, "is to make the ‘Argus’ a terror to the evil-doer." He continued as its manager several years. Henry Tenney went to Milwaukee, where, having previously studied

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law and been admitted to the bar, he began the practice of his profession. In the '60s he removed to Chicago and entered the law office, as partner, of his brother, D. K. Tenney, a well-known, able and successful business lawyer. After a half-score years of successful practice, he returned to Wisconsin and retired from active practice.

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Chapter IV.

GALENA, AND the NORTHWEST IN THE '50s.

From 1845 to 1856 were Galena's "halcyon" days. It was then the most important commercial metropolis in the Northwest. Its trade, which began in the later '30s, continued to increase steadily as the country developed until beyond the middle of the '50s. In 1856 the statistics show that Galena did a larger wholesale business than Chicago Lines of fine steamboats plied between St. Louis and Galena bringing in merchandise and general supplies, and taking back lead and farming products. Then a line of first-class steamboats ran between Galena and St. Paul. The "Northwestern Packet Company" was organized in 1852, with Ben H. Campbell as president and J. Russell Jones as secretary. It built some six or eight of the finest and fleetest steamboats that ever ran on the upper Mississippi river, and its business, far into the, 60s was large and lucrative. I have known in the busy season twelve to fifteen steamboats lying at the wharf of Galena at one time loading and unloading freight. The construction of the Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien railroad and the Galena and Chicago railroad seriously affected the trade of Galena. After 1856 its wholesale business declined year by year, so that by the close of the civil war, nearly one-half of its wholesale houses had either closed or moved elsewhere.

Near the close of the '40s the tide of emigration, mostly from the East, set in toward Northwestern Wisconsin, Northern Iowa and Minnesota. The supplies for

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the new settlers up to 1853 were nearly all obtained in Galena. Moreover, the output of the lead mines continued unimpaired, with an advance in the price of lead. Thus Galena's prosperity can be accounted for until it was checked by the construction of two railroads from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi river, already stated, and the general financial depression of 1857, which seriously affected the prosperity of the whole country.

In 1852 I began business in Galena selling merchandise by wholesale and retail. I had very little capital, but by hard work, careful management and strict economy I was reasonably successful. When I began we had in Galena some twenty wholesale houses, the largest part being in the line of groceries and dry goods. By 1856 this number had nearly doubled, and many of the houses which had started six to eight years before had doubled and quadrupled the volume of their business. The difficulties the merchant had to contend with in the early '50s and for years before were, first, the remoteness of the markets where his stock of merchandise was bought. Almost all kinds of merchandise except sugar, rice, molasses and a few other articles were bought in New York, Boston and Philadelphia and shipped to Galena, usually by sailing vessels to New Orleans, from there to St. Louis by steamboat, and from St. Louis by upper Mississippi steamboats to Galena, consuming two or three months in transit. Merchants usually bought their stock of goods twice a year, and it was difficult to tell when buying, what the needs of the customers would be. It was also a slow process to get in a reasonable time such articles as might be needed to fill up a line of goods which had become exhausted. When the financial depression came upon the country, Galena merchants suffered like the others, only in a less degree. As depreciated currency greatly aggravated the sit

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nation, the merchant was compelled to stand a serious loss from this cause. Galena merchants had a considerable trade in the lead mines, and, as the miners and smelters had long before refused to take currency for mineral or lead, all transactions with them had to be settled with gold. It is safe to assert that while one-half of the merchants in the West and Northwest failed, this was only the case with but three or four out of some forty mercantile houses in Galena. I suffered with the rest, but managed to "weather the storm." Among the merchants at Galena many were men of great shrewdness, who operated upon lines that were broad, but conservative and safe. Such men would have been successful almost anywhere. Lucius S. Felt and his brother, B. F. Felt, Stillman and Rood, Foster and Stahl, J. A. Packard, McMaster and Hempstead, B. H. Campbell, George W. Campbell, H. F. McCloskey, J. Russell Jones and William and James Ryan were some of Galena's leading merchants in the '50s. The last named firm at a later time became large packers in Galena and Dubuque. Our banking facilities were ample. Henry and Nathan Corwith, who began business as private bankers in the early '30s and later organized the National Bank of Galena, were men of large capital, conservative and able as financiers, and had won a national reputation as bankers. James Garter also operated a private bank during the '50s. His moneyed relations with George Smith, banker at Chicago, and Alex Mitchell, banker at Milwaukee, were close. Some time after the war the Corwiths sold out their Galena business and moved to Chicago, where they became well and favorably known in financial circles.

A little after the middle of the '40s a young man, "George F. Magoun, of Bath, Me., a recent graduate of a college of that state, appeared in Galena for the purpose

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of opening a high grade school for boys. He was a bright, clean-cut man of attractive address, and who at once made a favorable impression on the people of Galena. He succeeded in his mission, and after having managed his school for two years, returned east and went through a theological course of scudy, came back to the West, and, as a home missionary, took charge of a church in a mining town near Galena. Soon after he accepted a call from the Second Presbyterian church of Galena and became its pastor, I severed my connection with the First Presbyterian church and united with the Second church to aid the new organization. Mr. Magoun proved an unusually learned and eloquent preacher. After a few years' service as pastor he had a serious difficulty with the officers of the church, which induced him to leave the ministry. He went to Burlington, Ia., and entered the law office of the learned lawyer and brilliant orator, Henry W. Starr. He was soon admitted to the bar and began the practice of law. Mr. Starr said of him that he was the best lawyer of his age in the state of Iowa. Magoun soon wearied of his new profession and returned to the ministry. He preached for a few years in Davenport, Ia., when he was elected president of Iowa College at Grinnell, and he filled the posstion in a most satisfactory manner for nearly a quarter of a century. Dr. Magoun was in many respects a rare man. He was endowed with a strong intellect, immense will force, had great and varied learning, and withal was a fluent and forcible speaker. He took an active interest in educational and kindred matters, and his death, which occurred some years ago, was a serious loss to his state and to the Northwest.

Near the close of the '40s Dr. Magoun induced a young theological student, Rev. E. D. Neill, who had just been ordained to the ministry, to come west as a

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home missionary. He filled a pulpit for two years at Elizabeth, a mining town near Galena, and then moved to St. Paul, Minn., and organized the first Presbyterian church in that place. Dr. Neill was mentally and morally a strong man and soon impressed himself upon the people of that new town. He resided in St. Paul nearly half of a century, and was an active and potent factor in pushing forward the interests of religion, morals and education. Dr. Neill was appointed United States consul to Dublin in the '80s.

When Governor Slade of Vermont started in the middle of the '50s the scheme to prepare young women for school teaching, to be sent to the Territory of Minnesota, Dr. Neill and the Rev. Aratus Kent, of Galena, were the managers of the Western end of the line of operations. A school of instruction was opened and maintained in New Haven, where a large number of young women of from 21 to 35 years of age were trained as school teachers and were then sent St. Paul in groups of a dozen or more, all passing on their route through Galena, from which place they were taken to St. Paul by steamboat. On arriving at their destination they were assigned to the localities in the territory where they were most needed. The project was not carried on long, for an unexpected trouble arose. The young women often after having taught school for a few months or longer, were induced to give up teaching to become the wives of the bachelor settlers. An old and prominent citizen of St. Paul, who had taken much interest in Governor Slade's scheme, told me years afterwards, when speaking of this matter, that if the governor failed in giving Minnesota good teachers, he certainly did not fail in giving it good wives.

John N. Jewett, a young lawyer from Maine, located in Galena in the early '50s, and associated himself for

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the practice of his profession with Wellington W. Weigley. He had received a collegiate education, had a judicial mind, was a close student, careful and methodical in the preparation of his cases. His ability as a lawyer was at once recognized by the bar. In disposition he was quiet, urbane and self-contained, always giving the impression of reserve power. Alter a few years of practice at the Galena bar, he removed to Chicago, where he opened a law office. He was chosen by the management of the Illinois Central railroad as counsel at Chicago. He served one term in the senate of the State Legislature, making a creditable record as an able, discriminating and conscientious legislator. His opinions and judgment in regard to railroad law have always been treated with consideration by the bench and bar. During President Hayes administration his claims and fitness for a seat as Justice of the United States Supreme Court were seriously entertained, with a view to his appointment. He is favorably known to railroad lawyers throughout the country.

In the autumn of 1853, on my return from the East, where I had gone to buy goods, I met and became acquainted with a bright, clear-headed young man, who was on his way to Galena to take a clerkship in a wholesale clothing house. This man was Edward A. Small, who afterwards became well known as an able and successful lawyer. Small, after having filled a clerk's position for a year, went into another clothing house as a partner, sold out in two years, and entered Wellington W. Weigley's law office as a student. He was a persistent worker and at the end of two years was admitted to the bar. He practiced his profession in Galena with unusual success until after the civil war, when he moved to Chicago and continued his practice there. His industry, devotion to business, success in the trial of cases, and

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his amiability of disposition, brought to him a large and lucrative practice. As a business lawyer and counselor he was prominent, and as a trial lawyer was remarkably successful. He died some half-score of years ago, leaving his family a handsome competency. At the time of his death I had known him intimately for over a quarter of a century. His strength of character, with a rare faculty of attaching men to him, made him a favorite with all classes. Although an ardent Republican, he declined all offers of political preferment.

W. R. Marshall, with his older brother, the younger having hardly reached his majority, came to Galena from Quincy, Ill., located a mining claim a few miles north of Galena, built a miner's cabin and worked their "diggings" several years. From the lead mines the young men moved to the Territory of Minnesota in 1849. They opened the first general merchandise store at St. Anthony, and a few years later an iron and hardware store in St. Paul. They were successful in business, and in 1855 W. R. Marshall engaged in banking in St. Paul. He served one term in the Territorial Legislature. Soon after the breaking out of the civil war he entered the volunteer service as colonel of the Seventh Minnesota Infantry, and at the close of the war was made a brtgadier general by brevet. Soon after the war General Marshall was elected governor of the state of Minnesota and served four years. Gen. Marshall was of a modest, retiring disposition, of attractive manner, and always popular with the masses. He was a brave and efficient soldier in the war and his record was a most creditable one.

I met and became acquainted with Governor Alex Ramsey of Minnesota in 1853, on a Mississippi steamer going to St. Paul. He was then governor of the Territory of Minnesota and afterwards governor of the State of Minnesota. He impressed me as being a man of mental

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force, sound judgment, great general intelligence and of decided convictions. He served as United States senator one term and was Secretary of War during a part of President Hayes' administration, and after wards filled other high positions of trust under the Federal government. He still lives in Minnesota in retirement and is one of its most esteemed and honored citizens.

In the latter part of the '40s I became acquainted at Galena with Cyrus Aldrich, then in charge of the business of the stage line of Frink & Walker. He soon after moved to Minneapolis, Minn., and engaged in business. He was succeeded at Galena by L. P. Sanger, of Lockport, Ill. In the latter '50s he was elected a member of congress for the Minneapolis district. He was tall and robust, of much practical intelligence and industry, of sturdy integrity and of unassuming manner. He made a valuable representative, never forgetting the interests of his constituents while attending to national affairs. In the early spring of 1861 I met him often in Washington. On one occasion he came into the room of our mutual friend, E. B. Washburne, the Galena member of congress, where I happened to be, and remarked: "Well, Washburne, I have done it. I have just had a postmaster appointed at Minneapolis. There were eleven candidates for the place, all good men and all well endorsed. I presume what I have done will make me ten enemies and possibly one ingrate."

One of the earliest and best steamboat captains on the upper Mississippi, who lived in Galena, married there, and for many years was a great favorite with its people was Captain Russell Blakeley. He moved to St. Paul in the early '50s, engaged in the staging business on an extended scale and afterwards became interested in railroad enterprises in the state of Minnesota. He was a clear-headed, upright business man of much force and

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decision of character. He met with success in these various enterprises and is now retired and living in St. Paul, one of its wealthiest and most highly esteemed citizens.

Ex-Governor L. F. Hubbard, of Red Wing, Minn., I knew during the civil war, when he commanded the Fifth regiment Minnesota Infantry. He enlisted as a private, and in less than two years he had command of the regiment. He was young, active, brave and well versed in all matters relating to his duties as regimental commander, and his unfailing devotion to them made him a favorite with all his superior officers. At the close of the war he was brevetted a brigadier general for conspicuous gallantry. Soon after the war he was elect-governor of the state of Minnesota and served four years. He filled many other positions of honor and trust in his state. I was gratified to learn that his fine soldierly qualities had been recognized by President McKinley who appointed him a brigadier general in the late Spanish-American war.

Colonel Hubbard in 1862 had a chaplain in his regiment in the person of Father Ireland, a young priest from St. Paul. I noticed his activity and ceaseless devotion to the sick and wounded of his regiment, always shown in a quiet and unostentatious manner. Some years after the war I met my young army friend again at Minnetonka, Minn., at a reunion of the Army of the Tennessee, and renewed a pleasant acquaintance begun in the war. He was then bishop and is now an archbishop of the Catholic church. I have become well acquainted with this distinguished prelate and regard him as one of the most remarkable men I ever knew. Archbishop Ireland has great learning, excellent judgment, rare administrative ability, energy, will force, piety, and withal, modesty and rare simplicity of character. His

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zeal in his calling is unsurpassed, and his broad, practical and advanced views touching united Christian effort, without regard to sect or denomination, to bless and to elevate mankind to a higher moral plane, are pronounced. He is a strong and convincing public speaker.

Among the Minnesotians who had been residents of Galena, and whom I knew well, was the late Judge J. M. Shaw, one of the "Galena boys" in the early '50s, and who studied law in the office of General John A. Rawlins. He moved to Minneapolis before the civil war to practice law, entered the volunteer service as a private and rose to the rank of captain. His army record was a most creditable one. He resumed the practice of his profession in Minneapolis, became prominent at the bar, and in the '80s was elected judge of the circuit court of that district, where he made a fine reputation for learning, ability and impartiality. He served several years on the bench, when failing health compelled him to resign. His death occurred less than two years ago. He was always an assiduous student, and his tastes were literary.

About the middle of the '50s became acquainted with a young man who was a second or "mud clerk" on one of our upper river steamboats, whose business it was to receive and discharge all freight. His energy, correct and rapid manner of transacting business and good nature, made him a favorite. His name was James J. Hill. Soon after he located in St. Paul and went into business for himself. In time he became interested in a steamboat line running on Red river, and then into some railroad scheme. A little more than a decade ago he undertook the gigantic enterprise of building the Great Northern railroad, which, with consummate tact, energy and ability, he succeeded in completing. Mr. Hill, known as the "Railroad King," was elected the president of its board of directors.

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About 1852 I became well acquainted at Galena with W. C. Burbank, who had started a collecting and express business between Galena and the upper river towns, giving his personal attention to the business. He not long afterwards located in St. Paul, and became the partner of Captain Russell Blakeley in his stage and railroad enterprises. He was a careful, industrious, shrewd and resourceful man of affairs, and met with great success, and died a few years ago leaving a very large estate.

Dr. Charles H. Ray came to Galena from Springfield, Ill., in 1854, and assumed the position of editor and manager of the weekly "Jeffersonian," the organ of the Democratic party of the lead mines. The office of the "Jeffersonian" was next door to my place of business, and I not only saw a good deal of the doctor, but grew to be very fond of him. He seemed to lack "push" in the management of the paper. I knew his ability as a writer, and he, in his work on that little country paper, was like a "giant playing with straws." The doctor made his paper a very readable one, but its circulation was not large, and the majority of his readers were not of the appreciative kind. After two or three years spent in Galena he removed to Chicago and became associated with Mr. Medill in editing the Chicago Tribune. It soon became apparent that the doctor was a writer of great ability, and his reputation became national. He had much of the milk of human kindness in his nature, natural ability, rare practical intelligence, and when thoroughly aroused, wrote with vigor and force. Socially he was always entertaining, and had in him what the French call "bonhomie." After he left Galena I seldom saw him, until the winter of 1860-61, when he was in Washington writing for the Tribune.

There lies in the cemetery in the village of Hazel

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Green, less than ten miles from Galena and just over the border of Wisconsin, the body of a very remarkable man, James G. Percival, the poet and geologist. This grave was unmarked until within a few years, when some friends and admirers erected over it a modest marble monument. Dr. Percival came to the lead mines from Connecticut in the early 50's to do some geological work for the American mining company, and in 1853 was appointed geologist for the state of Wisconsin. He was seen often on the streets of Galena and was known to some of its citizens. He lived while at Hazel Green in the family of Dr. Jenckes, a practicing physician of the place. Dr. Percival was a man of great learning. He read ten languages, was a physician, philologist, geologist, botanist, musician and poet. His habits were erratic, and by nature he was retiring and inclined to melancholy. He was highly gifted as a poet and began to write verse at the age of 15. At the age of 20, while in college, he wrote the tragedy of "Zamor." I knew the doctor somewhat while he lived in Hazel Green. Very few people knew him well. His dress and manner were so peculiar that he was usually taken, when seen on the streets, for an ordinary miner who had had a "streak of bad luck." All the money he made he put into books. He died poor, except that his library after his death was sold for the handsome sum of $20,000.

On a farm a few miles northwest of Hazel Green, lived a family named Evans. In the early '50s a well-grown boy named Henry Clay Evans often passed over the "plank road" going to Galena driving a team of horses drawing a wagon loaded with products of the farm. When the war broke out, Henry Clay Evans enlisted in a Wisconsin regiment of volunteers. By the end of the war he had risen to the rank of captain by sheer merit. He had been brave, faithful and efficient. After the war

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Captain Evans located at Chattanooga, Tenn., and went into business. He was fairly well educated, ambitious, energetic, tactful, persistent and a good public speaker. He soon became a prominent and influential politician. He was nominated for governor, made a splendid canvass and was elected, but the legislature "counted him out." I met him in Chattanooga three years later, when he seemed not at all "cast down" by the unfair treatment he had received. President McKinley appointed him United States commissioner of pensions, which position he is filling with marked ability. Captain Evans has in him the elements of success in a high degree.

A large wholesale boot and shoe house was opened in Galena in 1845 by James and Benjamin F. Adams, two young men from Boston. I became intimately acquainted with them. They had received training as merchants and were not lacking in moral stamina. Some five years later they sold out their business and moved to Chicago, where they engaged in the manufacture of flour. They had energy and keen business discrimination, and soon were some of the leading manufacturers and operators in flour in the West. James died about the middle of the '50s. Benjamin F. lived in Chicago until 1880, when he died, leaving a large estate.

James Rood, of the firm of Stillman & Rood, wholesale grocery merchants of Galena in the '40s and '50s, moved to Chicago soon after the war and engaged largely in the iron business as the agent for several iron mines in Wisconsin. Mr. Rood gained the reputation at an early time of having keen business perception, quiet energy and good judgment. He has always been careful and conservative in his business methods and successful. He has retired from active business and is living at Evanston, Ill.

William J. Quan, when a young man, began business

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in Galena as a grocery and provision merchant. His close application to business, energy and industry made him successful, and soon after the civil war he located in Chicago and opened a wholesale grocery house. He soon became one of the leading merchants of Chicago in that line of trade. In the management of his great business, Mr. Quan has always followed conservative, practical and safe lines.

About that time Edward Hempstead, of the firm of McMaster & Hempstead, wholesale grocers in Galena, moved to Chicago and with Thomas H. Beebe, another Galena merchant, engaged in the lumber business and soon became prominent in lumber circles. They were clear-headed and energetic business men. Mr. Hempstead died some years ago. Mr. Beebe is living in retirement at Evanston, Ill.

In 1857, through the influence of political friends in Northern Illinois, Governor W. H. Bissell, who had been elected the year before, appointed me one of three aides on his staff with the rank of colonel of cavalry. The governor was one of the most noted and popular men in the state, and was elected the year before by the Freesoil-Republican vote. He had served in the Mexican war as captain of the Second regiment of Illinois volunteers, and, I think, with a higher rank later, and particularly distinguished himself at Buena Vista. He represented the Belleville district in congress two terms before the Mexican war, was a forcible and ready debater and a prominent and useful member. His health failed in the early '50s, he became partially paralyzed, and while he was governor was compelled to use crutches. While he was in congress opposing the passage of the Missouri compromise measure he became involved in a controversy with the Southern Democrats and hot words passed between him and Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi,

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on the subject of the bravery of the Northern, as compared with that of the Southern soldiers, which led to a challenge from Mr. Davis. In accepting the challenge, Colonel Bissell chose as the weapons, muskets at thirty, paces, loaded with a ball and three buckshot. Mr. Davis' friends interfered and the duel was not fought. The governor died before the end of his term, and Lieutenant Governor Wood served until the inauguration of Governor Yates.

In the summer of 1856 a distinguished statesman, in the person of Senator Charles Sumner, visited Galena. He was making a tour of the West for the first time, and had a letter to me. His tour was not one for pleasure alone, but also to learn from personal observations more about the great West. He had come from the East by way of the Ohio river, and intended to go up the Mississippi river to Minnesota and then back east by the lakes. The senator expressed a desire to see one of our best lodes. I took him to the Marsden "diggings," some three miles south of the city, then producing large quantities of lead ore. When we had reached there he expressed a desire to go down the main haft. The manager supplied him with a loose miner's suit of clothes, and thus equipped he went down the shaft to the principal horizontal drift, at a depth of seventy feet. With a candle and pick he explored the mine. When he returned he had some fine specimens of ore, which he had dug out himself and with which he was greatly pleased. The next day he said he would like to visit one of our smelting furnaces, and I accompanied him to Hughlett's furnace, two miles north of the city, which he inspected with great interest. He asked many questions in regard to the process of smelting lead ore. In speaking of farming lands afterwards, he said he was surprised to find the soil in the mining district so fertile and so generally cultivated.

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I enjoyed the senator's visit. He was genial and communicative, and entertained me with his impressions of that portion of the West he had seen, and with incidents connected with his life when a young man.

In the summer of 1859 I went to Europe, to be gone the greater part of a year. I had been in business at Galena for over seven years, had passed through the "hard times" of 1857-8, and felt I needed rest and recreation. I sold out my interest in the store to J. Bates Dickson, formerly my chief clerk, and who for two years had had a, pecuniary interest in the business. In those days it was no small matter to go to Europe, and few Americans went there as compared to the present. I was thirty-five years of age, full of enthusiasm, and had a strong desire to see the old world, especially the land of my fathers in the French speaking canton of Neuchatel, in dear old Switzerland, lying on the southeastern slope of the Jura mountains, which I had often heard my good mother describe as being so beautiful. I sailed from New York to Liverpool on the splendid steamer "City of Paris." I had a pleasant and uneventful passage of nine days, then deemed a speedy trip, I visited the manufacturing districts of Staffordshire and the manufacturing city of Sheffield, where I had some orders filled for my successor in business at Galena. I then went to the great city of London, with a population much less than that of Chicago to-day. After a two weeks' stay in London, and a brief visit to Windsor Castle and Stratford-on-Avon, the home of Shakespeare. I proceeded to Paris, which city, when I came to see it, was the realization of a lifelong dream. To tell of all I saw that interested me there would fill many a page.

From Paris I journeyed by railroad to Switzerland, going first to Geneva and then to Neuchatel and to the village of Lignieres near by, where my mother was born

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and reared, and where my father and mother were married in 1820, the year before their immigration to the Selkirk settlement on Red river in British America, with the French-Swiss colony, which went by the northern or Hudson Bay route. I found there an uncle and an aunt, well-to-do people, who were land owners, and who welcomed me warmly. In fact, I was as great a curiosity to them and to the rest of the villagers as if I had come from another world. This village, situated at the lower end of the valley of St. Imier, a broad and fertile valley in which were some ten or twelve villages, surrounded by their little plats of fertile lands of from ten to forty acres. The people in those villages were prosperous, cultivating their lands in the summer, and making by hand, laces and watch works in the winter. From the villages in this valley can be seen all the grand range of the snow-capped Alps. I walked up the valley some twelve miles, crossed the divide into another valley, where is the village of Tramelan, where my fater was born and lived until the age of 18, when he went to Lignieres. There I found an aunt, the oldest of a family of seven children, my father being the youngest and only son. This dear old lady was overjoyed to see me, and on the second day of my visit to her she accompanied me on foot up the valley to the Jura divide to LaCle, where stood an old castle owned by our family, the Chatelains (the original name of the family) in the Sixteenth century. The name Chatelain means the owner or governor of a castle. From Tramelan I proceeded to Berne by diligence. This old historic city was full of interest to me. From it is obtained a view of the vast range of the Alps from Mt. Blanc and Monte Rosa to the Schreckhorn in the German Alps a view grand beyond description. I visited among other places the old cathedral, with its enormous bell. I

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ascended to the bell tower to get a good view of the Alps. I found there a pale-faced youth of some 18 years of age, who pointed out to me and described in a remarkably intelligent manner the various peaks of the range. When leaving the place I offered him, as is customary, a piece of silver, which he declined to take, saying that he was not the custodian, but for a day had taken his place, was a student, etc. I became interested, and on questioning him found he was a student in an academy there and that his name was Vuille. I remarked that I had an aunt, a widow, in that city of that name and that the family were from the Jura. He replied that she must be his mother. It proved true, and I met the student, my cousin, at his mother's house the next day From Berne I made my way to Lausanne, on Lake Geneva and via Vevay and the castle of Chilon to the head of the lake, and by railway to Martigny, from which place I visited the Hospice of Great St. Bernard in the St. Bernard pass, where I spent the night and saw a number of fine St. Bernard dogs, and afterwards went to Chamony at the foot of Mt. Blanc. I ascended the valley of the Rhone and crossed the Alps via the Simplon Pass into Italy. I visited Lakes Maggiore and Como, and then went to the beautiful city of Milan. After a few days stay there, I proceeded to Venice, via Padua, and on my return visited the battlefields of Magenta and Solfareno and took in the famous Quadrilateral, the great fortification of Northern Italy, and then went to Turin, a most interesting city to the tourist.

When I was in Geneva, I made the acquaintance of the great Calvanistic theologian, Dr. Malan. He kindly gave me a letter to his son, Professor Malan, of the theological school of the Waldensian church at La Tour, where young men were being educated for the ministry in the Waldensin or Vandois church. La Tour is thirty

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miles from Turin, at the junction of three valleys on the southern slope of the Alps near Pincrol, the capital of a small province inhabited by 22,000 Vandois, a people or sect that was an offshoot of the Calvanistic church. The sect was founded by Peter Waldo. I took a walk of some ten miles up one of the valleys and gained much valuable information in regard to the habits and customs of this singular people, who, although intensely Protestant, have always been favored by the Italian (Catholic) government. The principal industry of this people is the manufacturing of raw silk from the cocoon. I was cordially received by Prof. Malan, to whom I had a letter, who invited me to spend some days with him at La Tour. The theological school with which he was connected was then supported largely by contributions made by sympathizing and generous people living in London, England.

From Turin I proceeded south to Genoa, and from there to Pisa and Florence, the latter place being one of great interest to the intelligent tourist, on account of its numerous collections of rare paintings and other works of art, and prized by all for its lovely winter climate. I spent three weeks, including Christmas week in Rome, and witnessed its interesting and attractive festivities. With a number of other Americans I was presented to the Pope, Pio Nino, by the United States minister, the Hon. Hr. Stockton. The Pope was one of the handsomest old gentlemen I had ever seen, gracious in manner, with a face indicative of benevolence and amiability of disposition. I had the pleasure of listening to the Pope's choir in St. Peter's cathedral, composed of twenty-five male voices, the finest I had ever heard. The soprano was a young Italian of 21 years of age, with a voice purer, sweeter and more powerful than that of the famous prima donna, Stephanoni, who had sung there

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in grand opera the year before Rome will never cease to interest the American visitor, of whom there were an unusually large number that winter.

After leaving Rome I proceeded to Naples for a two weeks' stay. From there I returned to Paris, stopping at Marseilles and Lyons on the way. I remained in Paris nearly a month, visiting places of interest in the vicinity. While there I met at breakfast, in the house of a mutual friend, Edmund About, the clever and popular French writer, who was then being lionized in Paris on account of his book, written in Rome the summer before, entitled "The Roman Question." In this book the writer severely criticised the Italian government, including the Pope and church. It was issued just after the Austrio-Italian war of the summer of 1859, in which France had become involved. The book was condemned by the church and the state and Mr. About was ordered to leave Italy. His expulsion created great excitement in France, especially in Paris. On his return to Paris he was received with great enthusiasm and was the hero of the day. Mr. About was a modest but agreeable gentleman of wide information, and although of smaller physique, reminded me by his looks and manner when talking of my old Galena friend, Dr. C. H. Ray. I corresponded with him for some time after my return to the United States. By early spring I found myself at home again, a wiser man for the experiences of the eight months abroad.

I first met Captain U. S. Grant, an ex-captain of the United States army, in the spring of 1860 at Galena on my return from Europe. He had come there from St. Louis during my absence abroad, to take a position as clerk in the wholesale and retail leather store of J. R. Grant & Co., his father being the senior member of the firm. He filled the place in the store of his older brother, Simpson Grant, who had been incapacitated by sickness

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and who died the year after. Captain Grant, after having left the army some six years before, had been engaged in farming near the city of St. Louis, but had met with poor success. He brought his family, consisting of his wife and four children, from St. Louis in the spring of 1860. He rented a comfortable brick house at a rental corresponding with his salary, which was less than $1,000 a year. In the store he was really more than an ordinary clerk, for he at times was a salesman, and at other times a collector, going out to country towns, and occasionally doing the work of a bookkeeper. The firm had no tannery in Galena, but bought green hides in the Galena market, shipped them to Covington, Ky., where the tannery was located, and after having tanned them reshipped them to Galena. He led a quiet life and seemed little inclined to make the acquaintance of his fellow citizens, but was highly esteemed by all who knew him. With his family, he was a regular attendant at the Methodist Episcopal church. He was a free and interesting talker and frequently entertained his friends and neighbors by the hour in relating his experiences in the Mexican war and while stationed a few years on the Pacific coast. He was not an active politician, but took a deep interest in all political questions before the country. Although a Whig in early life, he supported Mr. Buchanan for the presidency, but became a Freesoil Democrat before the end of his administration. He took little part in the exciting campaign of 1860, but favored the election of Senator Douglas for president, and would have voted for him had his time of residence in Illinois given him the right to vote.

The great political campaign of 1860, which resulted in the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency, will ever be a memorable one. I returned from Europe in time to be infused with the enthusiasm that pervaded

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the people of the northern states, especially those who had been Freesoilers. Illinois, the adopted state of Mr. Lincoln, led in this enthusiasm. I heard Mr. Lincoln at Freeport in 1858, while having a joint debate with Senator Douglas, and was impressed with his great ability as a debater and the fairness and honesty of his utterances. I attended the National Republican convention at Chicago in May of that year. Like all other Illinoisans, I was enthusiastic in my support of Mr. Lincoln. I had been a decided abolitionist when a youth and young man, entered heartily into the Freesoil movement, and cast my vote for John C. Freemont for President. My first vote as a Whig was cast for Taylor in 1848.

After the nomination of Mr. Lincoln there was held at Galena a ratification meeting, over which I was chosen to preside. The year before I had made the acquaintance of a young lawyer in New York city named Stewart L. Woodford, and, meeting him at the Chicago convention, invited him to come to Galena and address our meeting, which he agreed to do. Like all other New Yorkers, he came to the convention a strong supporter of Senator Seward. He had, however, great admiration for and confidence in Mr. Lincoln and came to his support after his nomination with zeal and earnestness. He followed the Hon. E. B. Washburne at the meeting, and delivered an exceedingly spirited, eloquent and convincing speech, which was well received by the audience. Woodford became one of the ablest members of the New York bar, served in the civil war with distinction, was appointed United States attorney for the Southern district of New York, and was United States Ambassador to Spain when the Spanish-American war began. Years after the Galena meeting Woodford told me that he always looked back with pleasure to that ratification meeting at Galena, from which place his old army commander, Gen. Grant,

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entered the volunteer service in the early days of the civil war.

I attended in the month of August, 1860, the great rally of the Republicans of the state at Springfield, the home of Mr. Lincoln. Nearly every prominent Republican in the state was present, and it was estimated that 100,000 people participated in the great parade and were at the meetings held in the open air in various parts of the city. In the afternoon of the day previous to the parade, I called on Mr. Lincoln with the Hon. Mr. Henry, of New Hampshire, who had served with him in the house of representatives. I allude to this incident because, although I had seen Mr. Lincoln frequently, I never had the chance to study his face under favorable circumstances. We had a very pleasant call, and when tea time came Mr. Lincoln insisted upon our taking tea with Mrs. Lincoln and himself. At the table Mr. Lincoln was very entertaining in his conversation, giving anecdotes, reminiscences, etc. I noticed when he was quiet and his face at rest, that there was a shade of sadness over it caused by a slight droop of the eyelids and the lowering of the corners of the mouth. When he began to speak, his face lighted up like the sun passing through a rift in the cloud.

The latter part of the winter of 1860-61 I spent in Washington city, and was there during the sessions of the national peace congress and listened to some of the exciting debates in congress. I witnessed the ceremony of the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln. It was the first inauguration of a President I had ever seen, and I was greatly impressed with it. When I left Washington, about the middle of March, the political sky was overcast, and our wisest and best men in the Northern states were feeling anxious for the future of the nation. The causes which led to the war are familiar to all intelligent readers. It was the culmination of an irrepressible conflict between liberty and slavery of nearly half a century's duration.

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Chapter V.

CIVIL WAR, 1861-62.

The firing on Fort Sumpter by the Confederate States of America was regarded by the government of the United States as an act of rebellion. The act caused intense excitement throughout the northern states. President Lincoln at once issued a call for 75,000 volunteers for ninety days' service. The patriotic citizens of Galena shared in the general excitement and resolved to act promptly in response to the President's call for volunteers. A mass meeting of the citizens of Galena was held at the court house on the evening of the 16th of April, 1861, four days after the firing on Fort Sumpter to discuss the situation and the feasibility of raising at once one or more companies of volunteers to aid in the suppression of the rebellion. The court house was filled with citizens. The mayor of the city, Hon. Robert Brand, was chosen to preside. Upon taking the chair, in a brief speech, he gave expression to anti-war sentiments and favored compromise and peace. Indescribable confusion followed, and a motion was made that he vacate the chair. The chairman begged permission to be heard, and said in explanation that he had understood the meeting had been called to discuss the situation, and that he had given expression to his own views and opinions, but as they evidently were not those of the meeting he would vacate the chair. After some discussion, it was agreed that he continue to preside. The Hon. E. B. Washburne, member of congress, being present and one

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of the leading spirits of this war movement, offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:

1. That we will support the government of the United States in the performance of all its constitutional duties in this crisis, and will assist it to maintain the integrity of the American nag whenever and wherever assailed.

2. That we recommend the immediate formation of two military companies in this city to respond to any call that may be made by the governor of the state.

3. That having lived under the stars and stripes by the blessing of God, we propose to die under them.

Spirited and patriotic addresses were made by the mover of the resolutions, by John A. Rawlins, B. B. Howard, Hon. Charles S. Hempstead and others. The meeting adjourned with the wildest enthusiasm and cheers for the Union. The excitement following the gathering seemed to increase, and on the evening of the 18th of April another mass meeting was held in the same place to raise a military company. The crowd at the court house was greater than at the first meeting. Captain U. S. Grant, formerly of the United States army, who had been a resident of Galena for eighteen months, was, at the suggestion of Hon. E. B. Washburne, elected chairman of the meeting, Upon taking the chair, he briefly, with some evident embarrassment, stated the object of the meeting. Earnest and eloquent appeals to the patriotism of the audience were made by E. B. Washburne and John A. Rawlins. I followed in a brief address, offering to enlist for the war. When volunteers were called for I headed the list, and was followed by Wallace Campbell, J. Bates Dickson, Nicholas Roth, C. H. Miller and some twenty-five others. These enlistments proved to be the first in the Northwest outside of the city of Chicago. A telegram was sent to Governor

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Yates offering a company of volunteers, which was at once accepted. It was decided before the close of the meeting to push the recruiting vigorously. Captain Grant, Rawlins and Rowley agreed to go the next day to Hanover, fourteen miles south of Galena, and Campbell and Dickson volunteered to go to Dunleith (now East Dubuque). With Washburne and S. K. Miner, I took the city and its suburbs, the men who had enlisted the evening before giving valuable assistance. The meeting of citizens at Hanover the evening of the 19th was addressed by Captain Grant and Rawlins. Some twelve men were obtained. Captain Grant told me afterwards that his Hanover speech was the first one he had ever made. Rawlins spoke of it as an earnest and sensible speech. Campbell and Dickson recruited about as many men at Dunleith. On the morning of the 20th it was found that over eighty men had been recruited, and all were on hand to answer to roll call. Notice, was given that in the afternoon a meeting for the election of officers would be held. Captain Grant, having understood that there was a movement to elect him captain of the company, told me that he could not accept the captaincy of a company of volunteers; that he had been educated at West Point, had served in the Mexican war as a lieutenant and afterwards as a captain on the Pacific coast, and that with his military education and experience, he ought to have the colonelcy of a regiment or a suitable staff appointment. He suggested that I take the captaincy of the company, and that he would go with the company to Springfield and assist it in getting into a regimental organization. The result was that I was elected captain, and Campbell and Dickson first and second lieutenants, respectively. On the morning of the 21st the company was full.

The day after the acceptance of the Galena company

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Governor Yates telegraphed to know if the company could be uniformed without delay. On inquiry, it was found that suitable cloth could be obtained of L. S. Felt & Co., and the clothing house of H. P. Corwith & Co. would agree to make, with the aid of all the tailors in the city, the uniforms in three days. The governor was telegraphed the facts, and the reply came back: "Uniform your company." Captain Grant gave nearly the whole of his time superintending the making of the uniforms. At his suggestion, the men of the company were at once put to drilling. Pine laths were used for guns and the men were drilled in marching, facings, etc. Captain Grant kindly took out a squad on two occasions and once drilled the entire company. The uniforms were completed at the end of the time agreed upon, and the regulation caps were obtained in Chicago.

On the afternoon of the 25th of April, the company left Galena for Springfield, the place of rendesvous of all the volunteers raised in the state under the 75,000 call. The announcement of its departure brought together an immense concourse of people from the surrounding country. The fire companies, civic societies, mayor and city council, with two bands of music, escorted the "Jo Daviess Guards" through the principal streets of the city. When the column had reached the corner of Main and Green streets it was halted. Captain J. A. Maltby of the Mexican war, and afterwards colonel of the "Lead Mine Regt." (Forty-fifth Illinois infantry), and brigadier general, acted as chief marshal. Hon. E. A. Small, in behalf of the patriotic ladies of Galena, presented to the company a beautiful silk flag. His presentation address was eloquent and appropriate. I, as captain, accepted it in a brief speech in behalf of the company. This silk flag had been made by the ladies of Galena, headed by Miss Annie Campbell (afterwards

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Mrs. Gen. O. E. Babcock), who bought the material and who, on application to Captain U. S. Grant, was furnished with a design giving the dimensions, etc. At this point Captain Grant fell in at the left and rear of the company and marched with it across the river to the station of the Illinois Central railroad, on his way with the company to the capital of the state. At and near the station on the hillsides, was gathered an immense throng of people to bid the company farewell. On the top of a freight car stood the mayor of the city and the Rev. (now Bishop) J. H. Vincent, of the M. E. church. The mayor made a patriotic address to the departing volunteers, and ended by presenting to G. A. Godat, the color bearer of the company, a beautiful revolver, after which the Rev. J. H. Vincent delivered an address of rare eloquence, filled with patriotic and Christian sentiments and words of cheer and encouragement and closed with a brief prayer. Soon after the train moved off, amid the huzzas, waving of hats and handkerchiefs and the tearful farewells of the great crowd.

The company reached Decatur the next morning, and, having three hours to wait for the Springfield train, Captain Grant took it out to an open field and gave it one hour of drill. On its arrival at Springfield it went into quarters at Camp Yates. The next day I turned over the command of the company to Lieutenant Campbell, and at the request of Captain Grant, roomed with him in a private apartment he had rented, and we took our meals at the Chinnery hotel near by. Captain Grant found employment in the adjutant general's office doing clerical work. Upon the organization of the Twelfth regiment, the last of the six under the 75,000 call to be organized, the "Jo Davies Guards" became one of the ten companies which composed it. When the election of field officers by the company or line officers

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took place, Captain John McArthur of Chicago, was elected colonel; I lieutenant colonel, and Captain J. D. Williams of Rock Island, major.

The regiment was mustered into the three months' service on the 2d of May by Captain John Pope of the regular army, and the "Jo Daviess Guards" was given the right center of the regiment as Company F, and designated as the color company. The company on its arrival at Camp Yates attracted attention, not only because it was the only one of the sixty companies accepted by the state which was uniformed, but also on account of its soldierly appearance and discipline. The personnel of the company was exceptionally good. The men averaged well in size and physical robustness. A large part were of foreign birth (mostly German), many having seen some service before leaving their native land. Without a single exception all could read and write. In occupation there were merchants, mechanics, clerks, farmers and laboring men. The average age of the men was greater than was usually found in companies raised in the West. After the organization of the Twelfth regiment, Lieutenant Campbell was elected captain of Company F, Dickson first lieutenant and Sergeant Roth second lieutenant. Captain Campbell was a born soldier, intelligent, energetic, brave, and a fine tactician and disciplinarian. At the end of his three months' service he was in every way qualified to command a regiment. He was commissioned colonel of a regiment in December, 1863. Dickson was capable, painstaking, coolly courageous and efficient. He was the adjutant of the regiment, adjutant of a brigade, and after having been appointed assistant adjutant general by the War Department, served on the staff of General Rosecrans with great credit to himself. Lieutenant Roth was an energetic and competent officer, whose duties, especially as a

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tactician, were always well performed. Captain Mayer, whose service was given mostly after I had left the regiment, has the reputation of having been a most brave, conscientious and efficient officer, and I will add, that it can truthfully be said of all the other commissioned officers of the company, that they were not only well qualified for the duties of their respective positions but discharged them with fidelity.

Some three days after we had arrived at Springfield I called at the office of the adjutant general and asked for Captain Grant. I was directed to a small, poorly-lighted and scantily furnished room, occupied by the captain only, who was engaged in copying in a blank book the orders which had been issued by the adjutant general since the organization of the volunteer regiments began. When I asked him how he was getting along he replied, with a look of disgust: "I am tired of this work. It is no work for me. I am going back to the store" (Galena) to-morrow." I replied that I hoped he would not leave now, that something more suitable would surely be given him to do. We talked over the matter in our room in the evening, and he finally decided to remain a few days longer. His pay for the work he was doing was $2 a day. Two days later Captain (afterwards General) Pope, who had commanded Camp Yates while acting as mustering officer, returned to St. Louis, when Captain Grant was detailed by Governor Yates to fill the vacancy as commandant of the camp.

The legislature of the state, then in extra session, the month previous had passed a law directing the governor to raise ten regiments of infantry, one in each congressional district, to be held in readiness for the president's next call for volunteers. Three days after the captain had assumed the command of Camp Yates he was ordered to proceed to Mattoon and organize

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a regiment that was being raised there. A short time afterwards he was appointed a mustering officer, to muster into the state service regiments raised under the new law. He went to Mattoon and to Anna and mustered in a regiment at each place. He proceeded to Belleville for the same purpose, but finding that the regiment there was not ready, crossed the river to St. Louis to see and consult with his old army friend, Captain Lyons, commanding the United States troops at the Arsenal, in regard to getting some suitable staff appointment or the command of a volunteer regiment in the state of Missouri, his former place of residence. Upon arriving at the Arsenal on the morning of May 10th, he found all the regular troops and Colonel Frank Blair's regiment of volunteers about to move upon and capture Camp Jackson, a Confederate camp of instruction in the vicinity of the city of St. Louis, Captain Lyons invited him to act as and aide on his staff, which he did, and was a witness to the breaking up of the camp and the arrest of all its officers.

Receiving no encouragement from either Captain Lyons or Colonel Blair in the matter of securing an appointment for staff duty, he returned to Springfield, stopping on his way at Caseyville, six miles cast of St. Louis, where the Twelfth Illinois infantry was temporarily stationed. Colonel McArthur having been disabled by an accident, had gone to Chicago, leaving, me in command of the regiment. Captain Grant became my guest for two days. During this time he was depressed in spirits, and seemed to feel keenly his lack of success in obtaining a suitable appointment in the volunteer service, when civilians without military education or experience could easily obtain them. When talking about the care, work and responsibility involved in the successful management of a regiment of volunteers, he

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said: "I don't think I am conceited, but I feel confident I could command a regiment well; at least, I would like to try it." When alluding to his old army friend, Captain George B. McClellan, who had just been placed in charge of the organization of the volunteers in the state of Ohio, he said: "Of the many officers of the regular army who are receiving appointments in the volunteer service, I look upon Captain McClellan as one of the brightest, and I think he is sure to make his mark in this war." During his stay with me he took a deep interest in the Twelfth regiment and made many valuable suggestions to the adjutant, quartermaster and commissary of subsistance. He conversed freely with me about new recruits and the best method of managing them to insure speedy efficiency. I have always felt that if I succeeded in bringing my regiment to a high standard of drill, discipline and efficiency during the two and a half years I commanded it, it was due largely to the sensible hints and valuable suggestions of Captain Grant during this visit and when we roomed together at Springfield a few weeks before.

After leaving Caseyville Captain Grant returned to Springfield, and on being informed that there was no further work for him to do as a mustering officer, he went back to Galena. He was restless, and felt humiliated that he should be compelled to remain inactive, when there was so great need in the country of the services of educated and experienced military men. Unable longer to endure this inaction, he went to Ohio to ascertain what could be done in his native state. He stopped at Columbus to see Gen. McClellan, who had just been made a general of volunteers, hoping he might from him get a staff appointment, but McClellan had gone to Washington. After visiting his mother at Covington, Ky., he returned to Galena, and as a last resort wrote the

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adjutant general of the United States army at Washington, offering his services and soliciting an appointment as colonel of a volunteer regiment. No reply was made to his letter.

About the 10th of June he received a telegram from Governor Yates asking if he would accept the colonelcy of the Twenty-first Illinois infantry, known as the Mattoon regiment, which he had organized and mustered into the state service the month before. He, of course, accepted the position offered. It seems that this piece of good luck came to the captain in this wise. The Mattoon regiment had been unfortunate in its choice of a colonel for the thirty days' service, who became unpopular with both officers and enlisted men before the expiration of that time, and a change was desired by all. The officers, who had made the acquaintance of Captain Grant as mustering officer, believed him to be a good man for the position and petitioned Governor Yates to appoint him colonel of the regiment. The governor hesitated, for he clearly was not partial to Captain Grant, but the Hon. Jesse K. Dubois, the state auditor, who happened to be in the governor's room when the petition was received, spoke in such high terms of the "Galena Captain," as the governor called him, and of his fitness for the position, that it turned the scales and the appointment was made.

Colonel Grant took command of the regiment at Camp Yates, Springfield, where it had been brought from Mattoon. It had been neglected by its late colonel and its drill and discipline were below par. It devolved on its new commander to raise its esprit de corps and make it what it became in the next two months, one of the most efficient regiments in the Western Army. Many stories are told how the colonel, in his quiet but firm way, subdued some of its most unruly men. He took

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his regiment to Missouri, where it was kept busy fighting the "bushwhackers" of that region. On the 10th of August he was appointed brigadier general, his commission to date from May 17th. which made him the senior officer of that rank in the state of Illinois, save one, viz: Gen. B. M. Prentiss, who was not a West Pointer and was outranked by Grant in accordance with an act of congress giving West Pointers precedence. Six other brigadier generals were appointed at the same time, all recommended by members of congress from that state, acting jointly.

Before the middle of June the Twelfth regiment was taken to Cairo, where the five other Illinois regiments were stationed, as a brigade commanded by Gen. Prentiss. The last week in July, the men who had enlisted for three mouths were asked to enlist for three years. The Twelfth regiment re-enlisted almost in a body, and Colonel McArthur was elected colonel, I lieutenant colonel, and Captain A. C. Ducat major, over Major W. D. Williams. The choice of Colonel John McArthur as colonel for the three years' service was a wise one, for he proved to be a very capable officer. Fond of the profession of arms, he was well informed in all matters pertaining to his duties, was vigilant, brave, a good disciplinarian and tactician, and whether in command of a brigade or of a division in after years his efficiency made him a favorite with his superior officers. He became a brigadier general and was rewarded at the close of the war with a brevet major general's commission for meritorious services. Major A. C. Ducat was an exceptionally good officer. Having studied civil engineering before the war, he was better equipped for the duties of a volunteer officer than the average civilian. He was soon detailed for staff duty, for which position he was well fitted. He served on Gen. Ord's staff as inspector

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in 1862, and later was detailed by Gen. Rosecrans as his chief of staff and was with him in the battles of Corinth and Chickamauga. He became lieutenant colonel of his regiment, and at the close of the war was made a brigadier general by brevet.

The Twelfth regiment was stationed at Cairo until near the close of August, when it was taken to Bird's Point, on the opposite or Missouri side of the river. Colonel McArthur, being one of the oldest colonels, was assigned to a brigade. For nearly two and a half years thereafter I continued in command of the Twelfth Illinois, and until I received my promotion as brigadier general.

The summer of 1861 was unusually hot, and the troops stationed at Cairo on the low grounds back of the embankments on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers were far from comfortable. The medical service was good and the hospitals were admirably conducted, so that our men got along better than could have been expected under conditions so unfavorable. Much credit was due to chief Surgeon Simms, who was ably assisted by Dr. Horace Wardner of the Twelfth regiment, who afterwards became a brigade, division and general hospital surgeon. His energy skill and exceptional administrative ability were generally recognized. His antiwar experience was in his favor, he having been demonstrator of anatomy in the Rush Medical college, of Chicago. Dr. W. F. Cady, who was Dr. Wardner's assistant in the Twelfth regiment, soon became the surgeon, and during his four years' service in this regiment he made an excellent record for skill and devotion to his duties. By early fall all the troops in and about Cairo were in fine physical condition and well drilled and disciplined.

Gen. Grant established his headquarters as commander of the District of Cairo, at Cairo about the 1st of

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September. He learned from his scouts that the Confederates had invaded the "sacred soil" of Kentucky, had occupied Columbus, a point of importance on the Mississippi river, and were fortifying it. The state of Kentucky had not seceded and had kept her representative in congress. He learned further that Paducah was to be occupied soon and fortified. This latter place, being at the mouth of the Tennessee river, was of great strategic importance. As soon as Gen. Grant had been informed of the movement on Paducah he telegraphed to Gen. Freemont at St. Louis, suggesting to him that Paducah be at once occupied and fortified. No reply to his telegram was received, but so impressed was he with the importance of occupying Paducah at once, that he assumed the responsibility of moving on the place immediately. On the 6th of September he secured two large transports, placed on them the Ninth and Twelfth regiments of infantry (I commanded the latter), a battery of light artillery and a small force of cavalry, which body of troops were placed in command of Colonel McArthur, In the evening the expedition, led by two gunboats, started up the Ohio river. At daylight the next morning Paducah was reached, the troops were landed, and the construction of light earth works was commenced. It was afterwards learned that a force of Confederates from Columbus was on its way and would have been in Paducah by noon that day. Gen. Grant was at first criticised for thus, acting without orders, but the wisdom of his movement was so apparent that the matter was dropped by Gen. Frement, and he received commendation at Washington for his prompt action.

A few days after the occupation of Paducah by Union troops, Brigadier General Charles F. Smith, an old officer of the regular army, reported to Gen. Grant

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and was placed in command of the post of Paducah and the territory up the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, and to be second in command in the district of Cairo. The force at Paducah was at once increased and the construction of permanent fortifications to command the mouth of the Tennessee river began. The assignment of Gen. Smith for duty under Gen. Grant caused much feeling among the regular army officers, and was shared by Gen. Halleck, who had succeeded Gen. Fremont at St. Louis. Gen. Smith had been in continuous service for over thirty years and had held the rank of colonel for many years, while Gen. Grant had left the army seven years before with the rank of captain, which rank he had held but a short time in the department of California, and who had risen to his present rank in the volunteer service in less than a year through supposed political influence. To the regular officer this seemed incongruous and unfair. With Halleck, it was not that he objected to Gen. Grant per se, but he felt deeply the injustice done his old friend Smith, whom he regarded as one of the ablest officers in the Federal army, and for a long time afterwards he did all in his power to place Smith over Grant.

Some two weeks after Gen. Smith had assumed command at Paducah, he detailed me to take command of the post of Smithland, twelve miles above Paducah, at the junction of the Cumberland and Ohio rivers, with six companies of infantry, a battery of light artillery and a squadron of cavalry, to construct, under competent engineers, fortifications at the mouth of the Cumberland. Gen. Smith visited the post every week to inspect the work of the engineers, and I became not only welt acquainted with him, but much attached to him, and grew to have great admiration for his splendid soldierly qualities. Although a strict disciplinarian, he was a

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favorite with all the soldiers of his command. He was six feet tall, spare, straight, with a heavy white mustache and close cut gray hair. His personality was that of the ideal soldier, and his appearance on parade or elsewhere always elicited the applause of the soldiers On one of his first visits to Smithland he said to me, "I think you are acquainted with Gen. Grant?" I replied, "Yes, we are from the same town, and I was with him a good deal just after the breaking out of the war." He then remarked: "I remember the general well as a cadet at West Point when I was its commandant. He was a fair-faced young man, modest, a fine horseman and very proficient in mathematics." Gen. Smith had not yet met Gen. Grant, owing to the latter's absence from his district. A day or two after my conversation with Gen. Smith, Gen. Grant, when passing down the Ohio river in his little steamer, stopped at the post and came to my quarters and spent the evening. In conversing about Gen. Smith, who, I said, had just visited me, Gen. Grant said: "I am going to Paducah to-night and will have to give Gen. Smith orders to-morrow morning which don't seem just right to me, for this veteran officer was the commandant of West Point when I was a cadet, and all the school regarded him as one of the very ablest officers of his age in the army." Gen. Grant had great admiration for his old commandant, and Gen. Smith seemed always to be proud of his former cadet, and gratified with his success. He certainly was not jealous of him.

Not long after the battle of Belmont, opposite Columbus, which the Confederates were fortifying, I had a visit from Gen. Smith. I remarked that there was a rumor afloat that Paducah was threatened by a force under Gen. Albert Sidney Johnson. The general smiled and replied that Johnson and he were old army friends and

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knew each other well. "Johnson knows what forces I have and I know what he has I don't think he will attack me," and he didn't. He then gave me a brief account of his relations with Johnson in the Mexican war and afterwards. They were nearly of the same age. From other sources I learn that both were regarded by army officers as two of the ablest officers in the army. Johnson was the senior in age and in time of service. When lieutenants they became intimate friends and continued such for nearly a quarter of a century. Smith served continuously, while Johnson left the service for a time after the Mexican war. When the government decided in 1857 to send troops to Utah to suppress the Mormon rebellion, so called, Johnson (being the senior colonel) commanded a regiment of cavalry, as well as the expedition, and Smith a regiment of infantry. The expedition started somewhat late in the season, and, marching overland from the Missouri river, did not reach Utah until early winter, having, suffered great hardships while crossing the Wasatch mountains during the latter part of the long march. The Mormons surrendered before the expedition had fairly reached Utah. The next spring Smith returned to duty in New York, and Johnson, after leaving a garrison at Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, took the remainder of his command to California, where he was assigned to command the Department of California, with headquarters at San Francisco.

When the civil war began Smith was in New York and Johnson in California. In the winter of 1860-61 many Southern sympathizers, usually old and wealthy men, went to California to avoid the discomforts of war, which they regarded as inevitable. Johnson, being a Southerner by birth and having lived on his extensive ranch in Texas after the Mexican war, became more or

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less intimate with these refugees. Reports reached the government officials at Washington that Johnson was not as loyal to the Union as he should be. Without giving Johnson any intimation, Gen. Sumner was sent to California to relieve him. Johnson felt deeply hurt by this act, which indicated a lack of confidence in his loyalty to the Union. He became dejected, angry and resentful, resigned his commission and went to his ranch in Texas. Before the midsummer President Davis, of the Confederate states, offered him the command of the Western Army of the Confederacy, which he accepted. Gen. Simpson (now retired) the quartermaster general of the Department of California, who was on intimate terms with Johnson at the time, assured me a few years ago that Johnson was thoroughly loyal to the Union, and that the hasty and unwise conduct of the War Department drove him into the Confederacy.

In the spring of 1862 Gen. Albert Sidney Johnson was in command of the Confederate forces in Tennessee and Kentucky, and having been charged by the government at Richmond with inefficiency, became almost desperate, and, contrary to the advice of his brother officers at Corinth, attacked the Union forces at Pittsburg Landing (Shiloh), resolving to gain a victory or die in the attempt. Had his life-long friend and comrade. Gen. Smith, not been ill and in a hospital, he would have been on the battlefield of Shiloh as second in command of the Union forces, and, in all probability, would have met Johnson face to face on the field of battle. It has been intimated that Johnson knew of Smith's illness hence his desire to attack the Union forces during his absence. He feared Smith more than he did Grant.

In January, 1862, I was relieved of the command of the Post of Smithland by Gen. Lew Wallace, who had recently been made a brigadier general, and returned to

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my regiment at Paducah soon after the battle of Belmont. Gen. Grant felt that an expedition should move at once up the Tennessee river to drive out the Confederate forces fortifying at Fort Henry on the Tennessee river and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland river. These forces could easily have been routed by 10,000 men. Gen. Grant went to Halleck at St. Louis, who was in command of the Department of the Mississippi, and unfolded his plan to him. Grant received no encouragement from Halleck. In January, 1862, it became evident to Halleck and to the authorities at Washington that an expedition such as had been suggested by Grant in November, should be sent up the Tennessee river and capture Fort Henry and up the Cumberland river against Fort Donelson.

Soon after the 1st of February the expedition started, with Gen. Grant in command and Gen. C. F. Smith, commanding a division as second in command. My regiment was in Smith's division. Fort Henry was easily captured and Grant moved his forces overland thirteen miles to Fort Donelson, invested it, and the gunboats on the Cumberland river co-operating, in two days the Confederate stronghold capitulated. The victory was a splendid one, and the first decisive Union victory in the West of any importance. In the first day's fight my regiment held the extreme right of our line, and although it was its "maiden" fight, behaved admirably. Immediately after the surrender, Gen. Halleck telegraphed to the War Department: "Make Gen. Smith a major general. He, by his coolness and bravery when the battle was against us, turned the tide and carried the enemy's works." Had Halleck been successful in his scheme, Smith would have been the ranking officer. Both were made major generals, with Grant as the senior. Smith, I know, was ignorant of all efforts to make him the ranking major general.

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Chapter VI.

CIVIL WAR — FORT DONELSON TO VICKSBURG, 1862-3.

Soon after the surrender of Fort Donelson, Grant was put in arrest by Halleck for alleged neglect of duiy. In a few weeks he was released and returned to duty and assumed his former command, making his headquarters at Savannah, eight miles below Pittsburg Landing, on the east side of the Tennessee river. Gen. Smith had command of the Union forces being massed at Pittsburg Landing preparatory to a movement on Corinth, Miss., at the junction of the Mobile & Ohio and the Memphis & Charleston railroads, a place of great importance, which the Confederates had been fortifying for many months.

Had Gen. Grant's suggestion to Halleck in November, '61, been heeded, the movement, would undoubtedly have obviated the expedition of February, '62, thereby saving millions in money and thousands of lives, and more, would have rendered unnecessary the massing of troops at Pittsburg Landing and the subsequent terrific battle of Shiloh. Corinth would have been the point of attack. The Union troops, when ascending the Tennessee river in transports, were organized into brigades and divisions by Gen. Grant, and then sent to Gen. Smith at Pittsburg Landing. My regiment was in Gen. W. H. L. Wallace's division (formerly Gen. C. F. Smith's), which held the right of our line. During the three weeks we were in camp our men suffered from diarrhoea and dysentery, caused by having to use surface water taken from shallow wells. I was taken down with dysentery. My condition

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became serious and on the 5th of April it was decided by my regimental surgeons that I be taken to a hospital at Paducah. On the morning of the 6th at sunrise we were attacked by the enemy, numbering 40,000 men, a force a little larger than our own. My regiment, in command of the senior Captain J. R. Hugunin, moved out of our camp at 8 o'clock. Major Ducat, of the regiment, was sick in a hospital at Paducah. An hour after the regiment had moved to the front at the extreme left of the line, I became uneasy and determined to join it and take command. It was an unwise act. I have had reason since to regret my rashness. I rode my horse with great difficulty, and not long after I had reached the regiment in line of battle my horse was shot and killed by a sharpshooter. The fall from my horse injured me somewhat. On regaining my feet, I found that there was not another horse to be had, as all had either been killed or taken off the field. I was therefore compelled to command the regiment, weak as I was, on foot for four hours, much of the time under the enemy's fire. At about 1 o'clock we were overpowered and driven back in confusion. I had lost heavily in killed and wounded, especially in officers. After the long engagement I collapsed from sheer weakness, and when taking my regiment back to the rear and near the landing, there being no ambulance obtainable, I was held up on my feet by two of my officers. On arriving there I saw Gen. Grant and his staff. He had just come in from making an inspection of our line. It was then past 3 o'clock. I approached him, when he expressed surprise at seeing me out, as he had the day before sent his staff officer, Col. Rowley, to see me with a message that I had better go to a hospital at Paducah the next day if not decidedly better. After some general conversation in regard to the events of the day, he said: "Colonel, you

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had better take your regiment to its old camp and go to bed. You ought not to have come out to-day." Then he remarked calmly, "The enemy has done all he can do to-day. To-morrow morning, with Gen. Lew Wallace's division and the fresh troops of the army of the Ohio, now crossing the river, we will soon finish him up." He was confident, and seemed by intuition to know the exhausted condition of the enemy. I was assisted to my old camp, when, to my surprise, I found that all the tents had been struck and taken away. By the aid of two strong men I dragged myself to the landing and went on board the hospital steamer "Iatan," where I was cared for. The next day by noon the enemy had been driven from the field. Gen. Grant proposed to pursue the enemy vigorously with the 25,000 or more fresh troops he had, including some 1,200 cavalry, which had done little service the first day, but a telegram from Halleek forbade a pursuit. Had Grant been allowed to do as he intended, there is no doubt that the Confederates would have been utterly routed, a great part of their artillery captured and Corinth abandoned, which would have obviated the necessity of massing over 100,000 men to lay siege to it, as was done by Halleck, who came to Pittsburg Landing soon after the battle and assumed command of the army, giving Grant the second place. This hotly contested and sanguinary battle was a victory for the Union army, and had Gen. Lew Wallace strictly obeyed orders on the morning of the 6th and taken his place at the right of our line with his division of 6,000 men and two batteries, the battle would, without doubt, have been a decided Union victory by or before 2 o'clock that day. This I know was the feeling at Gen. Grant's headquarters. Gen. Wallace's defection the morning of the 6th in not appearing on the field until a late hour in the afternoon came near losing us the day. Grant felt

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bitter towards Wallace, but in after years the latter made some explanations which induced Grant to change his opinion, and in his memoirs, he so states. Gen. Grant, after the war, stated in my presence that he regarded the battle of Shiloh the bloodiest and hardest fought battle of the war. I have always been of the opinion that had Gen. Buell not reached Pittsburg landing the afternoon of the 6th with a portion of his army, Gen. Grant, nevertheless with the aid of Lew Wallace's division of fresh troops and the return to the ranks of the greater part of the men who had fled panic stricken to the rear in the early morning, would have won a victory by the middle of the second day. Had Gen. Smith been on the ground prior to the battle and able to participate in it, I have no doubt the partial surprise of the early morning of the 6th would have been averted and a decisive victory gained by 4 o'clock. This gallant old officer had been sick in a hospital at Savanna for over a week before the battle and died some ten days after it. His death was a severe and almost irreparable loss to the army of the Tennessee. I mourned for him sincerely for I was greatly attached to him.

Gen. Halleck came to Pittsburg Landing and assumed command of our forces and began to move towards Corinth, a little over twenty miles distant, where the Confederate army was supposed to be strongly entrenched. Gen. Grant, as second in command, directed the right wing of the besieging army, Gen. George H. Thomas the center and Gen. Pope the left. Our advance was unaccountably slow, for by the 20th of May we were still over two miles from the enemy' entrenchments. About this time Grant modestly suggested to Halleck that were a feint in force made by the center and left he believed the right could easily charge over the enemy's works, for he thought he had information that would Justify such a

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movement. Halleck received the suggestion coldly and treated it as being entirely impracticable. It soon became evident, however, that had the suggestion been acted upon success would have been the result, Corinth captured, and a substantial victory won. A week later our troops entered without resistance, for the "bird had flown" and the victory was a barren one. Halleck, in theory, was great, but in practice he was a failure. He never again commanded an army in the field. Our troops took possession of Corinth June 1st, and Memphis was captured after a naval engagement six days later.

During our advance on Corinth Halleck treated Grant discourteously, and at times ignored him entirely by sending his orders directly to the division commanders of his reserve, a proceeding unusual and unmilitary. Gen. Grant, during all these operations was useless as the "fifth wheel to a coach." He felt the indignity keenly, but bore it uncomplainingly, except twice, when out of sheer desperation he asked to be relieved of his command, but no notice apparently was taken of his requests.

Not long after the occupancy, of Memphis by the Union troops Gen. Grant suggested to Gen. Halleck the feasibility of taking one-half of his army and moving directly to Vicksburg, the "Gibraltar" of the lower Mississippi river, which the Confederates held and had begun to fortify; sieze it, fortify it and hold it permanently. The distance from Corinth was not great and the march could easily have been made in two to three weeks Halleck gave little heed to the suggestion and evidently regarded it as of little importance. Four months later the government found that it was necessary to take Vicksburg in order to open the Mississippi river from Memphis to New Orleans. An expedition with Gen. Grant as commander, was organized and moved south

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down the Mississippi Central railroad. After reaching Oxford, contending on its march with large and well organized bodies of Confederates, the burning of its supply depot at Holly Springs compelled it to return to its starting point, then descend the Mississippi river by transports from Memphis to Young's Point and Milligan's Bend. Vicksburg was invested late in the winter and it was July before the Confederate stronghold surrendered. Had Grant's plan of June, suggested to Halleck, been carried out, there would have been saved to the nation some 25,000 lives and $25,000,000, and the war in the valley of the Mississippi would have virtually ended in 1864 instead of 1865.

About the middle of June Grant's request to be relieved and assigned to some other military department finally reached the War Department at Washington and permission was granted him to report for duty to the Secretary of War at Washington. The afternoon before he was to have started for the East with his staff Gen. Sherman happened to call on him for a friendly chat. On Grant's informing him of his good fortune in having been relieved, the former protested so vigorously in language more forcible than elegant on the imprudence of the move that he was about to make, that Grant changed his mind and decided to stay with the army of the Tennessee. Had not Sherman happened to visit Grant at his headquarters near Corinth on the afternoon in question, Grant would have gone to Washington after reporting at St. Louis, and probably been assigned to the command of some army corps, but there would have been no Grant at Vicksburg or at Chattanooga, no Grant at Appomattox, and probably no President Grant.

The latter part of June, Halleck having divided his army, sending the greater part to Central and Eastern Tennessee, leaving some 60,000 troops with Grant to garrison

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Memphis, Corinth, Jackson and Grand Junction and to garrison some 150 miles of railroad extending from Memphis to Tuscumbia, including several outposts, Grant moved his headquarters to Memphis, where Sherman was in command. Two months later he moved to Jackson, some forty miles north of Corinth. My regiment was stationed all summer near Corinth and formed part of McArthur's brigade.

From the time the expedition moved up the Tennessee river in February to the time Gen. Grant made Memphis his headquarters I saw a good deal of him, of Rawlins, his adjutant, and of Rowley, his aide. At headquarters I always had a cordial welcome, and as the two officers last named were townsmen and old friends, I was always regarded as "one of the family." Rawlins I knew as a boy at home with his father on the farm, five miles east of Galena. He was my junior by four years. I knew him too as a law student and later as a practitioner at the Galena bar. He was a lawyer of ability and a quiet, industrious and painstaking young man of excellent habits. Rowley came to Galena when a young man, and was made clerk of the county court, and afterwards clerk of the circuit court succeeding the Hon. W. H. Bradley. He was an efficient official and a shrewd and successful politician of great popularity.

The personnel of the officers at headquarters was unique. Gen. Grant, the commander, was a large-brained man of almost unerring judgment, unassuming in manner, coolly courageous, decided in his convictions and firm, forceful and persistent in executing his plans and purposes. The remark afterwards made by him, "I will fight it out on this line if it takes all summer," illustrated one phase of his character, viz: tenacity of purpose, Rawlins, his adjutant, and later his chief of staff, was clear-headed, energetic, fearless and conscientious

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in the discharge of duty, and endowed with unusual administrative ability. Rowley, his military secretary, and afterwards his aide, had a vast amount of practical common sense, energy, vigilence and tact, and was utterly devoted to the interests of his commander. To the headquarters was also attached Gen. J. D. Webster, formerly of the regular army, his chief of artillery, of unsurpassed ability as an artillerist and topographical engineer. Such a combination of varied talent, all acting in concert, as was found at these headquarters in 1862 was unusual, and it is not surprising that an army directed by such a head should have achieved success. Colonel Ely Parker (an Indian and chief of the Six Nations), whom I knew well at Galena, became a member of Grant's staff in the autumn of 1862. He had a well trained mind, much natural ability, was educated as a civil engineer and had experience as such, all of which fitted him for the position of military secretary and afterwards as an aide. Captain Badeau (afterwards general by brevet,) was Grant's military secretary for two years. I knew him well at Galena when he was a clerk in a mercantile house. He returned to the state of New York, completed his education and entered the volunteer service in that state. Gen. O. E. Babcock, with whom I became well acquainted soon after the war, was derailed by Gen. Grant as his chief aide in 1863. Having received a West Point education, and belonging to the engineer corps, he possessed rare qualifications for the position he held so long. He had no superior as a staff officer in the army and was held in high esteem by his superior officers, especially by Gen. Grant.

The battle of Iuka was fought in September, 1862, but my regiment, forming a part of the reserve, did not actively participate in it. On the 3d and 4th of October occurred the bloody and decisive battle of Corinth.

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Grant had his headquarters at Jackson, forty miles north of Corinth. Gen. Rosecrans was in command of the four divisions of Union troops, two from the army of the Cumberland and two from the army of the Tennessee. The place, fortified the winter before by the Confederates under Albert Sidney Johnson and evacuated by Beauregard four months before, was attacked by a superior force under Generals Van Dorn and Price, who confidently expected to capture it. The inner fortifications had been enlarged and strengthened during the previous summer. My regiment had a sharp engagement on the afternoon of the 3d and lost heavily. Gen. Oglesby, who commanded the brigade at the critical moment when the firing was the heaviest, in the absence of his aides rode to the front to give me an order, my regiment being at the right of the brigade. While doing so he was shot below the point of the shoulder, the ball passing under the shoulder blade, lodged near the spine. He carries the ball in his body to-day. Gen. Oglesby, in delivering that order in person, did as splendid an act of personal courage as I ever saw. Gen. Hackelman, of Indiana, commanding the next brigade in line, was shot a few moments later, and the same ambulance took from the field the two officers, both believed to be mortally wounded, and what is singular, both were warm personal friends of President Lincoln. Gen. Hackelman died the next night. The next day the enemy charged our inner works in full force and with an impetuosity seldom seen, but was repulsed and compelled to retire badly demoralized, having lost in killed and wounded over one-fourth of its men. Gen. Rosecrans had specific orders from Gen. Grant that in case the enemy were defeated to pursue him promptly and vigorously. This he failed to do, although he had a division of infantry and several regiments of cavalry,

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which had been slightly engaged during the battle either day and waited until the next morning before he began the pursuit in earnest, thereby giving the enemy ample time to escape with his artillery. Gen. Grant never fully forgave Rosecrans for this virtual disobedience of orders.

Some two weeks after the battle of Corinth I was placed by Gen. Rosecrans in command of the Post of Corinth, a compliment I fully appreciated. Gen. Hamilton was assigned to the command of the troops in and about Corinth. Two weeks later he was relieved by Gen. G. M. Dodge, with whom I became well acquainted, and a mutual friendship followed which has continued to the present. Gen. Dodge was educated at the Partridge Military Academy at Norwich, Vt. Later he studied civil engineering and became proficient in that vocation. He entered the volunteer service early in the war as colonel of the Fourth Iowa infantry, and soon proved to be a most efficient officer, and commanded the Sixteenth Army corps in Sherman's march to the sea. He possessed rare practical intelligence, intense and untiring energy, was courageous to a fault, resourceful and efficient, and as a soldier in the civil war, a railroad engineer and manager, and a member of congress achieved more than a national reputation. As commander of the district of Corinth for over six months, with 25,000 troops under him, holding a section of country of great stragetic importance, he proved himself a most valuable officer to the service in the West. Gen. Grant had unbounded confidence in him as a sagacious and reliable commander.

About the close of the year 1862 the officers stationed at and near Corinth felt that something should be done to arouse the people of the western states to the importance of filling up the depleted ranks of the Western Army. A large meeting of officers was held, over

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which I had the honor to preside. Able and spirited addresses were made by Gen. E. W. Rice, colonel of the Second Iowa infantry; Gen. M. M. Bane, colonel of the Fifty-first Illinois infantry, Col. J. S. Wilcox, of the Fiftieth Illinois infantry, and a notable one by Gen. J. J. Phillips, then lieutenant colonel of the Ninth Illinois infantry, and now the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Illinois. A stirring appeal to the loyal people of the West, in the form of resolutions, was adopted. The meeting was fully reported and commented upon by the press of the West, especially by that of Chicago. The effect was that other meetings of a similar character were held at various points "along the line." I have always believed that the expressions on the part of the soldiers at the front did much good, and that the large number of recruits sent to the front in the early spring of 1863 was in part, at least, the result of the action then taken.

A pleasant incident to me occurred when I was in command of the Post of Corinth. Late one afternoon a gentleman called at headquarters on business. He gave his name as Knease, of Cincinnati, Ohio. Having finished our business, I remarked that his name was an unusual one, and that I had never seen nor heard it but once before; that when I was a young man, not yet of age, a friend of mine, Major Bender, a young civil enginer in the service of the government at Galena, frequently sang "Ben Bolt," a song much in favor then, marvelously well. He had a fine voice, which he accompanied with the guitar; that the author of the music of the song bore his name. He seemed a little surprised and remarked that he was the author of the music of "Ben Bolt." He said that he had come across the poem "Ben Bolt," written by Dr. William Dunn English, of New Jersey, (afterwards a member of congress),

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was struck with its beauty and set it to music. He was at the time connected with Christie's celebrated minstrel troupe; that he sang it on the stage for years, and that it was usualy enthusiastically received by an appreciative public. After some further conversation, I asked him to sing it for me, adding that I had a piano in the next room. He cheerfully complied, with the remark "that he did not sing as well as when he was younger." Mr. Knease sang this beautiful ballad, so well known and admired since it was brought out by Mr. De Maurier in his "Trilby," better than I had ever heard it before. He was good enough to sing for me several other songs of his own composing. Knease died many years ago. Like many other men of genius, he was good to everyone except himself.

One day in the early summer of 1862 I called at Gen. Grant's headquarters, just out of Corinth, and found Gen. Rawlins alone. He said, after some conversation: "By the bye, colonel, I have just received a letter from our good old friend, Parson Kent, of Galena. Some fool or other has told him that I was swearing a good deal." He handed me the letter, saying "read it." I did so. It was a kind letter, expressing regret to learn that he (Rawlins) was in the habit of using profane language — that it was a bad habit, unchristian and wicked, and that he hoped and prayed he would give up the practice. On my returning the letter to him, Rawlins said: "It is very kind in the old Christian man to write me in that way. He is right, but I tell you, colonel," bringing his fist down on the table, "there is no use talking. I'll be — if an army like this can be run without some swearing."

In the early part of November, 1863, Gen. G. M. Dodge was ordered to march his large division from Corinth eastward to Pulaski, Tenn., some seventy-five miles

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south of Nashville, My regiment belonged to his command, and soon after its arrival at Pulaski I was ordered to take it to the outpost of Richland, some six miles south of Pulaski on the railroad, to hold the place with one other point further south on the railroad. In December the government decided to ask the enlisted men of all regiments mustered into the service in the summer of 1861 to veteranize, i. e. to enlist for the war, giving all the men who thus re-enlisted a thirty days' furlough and transportation to their homes and return. My regiment, I found to my gratification, re-enlisted in greater proportion than any other regiment in the division, and also that my old Galena company did so almost in a body. This division had been actively engaged in fortifying the Post of Pulaski, and in foraging in the country lying south and east of there.

On the l5th day of December I was nominated by the President brigadier general of United States volunteers. This promotion gratified me exceedingly, for I had been at the head of my regiment as colonel for over two years, leading it in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Siege of Corinth, Iuka and in the battle of Corinth, and having been absent from it on leave of absence only thirty days in all that time. Near the close of the month I reported to Gen. Grant at Nashville for assignment to duty. I left my old regiment with regret. I had labored hard and unremittingly from the beginning to make it an efficient body of soldiers. As a consequence, it had the reputation of being one of the best drilled, disciplined and efficient regiments in the Army of the Tennessee. Its conduct in all the battles in which it took part was exceedingly creditable to all its officers and men. It was always a favorite with the brigade and division commanders, and was an especial favorite with the veteran commander, Gen. Charles F. Smith. I am pleased to be able to say that it maintained its reputation in its march to the sea with the Gen. Sherman expedition and received great praise for its gallant conduct in the battle of Altoona.

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Chapter VII.

CIVIL WAR, 1863-65.

Soon after my promotion as brigadier general. I reported to Gen. Grant at Nashville early in January, 1864, for assignment to duty. He congratulated me on my well-deserved promotion, and said he had decided to assign me to a position which, without being arduous, would require close attention to details. It was to superintend the recruiting and organizing of colored troops in Tennessee and West Kentucky, a work already begun and which needed an energetic and discriminating officer at its head. He said that if I had any objection to doing the work he would assign me to some other duty. I replied that if he believed I was fitted to do it, to command me. He then said that it was the policy of the government, which he fully endorsed, to place a large force of colored troops in the service at once; that the experiment of using the colored men of the South in the army so far had proved satisfactory. After a pause, he added: "I believe the colored man will make a good soldier. He has been accustomed all his, life to lean on the white man, and if a good officer is placed over him, he will learn readily and make an efficient soldier."

My headquarters were to be at Memphis, and I was to report to Gen. Lorenzo Thomas, the adjutant general of the United States army, who had been placed by the War department in charge of the entire work of recruiting and organizing the colored troops of the South. After a brief leave of absence to my home in Illinois, I

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selected my staff officers and established my headquarters at Memphis. With the consent of Gen. Lorenzo Thomas, I had Gen. Stephen A. Hurlbut, the commander of the district of Memphis, appoint a board of seven officers, representing the several arms of the service, with Col. Turner of the Eightieth Illinois infantry, as president, to examine enlisted men and officers for appointment in the regiments of colored troops. After a rigid examination, the board would report to me the rank the applicant was entitled to, recommending his appointment, which I usually approved and forwarded to the War Department at Washington, upon which it issued a commission. The regimental and company officers of all volunteer regiments from the various states were commissioned by the governors of the respective states, but with colored troops raised in the states which had seceded all commissions were issued by the war department. I had recruiting stations at Knoxville, Chattanooga, Nashville, Corinth, Columbus, Ky., Memphis and other places, under competent officers. In April, Major Booth, with a battalion of colored troops from my command, was sent to Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi river 100 miles above Memphis, to garrison the place. Soon after his occupancy of the fort, and before its new earthworks had been completed, he was attacked by a superior force of Gen. Forest's cavalry, under command of Colonel (afterwards General) Chalmers, who, after a hotly contested fight, captured the place and killed, in a most brutal manner, the major, his officers and every enlisted man. The act was a disgrace to the civilization of the age.

Soon after I had begun my work at Memphis I received a call from my friend, Gen. Sherman. After he had greeted me, he said in his usual earnest manner: "Well, Chetlain, you have undertaken the work of making soldiers of colored men. You have a big job on

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your hands. The colored man will make a fairly good soldier, but it will take time. Don't be too sanguine. If you make an efficient soldier of him in a year or a year and a half you will be doing well. I wish you success." Comparing Grant's and Sherman's opinion of the colored man's adaptability to make a soldier, Grant was right rather than Sherman, as was subsequently proven.

In the month of April my old, friend, Gen. C. C. Washburn, succeeded Gen. S. A. Hurlbut as commander of the district of Memphis. The change gratified me greatly. He was thoroughly in accord with the work in which I was engaged, and afforded me every facility in his power to advance it. The district was in many respects a difficult one to command, or rather to control, as Memphis with Vicksburg were the principal shipping points for cotton on the river between Cairo and New Orleans. Gen. Washburn was not only an able military man, but possessed of unusual administrative ability and great business experience, which gave him an advantage over the ordinary military officer. His wise and conservative administration of affairs, in his district, soon became apparent. It can in truth be said that his administration covering the greater part of a year, was not only successful, but also a "clean one," all of which was well known and appreciated at Washington.

I had as staff officers at Memphis, Major Geo. L. Paddock, now a well known and successful lawyer in Chicago, as Military Inspector; Lieutenant (afterwards Major) George Mason, now a prominent iron manufacturer in Chicago, and Lieutenant (afterwards Captain) Chas. P. Brown, now a banker in Ottumwa, la., as aides, both brave, energetic and efficient officers; Dr. John Rush, a physician and surgeon of experience and ability from Philadelphia, as medical inspector; Captain C. W. W.

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Clark as Quartermaster, and Captain (afterwards Major) Geo. B. Halstead as Assistant Adjutant General. Captain Halstead was sent to me by Gen. Lorenzo Thomas from Washington. He was a man of broad education, of fine natural ability and of genial disposition, belonging to an old and wealthy family of Newark, N. J., and thoroughly interested in the work I was doing, as were also my other staff officers. He had an older brother, a man of culture and high social standing, like himself, who sometime after the war, for reasons I never learned, left his home and friends and made his way to Lake Minnetonka, Minn., bought a small island in the lake, built a little log cabin on it and lived there alone, the life of a hermit, seldom going out excepting to get his mail and supplies at the village of Excelsior, a few miles distant. After several years of seclusion in his island home he died. My former staff officer, Major Halstead, who was unmarried, went to his brother's old home, took up his manner of living and is there now at the "Hermitage" in good health and always glad to see his former army comrades. He is still the handsome, courtly and genial gentleman of the long ago. He occasionally attends army reunions at St. Paul and Minneapolis.

Near the close of the month of June, my work in recruiting and organizing colored troops had proved so decidedly successful, that it was deemed best at Washington to extend my field of operation over central and east Kentucky. I received an order to that effect and moved my headquarters to Louisville. The state of Kentucky not having seceded, retained its place in the Union, and its representatives their seats in congress. After the confederate army had invaded the state, marshal law was declared. The policy of placing colored troops in the army was combatted by the Kentuckians. They favored voluntary but not forced enlistments. As soon, therefore

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as I began my work of forcing able bodied colored men into the Union ranks, a vigorous protest was made by citizens, and by the Kentucky members of congress. Our method of recruiting was simple. A company of colored troops, fully equipped, would be sent to a certain section of the state, with orders to bring in all colored men found of suitable age and of apparent good health and physique. After an examination by an army surgeon, all the rejected were sent back to their homes. The owners of those accepted as fit for service had a receipt given to them, with the proviso inserted that all owners would when the time came be paid by the government, $300, for each slave, provided they proved their loyalty to it. Recruiting stations were established at Louisville, Owensboro and other points in the state.

By the 4th of July we had at Louisville one full regiment, armed, uniformed and fairly well drilled, and two regiments more than half filled, all officered with men who had had experience in the service. Colonel Bartholomew, of the full regiment, made application to be permitted to take his regiment in the forenoon of the 4th, to a large picnic to be given by colored people in the vicinity of the city which was granted. As the regiment would have to march through the heart of the city, and the fact; became known, a committee of leading citizens called upon me to protest against it, fearing that this display of colored troops in the city might lead to riot and bloodshed. I answered that these were United States troops, who had a right to pass through their city. I told the committee that permission had been granted to the regiment and that I hoped their citizens would have the good sense not to interfere with it. I sent for Col. Bartholomew and gave him instructions to have each man in the regiment furnished with ten rounds of ammunition, and if interfered with or attacked by a mob under no circumstances

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were the men to fire unless so ordered by an officer. The regiment marched by fours down the principal street in fine order and presented a splendid appearance. It was as fine a body of men physically as I had ever seen. The men were newly uniformed with new arms and all wore white cotton gloves. The streets were crowded with people, but all was as quiet as if it had been a funeral procession. After the regiment had passed out of sight, the crowd became boisterous, protesting vehemently at the insult which had been given the people of Louisville. After the picnic which was attended by three to four thousand colored people, and was a quiet and well conducted affair, the regiment, returned to its quarters by another route. The above incident shows the animus of the people of the "loyal?" state of Kentucky, at that time.

Soon after the occurrence related above, a committee of leading citizens, mostly from Louisville, went to Washington, and getting the members of congress from the state to join them went to President Lincoln and laid their grievances before him, representing that the methods now practiced in their state of taking their best hands from their tobacco fields for the army was wrong and would soon ruin every tobacco grower in the state. The result was, that the War Department before the middle of August revoked the order for recruiting in central and east Kentucky and ordered me back to Memphis to continue my work in Tennessee and west Kentucky. In less than two months there had been recruited at the Louisville and Owensboro stations, over three full regiments of Infantry composed of a superior class of men.

In compliance with the order I moved my headquarters to Memphis with my adjutant and quartermaster in charge. With the rest of the staff officers I made a thorough inspection of the colored troops

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stationed at Louisville, Nashville, Johnsonville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Athens Ala., Paducah and Columbus, ending with the four regiments at Memphis. Two regiments of infantry passed a particularly creditable inspection; one at Nashville, was commanded by Col. W. R. Shafter a young officer of rare intelligence, energy and discrimination. I took the occasion to compliment him on the admirable condition of his regiment. This officer in 1867 received a captain's commission in the regular army. I am greatly gratified to know that as a Major General of volunteers, he commanded the army of invasion against Santiago de Cuba, and acheived a splendid victory. The other regimant at Chattanooga, was commanded by Col. T. J. Morgan, who at the battle of Nashville won great honor while commanding a brigade of four colored regiments, capturing an important earthwork, and with it a battery of light artillery. Colonel (afterwards General) Morgan was honored by President Harrison with the appointment of Superintendent of Indian Affairs. He served on Gen. O. O. Howard's staff as aide, before he was appointed Colonel of a colored regiment. He was highly educated, brave and efficient as a staff officer. After the war he became widely known as an advanced educator. I will add that the regiments of heavy artilery at Columbus and Fort Pickering, Memphis, passed a very creditable inspection. Colonel Jas. MeArthur of the former and Colonel Kupner of the latter were able and efficient officers. The former was a brother of Gen. John McArthur.

Before the close of the year 1864 I found I had reporting to me eighteen regiments of infantry, three regiments of heavy artillery with 1,700 men in each, and one battery of light artillery, nearly all of which had been recruited during the nine months of my active service as superintendent. At this time the work of recruiting was deemed completed, and I was relieved from

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further service. Not many months after I was, without solicitation, promoted to major general by brevet for meritorious services.

Gen. Lorenzo Thomas, a few months later, when making his final report to the War Department of the work done by him as general superintendent, said: "Brigadier General Chetlain reported tome and I assigned him as superintendent of the recruiting service in Tennessee and Kentucky. He proved a most valuable officer, for I found him to possess both intelligence and zeal, with a rare qualification for the organization of troops. He never failed in any duty he was assigned, either as superintendent or inspector, to which latter duty I assigned him. I am gratified that he was subsequently rewarded by a brevet major general."

The average citizen of to-day, even among those who took an active part in the late civil war, has no correct idea of the number of colored men enlisted as soldiers. Gen. Lorenzo Thomas informed me in November, 1864, that reports showed that there were 179,000 colored soldiers fit for duty, and, adding the disabled and absent on furlough, the total would have been about 200,000, a large army of itself, numbering nearly one-sixth of the entire Union army. When the policy of the government was first promulgated, it met with opposition both in and out of the army. The argument was that this was a white man's war and should be fought out by white men.

I favored the policy at an early date, and while commanding the post at Corinth near the close of 1862 superintended the recruiting and organizing of the first regiment of colored troops in the West north of New Orleans. I believed then, that as the negroes or colored people were to be freed as a result of the war, it was but fair that they should fight for their freedom by taking

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part as soldiers in effecting that result. During my service as superintendent I addressed scores of meetings of these people, giving them such advice as I thought they needed. The colored soldiers, as the representatives of over 4,000,000 slaves, who served in the Union army during the war, deserve great credit for what they did to save the Union.

Some time in July 1864 a bold dash was made at day-break by a company of Gen. Forrest's cavalry into Memphis. Their object was clearly not to fight, pillage or destroy property, but to capture the general commanding and other general officers supposad to be in Memphis. Gen. Washburn's headquarters were visited first. Before the raiders could reach his room he had hastily put on citizen's dress, quietly passed out of the back door into an alley, down the alley a few blocks to the river, and down the river bank a half mile to Fort Pickering, The raiders, failing to get the general in command, hastily went to the Gayoso hotel near by, where Gen. Hurlbut was stopping, only to find that he had gone to the house of a friend for the night. They then proceeded to my old headquarters, where they were told that I had left the city some weeks before. The discomfitted raiders then beat a hasty retreat, losing a few men in passing through the picket line. While in Gen. Washburn's headquarters they captured his best uniform. The story that was afterwards current that the general had escaped in a citizen's coat, a stove-pipe hat and a pair of boots is a myth. A few days after the raid Gen. Forrest, under a flag of truce, sent to Gen. Washburn his uniform, with a note saying that he had sent his men to capture him, not his clothes. Not to be outdone by Gen. Forrest in high-toned generosity, he went to the general's former tailor in Memphis (Forrest was a cotton broker in Memphis before the war) and ordered for him a uniform of

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the best material, which he had sent to him by flag of truce, with a letter acknowledging his generosity, etc. It is said the letters which passed between these officers were "rich, rare and racy." A pity they had not been given to the public.

About the middle of October I received a leave of absence for fifteen days to go to my home at Galena to assist my old friend, E. B. Washburne, M. C., in his canvass for member of congress and to vote at the fall election. While I was at Galena a member of congress (now United States senator), W. B. Allison, of Iowa, came there to assist his old friend, Mr. Washburne, in his canvass. I accompanied him in his tour through the county. We were out together three days, speaking every afternoon and evening. During that time I became well acquainted with him. I found him posseesed of wide experience, sound judgment and a most gracious and winning manner. Without being a great orator, he had a way of discussing issues and stating facts that made his speeches strong and convincing. Ever since, I have regarded him as one of the ablest, most conservative reliable and efficient members of our national legislature. I was strongly in favor of his nomination in 1895 for President.

In January, 1865, I was appointed commander of the post and forces of Memphis to succeed Gen. R. P. Buckland of Ohio, who had a splendid record in the war and who had been preceded by Gen. J. C. Veatch, of Indiana, an officer of rare ability, and who up to that time, had won an enviable reputation on the battle field. The troops in my command consisted of a division of twelve regiments of infantry, eight of which were white and four colored, including the regiment of heavy artillery at Fort Pickering, four batteries of light artillery and two regiments of cavalry. This was the third time

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I had been placed in command of a post — Smithland, Corinth and now Memphis. It seems that I had earned the reputation of being a good administrative officer which no doubt accounted for this last appointment. The duties of my new position I knew would be arduous and at times complicated. Soon after I assumed this command my old friend, Gen. Washburn, was relieved and sent to Vicksburg to command that district, and Gen. N. T. J. Dana was appointed to succeed him at Memphis.

Near the close of March, 1865, I went to Galena on a short leave of absence, and on the 6th day of April 1 was married to Mrs. Annie M. Smith, the daughter of Mr. John Edwards, an old and prominent citizen of Rockford, Ill., and the widow of Colonel Melancthon Smith, who was killed at Vicksburg in June, 1863, while leading a portion of his regiment, the Forty-fifth Illinois, in an assault on Fort Hill after it had been blown up and after he had entered it. Lieut. Col. Smith was an officer of marked ability and a favorite with Gen. Grant. He was a practicing lawyer at the Rockford bar before the war, and was gifted as a writer and orator. During his two years of service he achieved a splendid reputation for thorough knowledge of his duties, his cool courage, general efficiency and good fellowship. For some time before the war he had been a member of Ellsworths' company of Zouaves. His widow, whom I married, was a lady of attractive personality, of many accomplishments, of much will force, tactful and self-reliant. Colonel Smith had been appointed postmaster at Rockford and on entering the volunteer service had appointed his wife his deputy. Alter his death she was appointed to fill the office by President Lincoln, which was an innovation, as no other woman had ever before been appointed postmistress.

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After my marriage I returned to Memphis, taking my wife with me. The next day after my return President Lincoln was assassinated. The excitement in Memphis on the receipt of the sad news was intense. I called on Gen. Washburn, who commanded the district, and we arranged for holding a mass meeting in Jackson Square the next day (Sunday) to give expression to the feeling of grief felt by all over the great national calamity. I was selected to preside at the meeting. Gen. C. C. Washburn made the first address. He was followed by Gen. N. P. Banks, who had arrived by boat at Memphis the morning of the day of the meeting, on his way to New Orleans. His address was one of rare force and eloquence. The audience of over 10,000 people was composed of soldiers and citizens, many of the latter being colored people, who were visibly affected by the addresses made. The old residents of Memphis were particularly interested in the sad event, as Vice President Andrew Johnson, a Tennesseean, had by it become President of the United States.

In the month of June Gen. Washburn, who at his own request was about to be mustered out of the service desired to meet the citizens of his district to deliver a farewell address. A mass meeting of citizens, white and colored, was called at La Grange, forty miles east of Memphis. The meeting was attended by at least 10,000 people. Gen. Washburn was accompanied by Gen. John E. Smith and myself. In his address he gave all much timely advice, and closed by speaking on the subject of suffrage. He gave utterance to advanced and radical ideas. He favored giving all the colored men of the South the privilege of voting at all elections at once and all in the South who had been disloyal to the government to be debarred from voting for five years,

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after which all would be granted the privilege who would take the oath of allegiance to the government. His remarks were enthusiastically received by the colored people, but were evidently distasteful to most of the whites. When I spoke, following the General, I, too, touched upon the all-absorbing question of suffrage. I stated in substance that I believed in giving the ballot to all colored ex-soldiers and to all colored men who could read or who had property to the amount of say $250. All the white men who had been in the Confederate army or who had been disloyal to the government during the war, were to be prohibited from voting for five years at least, after which all who would take the oath of allegiance to the government would be allowed to vote. My conviction was that the conditions imposed upon the colored men to be able to read or to own property would be an incentive to all who were debarred to learn to read or accumulate a little property in order to be entitled to the ballot. Subsequent events proved that Gen. Washburn was on the popular side of the question, and yet, as the dreary days of reconstruction passed by I felt that had my plan been adopted it would have been for the good of the colored people in the South in the end.

Gen. John E. Smith, who was to succeed Gen. Washburn as commander of the district of Memphis, was introduced and spoke briefly. Gen. Smith was an old friend and townsman of mine, who had been the Colonel of the Forty-fifth Illinois Infantry (the Leadmine regiment,) in 1861 and 1862, and proved himself an officer of superior ability and efficiency. He entered the regular army in 1867 as colonel of the Twenty-seventh infantry, and before his retirement was made a Brigadier General in the United States army. He had been a brigadier general and a major general by brevet in the volunteer service.

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In the early part of 1864, when Gen. Sherman was in command of the Department of the Mississippi with headquarters at Nashville, with his usual practical sense he issued an order compelling all male citizens of Memphis of proper age, without regard to color, to serve in the militia, and officers of the Union army were detailed to organize and command them. Five full regiments (one of which was colored); were soon organized and armed. Captain Decatur G. Chapin, of Galena, Ill., an intelligent, active and painstaking officer, was detailed to organize and command the colored regiment, the only one of the five composed entirely of men loyal to the Union. Gen. Sherman intended that in case of a raid, like that of Forrest's cavalry, or a general attack on Memphis, the enemy should be met and resisted, in part at least, by the militia or "Home Guards." In the spring of 1865 Colonel Von Schroeder, the Inspector General of the Department, came to Memphis to inspect my division. After the inspection, he reported my command in excellent condition, and added that the four colored regiments passed a better inspection than some of the white regiments. They were better drilled and their quarters were in better condition, probably owing to the more careful attention of their company officers.

In the summer of 1864 my only son, then in the preparatory department of the University of Wisconsin, spent his summer vacation with me at Memphis. He was in his fifteenth year and well grown for his age. I appointed him a volunteer aide on my staff and he soon proved himself of valuable assistance to me. He acquired much information during his brief service which he claims was of value to him in after years.

In the early summer of 1865 I received a visit from Col. Frank A. Eastman of Chicago who had recently been married to Miss Gertrude Barrett of Chicago, whose father

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had been a wholesale clothing merchant in Galena, in 1854-55. Eastman started life as a newspaper man and later became a wholesale merchant in Chicago. During the war he was elected to the State Senate of Illinois, and was appointed by President Grant during his first administration, Postmaster of Chicago. After his term of office had expired, he returned to his first love, "the newspaper," and was on the editorial staff of the Chicago Times for several years. He has continued as a newspaper writer to the present time. Col. Eastman has great ability as a writer, always wielding a graceful and forcible pen. He is a politician, but never a partisan, and is a gentleman of broad education, of wide and varied information, courteous, of a reticent dispositon and of uncompromising integrity.

In October 1865, I was relieved of the command of the post and forces of Memphis, and ordered to report to Gen. Thomas commanding the Department of the Mississippi with headquarters at Nashville, for assignment to duty. I was ordered to report to Gen. Wood, commanding the Department of the Gulf, at Mobile, who assigned me to the central District of Alabama with headquarters at Taladega. I succeded Gen. Daviess who had been assigned to the southern District of Alabama, with headquarters at Montgomery, I found the command in every way an agreeable one, being composed of several regiments of Infantry and a portion of Gen. Hatch's division of Cavalry. The district had in it a few union men, but the greater part had either been southern sympathizers or had been actively engaged in the confederate army. All however accepted the new order of things, and were earnestly trying to repair the fortunes they had wrecked during the war.

Toward the close of the year the colored people, especially those in the southern half of my district, in

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which lies a part of the "cane brake" or cotton growing section of Alabama, became dissatisfied and were unwilling to enter into contract to work on the cotton plantations during the succeeding year. They had imbibed the erronious idea that the government intended to give the head of every family a mule, a cow, farming implements and a few acres of ground, which they would cultivate and be independent of the white planters. I turned my attention to this class of people, called them together when I could, explained to them the true condition of affairs and advised them to make contracts at once with the planters for the ensuing year. My advice was generally heeded, and when this was evident to the planters, I had calls from all parts of my district to address the colored people. The fact was made known to Gen. Thomas at Nashville, by the planters, who telegraphed me to go to any part of my district, or beyond it, where I thought addresses to the colored people would do good, and thus enlarge the work I had begun in Taladega and the adjoining counties. The planters afforded me every facility in their power to carry on the work and were grateful to me for what I was doing, for I seemed to be a Godsend to them. Gen. Daviess, of the Montgomery Dictrict, had detailed officers from the Freedmen's Bureau, who did work in his district with similar results. Among the planters who expressed a grateful appreciation of my services was Gen. Hardee, of the Confederate army, who had a large cotton plantation in Green county in the southern part of my district.

In the month of January, 1866, many regiments of the volunteer service having been mustered out, resulting in the consolidation of several districts, I, with many other general officers, was mustered out of the service. I was strongly urged by leading citizens in my district to remain in Alabama, where I had become favorably

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known, and engage in cotton planting, as many other ex-officers of the Union Army were doing. My wife's health not being of the best, and my own inclination to live in the North rather than in the South, induced me to return home, after an active service in the Union army of four years and nine months. The summer of 1866 I spent in looking up the loose ends of a business I had left five years before. The succeeding winter we spent in Washington, where we met many friends and acquaintances.

The following Interesting incident occurred during that winter at a reception given by the Secretary of the Treasury, Hon. S. P. Chase, and presided over by his daughter Mrs. Sprague. I had the honor of being presented to Prof. Agassiz, then at the height of his fame. As the professor was a Swiss, born in the canton of Freibourg, adjoining that of Neuchatel, where my parents were born, I alluded to the fact, expressing my gratification at meeting him and making his acquaintance. He soon turned to war matters and spoke of the Swiss officers who had served in the civil war. I said that he well knew that there were many of them who had served as regimental and staff officers, but that there were but three general officers, General John E. Smith and myself in the Union army, both from the same town and old friends, and at the close of the war Major Generals by brevet. Gen. Smith was born in Philadelphia, Pa., and I was born in St. Louis, Mo., the year after my parents had located there. Our parents were French-Swiss. The third was Gen. Zollicoffer, a German-Swiss of Nashville, Tenn., and a prominent citizen, who entered the Confederate army and was killed in battle in 1862. The professor became much interested in my statement, and said: "Well, general, we can thank God that two of the three were in the Union army and that

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both are living." I then said that there was another "Switzer" living in Chicago, who was born in Switzerland and who served in the Union army all through the war, a highly intelligent, brave and efficient officer, Gen. Herman Lieb, who did some staff duty and was the colonel of a cavalry regiment and brevetted a Brigadier General, for meritorious services, at the close of the war, who, I thought, ought also to be classed as a general officer of Swiss parentage. I was glad to make the acquaintance of this distinguished naturalist of world-wide renown.

In 1867 Gen. John E. Smith, the United States Assessor of Internal Revenue for Utah, having been appointed a colonel in the regular army resigned his position in Utah. I was induced by the Utah delegate to congress to accept the appointment as Gen. Smith's successor, and early in March with my wife started for Utah, going by railroad to the Platte river and then by stage via Denver. The snow in the mountains had fallen to an unusual depth that spring, and the trip to Salt Lake City was made in an open sleigh, which carried the mail. We traveled mostly by day and rested at night.

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Chapter VIII.

UTAH, 1867-9 — THE MORMONS AND MORMONISM.

I reached Salt Lake City, to which place I had been appointed to fill the position of United States Assessor of Internal Revenue, at the close of the month of March, 1867. While descending the western slope of the Wasatch mountains I looked for the first time upon the great valley, forty by fifteen miles in extent, at the northern part of which is Salt Lake City, and eight miles west of it is the Great Salt Lake. The view was one of rare beauty and grandeur. The broad valley was already tinged with the delicate green of early spring and the numerous orchards of fruit trees were in bloom. I could easily understand how the vanguard of the Mormon emigration in 1847, with Brigham Young, "the seer and prophet" at its head, was enchanted and decided to take and occupy "the promised land," the "Zion of the Lord." At that time (1867) Salt Lake City, built on a gentle slope of great extent at the northern end of the valley through which flows the river Jordan and under the shadow of Mount Pisgah, had a population of nearly 20,000 and the territory of Utah about 120,000, nearly one-third of whom were emigrants brought from various foreign countries by the "perpetual emigration fund" of the church.

When I was receiving my instructions at Washington, prior to my departure for Utah, I was informed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Mr. Rollins, that he desired me to use diligence in getting all the revenue

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which rightfully belonged to the government and to avoid taking sides with the Mormons or the anti-Mormons (Gentiles); that the fight there between these factions had been bitter in the past and he feared the efficiency of the assessor might be impaired and the revenue suffer. Soon after I had assumed my official duties I made a formal call upon Brigham Young, who, as President of the Council of the Mormon church was addressed as "President" by some, and having been governor of the territory by appointment of President Fillmore, was addressed as "Governor." by others. I preferred to use the latter title. Governor Young received me cordially and we had a long talk about my duties as assessor. I stated to him frankly that in coming to the Territory as a government official I had no prejudices and intended to treat Mormons and Gentiles alike, just as I would the people of any other state or territory. He replied: "You are right, and you can depend upon me to help you all I can. I believe our people will be fair and honest in making their returns to you."

I received my first impression of this singular man during that interview. He was a little reticent at first, but soon talked freely and well. In physique he was of medium height and somewhat stout, with rather small, clear bluish eyes, and a face indicative of shrewdness, firmness and force. His language in conversation was such as to make his idea clear and no more. He was never verbose. I soon afterwards learned that as a business man he had few equals in the great far West. To illustrate his business methods, I will state that in 1846, when the Mormons were sojourning temporarily at Fremont, near to and west of Omaha, Major Kearney, of the United States army, in behalf of the government, called upon Brigham Young, the head of the Mormon church, and asked if he could furnish from his young men a

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batallion of 500 for service in the Mexican war, Brigham Young answered: Yes, you shall have them in three days. The batallion was ready on time and was mustered into the volunteer service.

When the Union Pacific railroad was being constructed in 1868-69, Brigham Young took a contract for grading over 100 miles of road across the Wasatch mountains, from just west of Fort Bridger to the north end of Great Salt Lake, and one of the directors of the road told me that he was present when Governor Young was talking with the committee of directors about the contract, and that all agreed that he was a shrewd, broad-gauged business man, who, without having studied civil engineering or assisted in railroad construction seemed to know more about the details of railroad construction than the average expert. He had a temper hard to control at times, and when he was deeply angered he was a fully developed tornado. He was naturally disposed to treat everybody well, and was kind and generous to his friends, but bitter and unrelenting to any one he be believed to be his enemy. He asked no one to accept his faith, but simply desired to be let alone in his belief.

Governor Brigham Young was, by intuition, a good judge of men. I noticed that not only in the selection of men for positions in the church, but also in the choice of agents to manage business affairs, such as the directors of "Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution," an immense wholesale establishment, his judgment seemed unerring. That his word was law in Utah, in state as well as in church matters, was patent to every one. The strange thing was that the men he thus controlled were not "weaklings" in intellect, or inexperienced, but men of brain force, thorough knowledge of affairs, and who would have been regarded as strong men in any community. Such men as Clawson,

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Hooper, Jennings, Gen. Eldridge, formerly president of the Deseret National Bank, Farr, Godbe, Gen. Burton of the militia, Gen, Wells, former mayor, George A. Smith, Little, Hills and others I might mention, were all levelheaded, shrewd, aggressive and successful men.

One of the remarkable schemes inaugurated at an early time by Governor Young was the "Perpetual Emigration Fund" of the church, to bring to Utah emigrant converts to the Mormon church from foreign countries, mostly from Europe and Great Britian. This fund has always been large, being a percentage of the annual tithing paid by the members of the church. The missionaries (all men), sent out to all parts of the world, received no pay for their services. When I was in Utah there were about one thousand thus employed. The usual term of service was three years: The converts, when desiring to emigrate were sent to some seaport in the United States, and from there in charge of an agent or missionary were taken to Utah. Probably three-fourths of all these emigrants were from the laboring classes, and a large part people utterly destitute and belonging to the very lowest classes. Upon their arrival in Utah, if the head of a family, he was sent to some locality selected by the managers, where he was placed in charge of the bishop of the district, put upon a piece of land ten to twenty acres in extent, an adobe house was built for him, a yoke of oxen, a wagon, a cow and a few pigs and sheep were given, or sold to him on long credit. The bishop or his agent taught him when and how to plant his seed, how to cultivate the soil, irrigate his crops, etc. By this careful training these emigrants became in a few years well-to-do farmers. Such of the emigrants as had trades were sent out and put to work in places where they were needed. Single persons were given employment on farms or in factories. The schools

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in the territory were numerous and fairly good. This system of emigration had then been going on successfully for nearly twenty years, and is still carried on. It was estimated in 1868 that nearly one-third of the population of the territory had been brought into it by the aid of the Emigration fund of the church. However objectionable Mormonism may have been to the average citizen of the United States, one thing must be clear to him, and that is that the moral, intellectual, and certainly the worldly condition of the emigrant has been immensely improved. And here let me say that in my two years' stay in Salt Lake City I never saw so little open immorality in a city of 20,000 inhabitants as in that city, and I will add that when the people of that Territory made their returns to the United States Assessor they were, I believe, as fair and honest in making them as the people of any other state or territory. Moreover, I was seldom the guest of a Mormon family in any part of Utah, which did not have prayers offered at least once a day, and no meal was taken without the blessing being asked at table by the head of the family. I am no apologist for Mormonism, nor for its creed or practices, but the facts I have stated should not be ignored by the Christian and philanthropist. But few of their disagreements are ever taken to the courts of justice. They are usually settled by mutual friends.

The creed of the Mormon church is a very singular one. In some of its essentials it is not unlike that of many of our evangelical churches. When I went to Utah I resolved to familiarize myself with its creed. I had access to one of the best libraries in the city and began to study carefully the works of Parley Pratts, "Key to Theology," "Celestial Marriage" and "Materialism," and the standard works of the church, viz: "The Doctrines," "Covenant" and the "Book of Mormons".

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The last named has never supplanted the Bible in the Mormon church. It is an addenda, much as the Apocrapha of the Bible, which has always been regarded as a portion of the sacred writings by certain theologians, and as a history of what is claimed to have been a portion of the ancient Hebrews. A fact not generally known is that the Book of Mormon strictly forbids concubinage and the marrying of more than one wife. Polygamy was revealed to the head of the Mormon church in the latter part of the '40s, but was not given to that body until 1850.

On inquiry I found that the creed of the church had never been formulated, so I set about the rather difficult task of doing it and brought it out under twenty heads or articles. In brief, the church of "Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints" believes and teaches the doctrine of the Trinity, of future reward and punishment, faith and good works necessary to salvation, the second coming of Christ, and also materialism. It does not believe in original sin — that in "Adam's fall we sinned all." It believes in an intermediate place to which all at death go, and where the true gospel is preached. All who accept this gospel will be saved, and all who reject it will be eternally damned. It believes in miracles and the healing of the sick by prayer and the laying on of hands, in polygamy, in celestial marriage, and that God now reveals his will to his chosen people as in the days of old. The belief in celestial marriage is not accepted generally by the church, nor is that in regard to polygamy, notably by the Joseph Smith branch of the Mormon church. I placed my summary of the creed of the church in the hands of Elder George Q. Cannon, one of the most learned theologians in the church, for revision, who after careful reading, said it was all right, except that the doctrine of celestial marriage was not generally accepted by the church.

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Twenty years before I went to Utah the Mormons made their advent into the Salt Lake valley and began the process of reclaiming an arid wilderness in the fastnesses of the mountains. Twenty years of judiciously directed work had wrought wonders. Many of the valleys in the mountains in all parts of that widely extended territory had been made to bloom like a garden, and the inhabitants appeared to be healthy, prosperous and contented. When I came there the friction between the Mormons and Gentiles in Salt Lake City had to a great extent ceased. After the Mormon troubles with the government in 1856, sometimes called the "Mormon Rebellion," while Brigham Young was territorial governor, and United States troops were stationed at Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, there came with them many Gentiles, directly and indirectly connected with the army, and many others to engage in trading, to practice their professions, with some sporting men and women of questionable character. The Mormons, when in control of affairs in the years before had prohibited the sale and manufacture of spirituous and malt liquors. The Gentiles began to do both. Serious trouble followed and much bad blood was engendered, When I arrived there ten years later, although there was still much friction between the factions, matters were comparatively quiet. That the Mormons had been harsh and unfair in their treatment of resident Gentiles during the earlier part of the twenty years is no doubt true.

It must not be forgotten, however, that the Mormons sought out this remote mountain region to escape what they deemed persecution in Ohio, Missouri and Illinois, where they could worship God in peace and according to the dictates of their consciences. The Mormon church was organized at Kirtland, Ohio, in the early '30s. They claim that they were not well received or

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treated kindly by that people. A portion of them, led by Brigham Young, removed to Far West, Mo. There they were treated worse than in Ohio, and were expelled from the state by order of the governor, who threatened to use the militia of the state to enforce his order of expulsion. From Far West and other places in Missouri they went in a body to Hancock county, Ill., locating chiefly at Nauvoo, where they erected a costly church or massive edifice known as the "Temple." They increased rapidly in numbers and wealth and became a potent political power. The "Prophet and Seer," Joseph Smith, was at the head of the church. Serious disagreements arose between the Mormons and the citizens of Nauvoo and the adjacent towns, ending in open conflict. The state, through its governor, sent militia to the disturbed district. Mob violence followed, and Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were murdered while under arrest and in prison and the lives of leading Mormons were threatened. They were notified that they must leave or take the consequence. They might not always have acted wisely or well since settling in Nauvoo and its vicinity. Some of them may have acted badly, but the conduct of their townsmen and neighbors cannot be palliated or justified. Moreover, it must be borne in mind that in all these years polygamy was not a part of the Mormon creed, and was not practiced by them.

At last the Mormons, numbering some 16,000 souls, heeding the counsels of citizens of the state who desired to put an end to this conflict, determined to leave and seek some country where they would be free from the annoyances and, in some instances, persecutions to which they had been subjected for fifteen years. Many of the Mormons, who could not or would not obey the scripture injunction to "forgive your enemies" left Illinois full of

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wrath and revengeful. Judge John Moses, in his admirable and comprehensive History of Illinois, recently published, gives a full account of the conflict between the Mormons and anti-Mormons at Nauvoo and their expulsion from the state. He says: "The assassination of Joseph Smith and the expulsion of the Mormons from the state, including many thousands of innocent women and children, cannot be justified on any principle of natural equity or just government. Their unwelcome presence, made so by the offensive conduct of their leaders, however intolerable, ought not to have subjected them as a body to evictional proceedings. High-handed and indefensible as these measures were, however, they proved to be beneficial to the Mormons rather than injurious." While in their mountain home, where they were "masters of the situation," they organized secret bands, ostensibly for self protection, such as the "Danites." or "avenging angels," of which so much has been said and written and of which Governor Young was said to have been the commander or controlling spirit, but strenuously denied by all leading Mormons. This "Danite" band did not exist when I lived in Utah. At least, I could not learn of its existence, although several men were pointed out to me as former members of the band.

At Salt Lake City I found in the office of Superintendent of Indian Agencies Mr. Franklin Head, of Wisconsin, who, with his family, had come there the year before. He was a man of broad education, genial manner and an efficient officer. For the past score of years he has lived in Chicago, and is well known as a capitalist and banker and a leader in literary circles. In the spring of 1868 the great Mormon tabernacle, capable of seating 10,000 people, was completed. Mr. Head, as well as myself, believed that it would be a good idea to

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hold a mass meeting in it and celebrate the approaching 4th of July. The leading Mormons agreed with us, and a great celebration with a mass meeting was the result. Governor Durkee presided and Mr. Head was the principal speaker. His address of nearly an hour was able, eloquent and patriotic. I then addressed the meeting for half an hour and was followed by Governor Young and Elder George A. Smith. The militia and many thousands of citizens and Sunday school children paraded the streets, led by two bands of music, just previous to the meeting at the tabernacle. After the meeting Mayor Wells served an elaborate lunch at the city hall, to which were invited some fifty gentlemen, including the city, territorial and federal officers and leading Mormon and Gentile citizens. Several brief patriotic addresses were made. I learn that the day has been celebreted in Salt Lake City and other leading towns in the territory ever since.

Ex-Senator Charles Durkee, who presided over the mass meeting at the tabernacle, was one of the early settlers of Wisconsin, served in the territorial legislature, and in 1855 was elected to the United States senate as a Freesoiler. He was appointed Governor of Utah in 1865, was a quiet man of large and varied experience in public affairs, of kindly disposition and of sturdy integrity. His administration as Governor of Utah was acceptable to the authorities at Washington.

In the summer of 1867 I made the acquaintance of Waah-Kie, chief of the Shoshone Indians, whose reservation had been in Idaho, but at that time was in the Uintah mountains in Northern Utah. He was about 50 years of age and a splendid specimen of a man, over six feet in height and as straight as an arrow. His face below the eyebrows was not unlike that of Benjamin Franklin. His head was large and well set on his

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shoulders, and his forehead broad but somewhat receding. His eyes were mild and expressive and his smile pleasant. In disposition he was gentle, firm and brave. He boasted, and truthfully it is believed, that he had never knowingly killed a "pale face." In many wars waged against neighboring tribes he always proved himself a wily, fearless and able chieftain, who had won many a hotly contested battle. His tribe, chiefly through his influence, was always friendly to the whites, and often proved of great value to the United States government as an ally in wars with other Indian tribes. It received its annuities at Fort Bridger, a military post 100 miles east of Salt Lake City.

In the summer of 1868, while visiting with my wife, army officers at Fort Bridger, Wash-Kie came there with a portion of his tribe and camped in the vicinity of the Fort. I met him and he invited me to come and see him at his camp. I found him in his tepee (wigwam) and he greeted me cordially. He told me through an interpreter, that he was feeling badly over the condition of his only daughter, who was seriously ill in the next tepee. My wife, who obtained his consent to see her, went to the tepee and spent some time with her. She was a sweet girl of some 18 years of age and evidently in the last stages of pulmonary consumption. With the assistance of a young Indian woman who had lived in a Mormon family she was able to converse with her. The chief, while speaking to me of his daughter, whose mother was dead, and his love for her and the certainty of her death, tears were in his eyes. He seemed to have faith and believed he would meet her again in the happy hunting grounds to which she was going. My call on Wash-Kie was on a Sunday morning, and I remarked to him that his camp seemed very quiet and asked him if he observed Sunday as the white man did. He replied

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that he tried to keep his young men in camp on Sunday, and never allowed them to indulge in games or in horse racing and that he never sent them out on the chase unless they were out of meat. He spoke of the Indian wars and deprecated them. He alluded with evident feeling to the dishonest practices of many of the government Indian agents in dealing with the red men, and added that he thought the troubles between the Indians and the whites, ending so often in bloody wars, were the, result of their bad practices. When I was taking my leave of him he asked me for one of my photographs — one taken while I was in the army, which I happened to have — and I gave it to him. I never met Wash-Kie again. His daughter died a few days after we left Fort Bridger. Wash-Kie died a few years ago. Gen. Sheridan once remarked that "there may have been good Indians, but I guess all the good Indians are dead." I have no great faith in the average Indian of to-day nor admiration for his character, but I think Wash-Kie, the chief of the Shoshones, was not only a good Indian, but one who could in truth be said to have been "a noble red man." I will add that the Mormons and this tribe of Indians, once powerful, but at that time reduced to less than 3,000 souls, were always friendly. Many of the children of these Indians, orphans usually, were taken into Mormon families and educated and the boys taught useful trades.

At Salt Lake City I found a Protestant Episcopal Church organized, with the Rev. Mr. Foote as rector. The services were held in one of the public halls and were attended by army officers stationed at Fort Douglas and their families, Federal officials and other gentile citizens. Before I left the city in 1869, a handsome little church edifice had been erected and dedicated. Rev. Mr. Foote, who for a couple of years had been a chaplain of a

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New York regiment in the civil war, was a clergyman of more than ordinary ability, earnestly devoted to his work of attractive manner and popular. I saw a good deal of him socially, during my two years stay in Salt Lake City and became much attached to him. Bishop Tuttle of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Utah, Montana and Idaho and whose wife was a sister of Mr. Foote, made Salt Lake City his home a part of the time, and I became well acquainted with him. He was a conspicuous figure in his diocese. Of splendid physique, over six feet in height, straight as a Norway pine, with a fine and well poised head, bright eyes and an expressive and benignant face. He was a forceful speaker and had withal a rare faculty of drawing men to him. As a result he was popular in his diocese with all classes, especially with the miners and ranchmen, and his work of organizing churches, (usually mission churches) in the cities and towns of his widely extended field was most successful. Bishop Tuttle was born and educated in the State of New York. An athlete when a boy and young man, he became proficient in the "manly art of self defense." A good story is told of him which I will relate. In Montana the Bishop was traveling in one of Wells and Fargo's fine six horse coaches with two ranchmen and a woman and small child as traveling companions. At nightfall some slight accident brought the coach to a stop. The driver, physically a fine specimen of a man, and widely known as a clever pugilist, was abusing everybody and everything in language coarse and profane. The Bishop expostulated with him, reminding him of the presence of a lady. He was told to mind his own business. The Bishop's coat flew off and in less than two minutes the stalwart driver was laid out by the roadside in the sage bush. He became much subdued, regained his feet, repaired the damage which was slight, and drove on to the next

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station in silence. The driver told his friends at the station that he had a champion pugilist aboard. He added "I was out of humor about that harness of the wheel horses, talked pretty rough in the presence of a lady passenger, and the fellow interfered. I told him to mind his own business when he just walked into me and in less than two minutes knocked h — l out of me. I would like to know who he is. I would give three months wages for that left hand swing of his." The story of that little episode got out among the miners and ranchmen and for a long time afterwards this class of men with an occasional sporting man would go many miles to hear and see the fighting Bishop. I have often met Bishop Tuttle since our Utah days. He is now the Bishop of the diocese of Missouri.

In Salt Lake City among the Gentile or non-mormon population, I found many men of ability, of large experience and successful in their various vocation. Of the three judges of the Federal Court, the Chief Justice Judge Titus of Pensylvania, was an eminent lawyer and a learned jurist of sturdy integrity as were also his two associates Drake and McCurdy. Colonel John A. Clark, an old Illinoisan whom I had known many years, was the Surveyor General, filled the position most acceptably, and Attorney Marshall the nephew of the great Tom Marshall of Kentucky, and Bankers Hussey and McCornick and Dr. Hamilton, a friend and classmate of the late distinguishd practitioner, Dr. H. A. Johnson of Chicago, whose wife (Mrs. Hamilton) was an Illinois girl and the organist of the Episcopal church, whose skill as an organist was of a high order; Dr. Anderson, Rev. Mr. Haskins, the able assistant of Rector Foote in the Episcopal church; Mr. George Scott, a gentleman of culture and a successful merchant; the Walker Brothers, bankers, wholesale merchants and extensive mining operators, and formerly of

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the Mormon faith; Theodore Tracy, manager of the express and banking business of Wells and Fargo, and many of the officers of the United States army stationed at Camp Douglas near the city, who always treated us with marked courtesy. Outside of Salt Lake City, in such large towns as Ogden, Brigham City, Provo and Echo City, but few Gentiles were found, and very few in any part of the territory engaged in farming and manufacturing. Of late years Ogden and Echo City, located on the Union Pacific railroad, have attracted non-Mormon merchants, professional men and men of other vocations.

There came to Salt Lake City in the summer of 1867 Colonel Alex K. McClure, of Chambersburg, Pa., who was accompanied by his wife and daughter. He was a distinguished lawyer, editor and politician, and his object in visiting Utah on his way to San Francisco was, as he informed me, to study for himself the problem of Mormonism. I was with him much of the time for ten days. He was a courteous and most companionable gentleman of wide and varied information, a close observer of men and things, and, as I thought, disposed to treat every one with fairness. My wife was with his charming wife and daughter much of the time engaged in general sightseeing. Colonel McClure afterwards made a national reputation as the able editor of the "Philadelphia Times," which he has edited for over a quarter of a century. It is seldom that I have met in my long life a man who impressed me more with his true manliness than did the gallant colonel.

In the month of August, 1867, Gen. G. M. Dodge, my old army friend and the engineer in chief of the Union Pacific railroad, with his assistant engineer and secretary, while making a preliminary survey of the route from Cheyenne to Salt Lake City, arrived with his

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party, in which were Gen. John A. Rawlins, my former townsman and afterwards Secretary of War under President Grant, John E. Corwith, a Galena banker, and Major Dunn, of the regular army, escorted by a squadron of cavalry commanded by Colonel Mizner, of the United States army. The party remained in Salt Lake City some ten days, the cavalry being quartered at Camp Douglas. The General and his party were the recipients of much attention, both from Mormons and Gentiles, who vied with each other to do them honor. Gen. Dodge had from the first been an earnest advocate for the construction of this great national highway. After he had finished the preliminary survey he was in, favor, I understood, of running the road from the mouth of Echo Canon up Parley Canon, and by a tunnel through the Wasatch range to the head of Emigration Canon, and thence to Salt Lake City and westward south of Great Salt lake, there to connect with the Central Pacific, which was then in process of construction from San Francisco. This route would have shortened the distance and have proved of incalculable advantage to Salt Lake City. But other counsels prevailed, and the road from Echo City went down Weber Canon to Ogden City, and then in a northerly direction to the north end of the lake, where it connected with the Central Pacific road. This great enterprise was pushed through from Cheyenne across the Laramie Plains with incredible rapidity, and by the month of May, 1869 was completed. The last spike (gold) was driven in, uniting the two roads, with imposing ceremonies, the 12th day of May. I was invited to participate in the ceremonies, but had to leave for Europe before that date, which I very much regretted.

In the early September of that year it became necessary for me to visit officially my assistant assessors in the northern part of the territory, in which lay the great

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valleys of Cache and Bear Lake, where were located a number of flourishing towns, and which comprises over 200,000 acres of land, all susceptible of cultivation and easily irrigated by the mountain streams. With a good span of horses and carriage, accompanied by my wife, I started on my tour of inspection. At Ogden City we were overtaken by Governor Young, ten of the twelve apostles of the church, and a large number of elders and deacons, in many cases accompanied by one wife, going north to make their annual official visit to the churches in that portion of the territory. There were some thirty or forty carriages in the procession, headed by Governor Young and Amelia, one of his wives. On the Governor's cordial invitation we joined the party. I was desirous to see how these annual visitations were conducted, and as their route and mine were the same, I accepted his invitation. From Ogden City to about seven miles from Willard City we were escorted by a small company of mounted militia, who, at a given point, were relieved by a similar body and escorted to Willard City. From the outskirts of the town a band of music led us to the public square. A sumptuous lunch was served in one of the public halls, after which all the faithful assembled in a large church, where addresses were made by the Governor and others of the party. About the middle of the afternoon, escorted by the mounted militia of the forenoon, we started for Brigham City, some ten miles distant, and when half way were met by the mounted militia of that place and escorted into the town, when we were again met by a band of music. The visitors were all assigned to quarters for the night in the homes of residents of the town. The evening exercises in a large church or tabernacle were interesting, and addresses were made by the Governor, Orson Pratt, George Q. Cannon and others. As the day was a holiday, everybody

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turned out to meet and greet the visitors and to bid them God speed on their departure.

The program of that first day after leaving Ogden City was substantially carried out for four succeeding days, the visitors stopping and holding meetings at Logan, Providence, Franklin, St. Charles and Paris in Bear Lake Valley and other places, some of the faithful having come a score of miles to see the visitors and attend the meetings. The people I saw looked fairly intelligent, healthy, and were well dressed and well behaved. Great preparations were always made, for these annual visitations of the officials of the church were highly prized by the people and were of great benefit to them aside from the religious instruction imparted, for much practical advice was given and many valuable suggestions made as to the best methods of cultivating their crops and irrigating them, and how best to care for their herds of cattle and sheep. I attended but few of their meetings, as I had my official duties to look after, but learned much of the Mormons as they were in their homes in the towns and villages we visited. In the spring time Brigham Young, with his apostles and elders, made a visit to the southern part of Utah, similar to, but less imposing than the one I have just described. The semi-annual general conferences of the church are held in the tabernacle at Salt Lake City in the first weeks of April and October. A part of the exercises of the general conference are now held in the "Temple" recently completed, an elaborate and expensive church edifice which was over thirty years in building.

In the early autumn of that year, having business in the "states" that required my personal attention, I started east on one of the Wells and Fargo coaches, and had as traveling companions the great actors, Lawrence

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Barrett and John McCullough. They were partners in a theatrical enterprize, viz: the leasing of the California theater in San Francisco, and were then on their way east to secure a suitable corps of actors, I had never met either of them before and during the five days we were together in the coach and car I became well acquainted with them. In disposition and temperament they were opposites. Barrett was a small, quiet, clerical looking man, usually reticent, of keen intellect, of high literary culture and a remarkably interesting talker. McCullough had a superb athletic physique, a manly and expressive face, and was genial and generous to a fault. He had fascinating manners, and as a result was a general favorite.

In after years I often met these men socially and otherwise and came to know them well. Barrett drew around him the scholar, the professional man, the artist and the man of letters at his summer home on the Atlantic coast, where he spent his vacations. He had as guests men with tastes similar to his own. Among others found at his home occasionally was my old friend and pastor, Prof. David Swing, of Chicago. McCullough had as companions, in and out of his profession, men like himself, bright, keen-witted, full of bonhommie and much given to the enjoyment of the good things of this life. Barrett survived McCullough by many years. McCullough died in the prime of life, when his star was in the zenith. Alas, poor John, he was his own greatest enemy.

The annual muster of the militia of Northern Utah was held at Camp Wasatch, near Salt Lake City, in November, 1868. Upon the invitation of Gen. Wells; commander-in-chief of the militia of the territory, I attended the drill and review the last day of the encampment. The militia numbered about 1,500, about one half being

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mounted and drilled as cavalry. The troops were well officered, well armed, fairly well drilled and evidently well disciplined. Gen. Burton, the efficient collector of United States revenue for the District of Utah, commanded the brigade of the northern district, then at Camp Wasatch. Among the officers and men were a number who had seen service in the Mexican war as members of the Mormon battalion.

On a summer day of the last year of my stay in Utah, Governor Young invited me to ride with him to his dairy farm, some three or four miles south of the city, which invitation I accepted. His carriage, a spacious and substantial one, was drawn by a pair of fine large mules. The day was a perfect one and the Governor was in one of his best moods. On our way to his farm we discussed farming and manufacturing, more especially the manufacture of woolen cloths for both men's and women's wear. He wore clothes of home manufactured cloths, as did many other citizens in and out of the church. There were several woolen mills in different parts of the territory, in all of which he had more or less pecuniary interest, and which manufactured almost enough fabrics to supply the home demand.

His dairy farm, a large one for that country, was managed by one of his wives, a middle-aged woman, who superintended it most successfully. All the milk, butter and cheese used by his five or six households were obtained from this farm. The large herd of milch cows belonging there were Jerseys. A fine lunch was served, after which we inspected the creamery, etc., and then started back to the city. Something was said in connection with the management of the farm that brought up the subject of polygamy, which subject I had discussed with him before. I began by remarking that when I saw the general prosperity of the people of Utah,

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and how much had been accomplished in the last twenty years and the possibilities of the future, it made me sad to think that serious trouble, perhaps in the near future, was inevitable on account of the practice of polygamy by the people of Utah and sanctioned by the church. I said; "Governor, you know as well as I do that in these latter days all civilized peoples have declared against polygamy and in favor of monogamy. It is only the semi-civilized or barbarous ones that now practice it. You are here, a handful of people in these remote valleys, with civilized people all around you and crowding upon you who regard the practice of polygamy as a blot on the escutcheon of your fair territory. How long will you be able to resist the tide before it overwhelms you?" He listened to me attentively, and with a serious look replied: "My friend, you know that we are simply obeying a revelation from God, which we hold as sacred and binding as anything in the sacred scriptures: I, too, foresee trouble, but if we were to give up polygamy simply because we feared trouble, however serious, you would look upon us as moral cowards. Therefore, what else can we do?" I turned to him and said: "Governor, get another revelation doing away with the practice." To this he replied: "Should such a revelation come to us, we would obey it with more alacrity than we did the one ordaining it. So while the revelation stands we must obey it and trust in God to protect us, as he has often done in the past."

He then began to speak of himself, his relations to the people of the church of the Latter Day Saints, as their spiritual head under God, of his family (then composed of sixteen wives and fifty-one children). He said "You know how hard I am working to make my people what they should be, good Christians and good citizens, and how hard I work and pray, day and night, to bring

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up my children, whom I love as much as you do yours, in the fear of the Lord." As he was speaking of his children and his love for them tears stood in his eyes. I have often been asked: "Do you believe Brigham Young was sincere in his belief in the revelation ordaining polygamy?" I have always answered, "Yes, I believe he was sincere.

Over twenty years have elapsed since my conversation with Governor Young as given above. The world has moved, and Utah is now one of the states of the Union, with a constitution prohibiting the practice of polygamy.

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Chapter IX.

UNITED STATES CONSUL AT BRUSSELS, 1869-72.

In the early part of June, 1869, with my wife and daughter, I sailed from New York for Liverpool on my way to Brussels, Belgium, to fill the position of United States Consul at that place. I did not visit Brussels while in Europe in 1859, and now saw it for the first time. It had a population of less than 200,000, but with its suburbs, nearly 250,000. It was well built, having many magnificent buildings, including the Royal palaces, extensive boulevards and public parks. A mile and a half from the palace, at the end of the grand Avenue Louise, was the great park of 500 acres, being a part of the old forest of Lasigne, which once extended from the city to within a few miles from the battlefield of Waterloo, twelve miles away. The language spoken by the better classes was French, and as pure French as that spoken in Paris. The lower classes, especially in Northern Belgium, spoke a mixed language called Walloon. All the official business of the government and all the proceedings of parliament were conducted in French.

I found the consulate in charge of Judge Aaron Goodrich of Minnesota, then acting as secretary of the United States Legation. The United States Minister resident, Henry G. Sanford, who had filled the position for eight years, was well known in the diplomatic circles of Europe, having been an attache and secretary at Paris and other legations for twenty-five years. He had

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the reputation of being one of the best informed in matters of diplomacy of any American representative in Europe. He had great wealth and lived in Brussels in princely style, and was a favorite in the diplomatic corps of that capital and with the government officials as well. He was, withal, a fine linguist. He was succeeded the next month by J. Russell Jones of Chicago, a former Galenian and an intimate friend of Gen. U. S. Grant, He took up his residence in Brussels under some disadvantages. He did not speak the French language, and being a man of considerable means, but of no great wealth, he could not afford to keep up his predecessor's style of living, As a result the common people looked upon him as a "pauvre Americain" compared with the outgoing minister, when, in fact, the incoming official was the abler of the two, and, in point of administrative force, far the superior.

The civil war in the United States increased the mount of Belgium's exportations to that country, beginning with 100,000 or more Belgian muskets, bought for the Union army in 1861-2. The exportation of laces, gloves, cloths, iron, plate glass, etc., increased year by year, so that when I assumed the duties of consul the business of the consulate was one of the largest of any of the inland United States consulates in Europe. Nor was this increase confined to Brussels, but it extended to the United States consulates at Antwerp, Liege, Ghent, Charleroi and Namurs. Belgium, with an area of 11,000 square miles and its population in 1869 of 5,000,000, was and is eminently a manufacturing country, and the products of its manufactories find their way to all the markets of the world. I was formally presented to the King and Queen some months after my arrival at Brussels. The King impressed me as a man of much natural ability, broadly educated in English as well as French,

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and shrewd and practical. He had the reputation of being thoroughly Belgian, sincere and indefatigable in his efforts to promote the best interests of his kingdom, and especially to adopt and carry out measures to benefit the masses. Since then his policy has been unchanged, and he has done much for "Little Belgium" in planting: successfully colonies in the Congo region of Western Africa. The Queen was dignified, graceful and good looking, without being handsome, highly accomplished, and had the reputation of being kind and sympathetic. She was an Austrian and a sister-in-law of the unfortunate Prince Maximillian, whose tragic death in Mexico brought so much grief to his family and friends, and especially to his brave and heroic wife. It is not often that a king and queen can reign so long and have the unwavering support of their subjects. It can be said with truth that the nation has made great progress in everything that has marked the advance of civilization in the last half of the Nineteenth century under their wise rule; Leopold I. of Belgium, when reigning, had as chief of his military staff, Baron Bormann, a Saxon, and a classmate in the military school of Saxony of Leopold I., and who at his death was retained in his former position with advanced rank by Leopold II. He was a distinguished army officer, especially as an artillerist, and wrote some valuable treatises on that arm of the service. The venerable baron was an accomplished linguist and a favorite with all Americans who had the good fortune to make his acquaintance. He was frequently a guest at my house, and all the members of my family, as well as myself, were very fond of the genial old general.

In Brussels we found a large colony of English, numbering some 2,000 or more. Among them were a number of retired army officers; men of fine attainments, wide experience and very companionable. I greatly enjoyed

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and appreciated their society. The greater part of the colony was composed of families who resided there for the purpose of educating their children in the excellent French and English schools of the place. Not a few, however, were people of a moderate income, who could live in Brussels comfortably at a much less expense than at home. Ordinarily few Americans resided in Brussels, although there were American children in its schools and convents.

One thing added much to the pleasure of our residence in Brussels, and that was the proximity of friends in diplomatic life in neighboring countries. The United States Embassador to France, the Hon. E. B. Washburne, was in Paris with his family, only six hours distant by railroad. The Hon. Horace Rublee of Wisconsin, an old-time friend, was Minister Resident at Berne, Switzerland. Before the civil war he was for a long time the editor of the "Madison Journal," of Wisconsin, the official organ of the Republican party. After his return from the Swiss mission he became the editor and proprietor of the "Milwaukee Sentinel," one of the leading papers of the state, and continued so until his death a few years ago. He possessed rare ability as an editor, was a graceful, forceful and keenly discriminating writer, and was sometimes spoken of as the "Horace Greeley" of the Northwest. Gen. T. H. Gorham, a retired banker of Marshall, Mich., a man of fine attainments, of manly bearing and of engaging manners, was the United States Minister Resident at The Hague. Herman Kreismann, formerly of Chicago, the United States Consul General at Berlin, was in 1861 appointed Secretary of Legation at Berlin under United States Minister Norman B. Judd of Illinois, and after his retirement from the consulate in 1877 settled in Berlin and became president of the board of directors of the surface or Tramway company

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of Berlin. Gen. Adam Badeau, Gen. Grant's military secretary during the civil war, was United States Consul General at London, and Gen. Merideth Reed of New York, Consul General at Paris. There was naturally a good deal of social visiting between these officials, which made it pleasant for all.

One of the first distinguished Americans I met at Brussels was United States Senator Zachariah Chandler at the residence of Minister Sanford at a dinner party. The senator had just come from Washington and it did me good to hear him, in his clear and forcible manner, tell of political and other events that had just transpired at the nation's capital.

In January, 1870, upon the invitation of Embassador Washburne, my wife and myself, with some twenty other Americans, were presented to the Emperor Napoleon III. and the Empress Eugenia at the palace of the Tuilleries. This court ball and reception given by their majesties, became notable as having been the last one given before the downfall of the Empire, six months later. Among those presented besides ourselves were Mrs. N. P. Banks, Hon. Nicholas Fish, afterwards, United States Minister to Switzerland, and wife, and Colonel Wilson and wife. Colonel Wilson was a distinguished surgeon in the civil war and ex-United States Consul at Antwerp, Belgium. The representatives of some six or eight other countries presented some of their countrymen, the English and Americans being the most numerous. The form of presentation was simple. The Emperor passed in front of the line of guests accompanied by a representative, who presented his countrymen, giving the name of each. The Emperor simply bowed without speaking. The Empress Eugenia followed some five minutes later and the guests were presented to her in the same way. Her manner was most gracious,

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and she occasionally stopped and had a few words with some of her guests. She had a brief conversation with Mrs. Gen. Banks and others of our party. She was conceded to be one of the brightest and most beautiful ladies of the royal circles of Europe, and had just returned from Egypt, where she had witnessed the ceremonies attending the opening of the Suez canal, and wore a magnificent silk dress of a new color called "eau du nile." The ladies of our party were all charmed with the Empress, and all regarded her as being, as a lady of the party expressed it, "just too lovely for anything.

In the early summer of 1870 the Hon. Ben Wood, ex-member of congress, of New York city, came to Brussels, accompanied by his wife. He was the editor of the "New York News" and a brother of Fernando Wood, the distinguished member of congress and politician of that city. He was in Europe for his health, which was much impaired by overwork. I found him an exceedingly companionable man, of large experience and of extensive acquaintance with men of affairs in the United States. I enjoyed his society during his few weeks' sojourn in Brussels. He died soon after his return home.

Not long after my arrival at Brussels I received a call from George Catlin, the great American painter of Indian portraits, who, much to my surprise, informed me that Brussels was his home and had been for some time. I had seen Mr. Catlin just before the Blackhawk war of 1832 at the Indian agency at Gratiot's Grove. He was a young artist then, just starting out in his work, almost a lifelong one, viz: painting the portraits of Indian chiefs and scenes in Indian life. Through the good offices of the Indian agent, Colonel Gratiot, he succeeded in painting the portraits of several of the chiefs of the Winnebagos and Pottawatamies. Before the civil war he had

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succeeded in getting portraits of the chiefs of nearly all the Indian tribes in the Northwest whose reservations were north of the Ohio and Arkansas rivers, spending: several years among the Mandan, Blackfeet and other tribes on the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers. When he began his great work he had a rival in the artist Stanley, who gained a high reputation as a portrait painter, but who did not have the industry, persistency or energy of his competitor, Catlin, and failed to achieve great success. Mr. Catlin had brought together the finest of his life work to Philadelphia. His collection was offered to the government at Washington, but lack of means to purchase at once caused delay. In the meantime, Mr. Catlin was so unfortunate as to get into a serious quarrel with his family and friends. In the midst of it he left all, and with a light purse went to Brussels, where he took up his residence. When I called upon him he was living in an obscure part of the city, occupying two small, scantily furnished rooms. The few francs a day, required for his living, were obtained by a little work he did, copying some small-sized paintings he had representing Indian life, and selling them. When I asked him why he did not sell some of his larger paintings stored in Philadelphia and live more comfortably he replied: "As my collection is the largest and best in the world, I do not intend to break into it, and will sell it only as a whole, and my price for it is $100,000. I feel sure my government will buy it some day at my price. The English government has made me a fair offer for it, but, I am too much of an American to permit my collection to go to England or any other foreign country." I saw a good deal of this distinguished artist, who was frequently a guest at my house: He was a most intelligent man and an entertaining talker, being full of reminiscences connected with Indian life. He

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had lived for years with the Mandan; Blackfeet and other Indian tribes, taking up with their manner of living while he was prosecuting his work. He became much enamoured with the Mandans, a tribe now almost extinct, which he regarded as the best and noblest tribe of Indians in the great West. In the latter part of his working days he spent two years on the Amazon river, S. A., painting Indian portraits He died a few years after I had left Brussels. Before his death his collection was bought by the government of the United States and is now on exhibition in the Smithsonian Institution at Washington. He wrote several interesting books on Indian life, habits, customs, etc. In him the red man had a true friend.

In the early summer of 1870 the relations between Prussia and France became strained, and on the 16th of July war was declared by France, The news created great excitement in Belgium, whose territory abutted on both countries. The Belgium government at once declared its neutrality, although strongly urged to become the ally of France. About the first of the month I had started for a ten days' tour up the Rhine, with my wife and two lady friends; A few days before war was declared I had returned to Brussels, leaving my ladies at Hombourg, in Germany, Fearing that travel would be interdicted via the Rhine, I hastily left for Hombourg. I found that United States Minister Washburne, who was at Baden Baden, had the day before passed hurriedly through Hombourg on his way to his legation at Paris. I returned to Brussels with my ladies without inconvenience, but a few days later the lines were closed and all travel on the Rhine by steamer or railway was stopped, to the great inconvenience of tourists passing from Germany into France or Belgium, or visa versa.

About the middle of August Gen. Sheridan of the

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United States army, and his chief of staff, Colonel Forsyth, came to Brussels on their way to the headquarters of the Prussian army, to remain some time as lookers on, and not for the purpose of taking part in military operations. We were all glad to see them. Their stay was so short that many Americans who desired to pay their respects to them were unable to do so. Gen. Sheridan promised to return to Brussels in two months and he did so, when the American colony, which was then quite large, had the opportunity of meeting him at an evening reception given for him at our apartments. He was in fine health and spirits, and full of the exciting experiences of the preceding sixty days spent with the victorious Prussian army. He was enthusiastic in his praise of that army.

In August the railway route from Brussels to Cologne on the Rhine, into Germany, was opened, and tourists from England and elsewhere could pass through into Central Europe without detention or inconvenience, consequently Brussels was constantly crowded with travelers, many of whom were Americans, who, finding Paris virtually closed to them, decided to do the next beat thing, viz: to stay in Brussels. The siege of Paris soon followed, when many American tourists chose to remain in Brussels until winter, or until the siege was raised.

Early in September the great battle of Sedan was fought, which proved more than a "Waterloo" to the French. Emperor Napoleon III. was taken prisoner with a large part of his army. The Empress, a few days after fled from Paris in disguise and sought refuge in Holland. A provisional government was organized in Paris, republican in form which government a few days later was formally recognized by Gen. Grant as President of the United States. A few days before the battle of

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Sedan, Minister Washburne sent his wife and children to Brussels, in order that they might not be compelled to suffer the inconveniences of the siege. Many other Americans left at the same time. Mr. Washburne remained at his post, and having been ordered to take charge of the German interests in Paris, at the request of the Prussian government began to send out of Paris all German residents of that city, of which there were many thousands, to Germany by railroad. For a time, two trains every day were sent out of Paris filled with Germans, who were mostly of the working class. Over 17,000 were thus transported within a few weeks to Germany, going via Brussels to Cologne, on the Rhine. Many remained in the city, and these, during the long siege that followed, had frequently to be fed by the Embassy, often in a clandestine way. The action of the French government in sending out these Germans has been criticised, but, with the intense aversion of the French populace to people of that nationality, it was necessary to do this as a matter of safety to them.

Many Americans remained in Paris, contrary to the wish and advice of Mr. Washburne, and in consequence suffered many hardships. Ten days after the battle of Sedan, with a party of friends, I visited the battlefield, going from Brussels nearly one hundred miles by railway and then ten miles by carriage. The sight was a sad one. The villages near the scene of the conflict had been destroyed by fire, and the few buildings that remained were used as hospitals. The field, an extended one, was torn up by improvised rifle pits, and the ground in many places was covered with broken guns, parts of artillery carriages, etc., all showing the terrific nature of the conflict. I had seen the fields after the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth in the civil war of 1861-5, but saw nothing to compare with Sedan. The

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battle field was a few miles from the Belgium frontier, and that government, during the battle, held a division of soldiers just inside the dividing line between France and Belgium to prevent either army in the contest from passing into neutral territory.

The siege of Paris had the effect of filling Brussels with strangers, many having come from the besieged city. It was estimated that during the fall of 1870 the city of Brussels harbored 40,000 strangers. Among them were many tourists. I remember well a party of American gentlemen who were often seen together, and like many others there were bent on having a "good time." They were Hon. John M. Francis, Perry H. Smith, Fred Woodbridge, Barney Williams and Frank M. Pixley, who were in Brussels with their families and acknowledged to be the life of the American colony. They were ever on the qui vive to devise ways to make the stay of their compatriots in the Belgium capital agreeable, and in this they were assisted by the untiring efforts of the courteous and efficient American Minister, J. Russell Jones. They were all men distinguished when at home in their various vocations. Mr. Francis had been appointed by President Grant Minister Resident at Athens, Greece, and was on his way to assume the duties of that Legation. He had been the editor and proprietor of the "Troy (N. Y.) Times," for a score of years, a paper which had the largest circulation of any in the state, outside of the city of New York. He was a recognized leader in the politics of his state. He possessed a keen and well-trained intellect, much will force and untiring energy. As a discriminating and forcible writer he had few equals and at the time of his death, which occurred a few years ago, he was regarded as the strongest writer of editorials in his state, and was the last of that remarkable group of editors, of which he was the youngest, member,

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composed of Horace Greeley, Thurlow Weed, James Gordon Bennett, H. C. Raymond and Parke Goodwin. He was appointed by President Garfield, the Minister Resident at Lisbon, Portugal, and soon after filled the position of United States Embassador at Vienna, Austria. His attainments were many and varied. As a conversationalist he was fascinating. He was courteous and of a kindly disposition and popular with all classes. The acquaintance I made with him at that time ripened into intimacy and we were fast friends to the end of his life. His wife, whose death preceded his by several years, was a lady of many accomplishments, of rare amiability and a graceful and vigorous writer.

Perry H. Smith of Chicago, was known to all railroad men, having been for many years the President of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway. He started life in Wisconsin as a lawyer, was a member of the Wisconsin legislature, after which he moved to Chicago and went into the railroad business with his friend, the Hon. W. B. Ogden. His railroad affairs brought him into close relations with the millionaire attorney and railroad magnate, S. J. Tilden of New York, who later became a candidate for the Presidency on the Democratic Ticket. Mr. Smith, with his family, spent several years in Europe, during which time his children were in school at Brussels He was known to nearly all American tourists in Europe, and his attractive personality and quiet but kindly manner, made him a favorite with all, I knew him intimately in Chicago during the '70s and '80s. I was impressed with his tact and shrewdness in business affairs. His clear and conservative judgment led him almost invariably to do the right thing at the right time. His will force was great, his convictions strong and his plans and purposes were persistently executed.

Frank M. Pixley of San Francisco, a lawyer, politician

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and the editor and proprietor of a newspaper, "The Argonaut," was a man of great force of character. He was gifted as a vigorous and trenchant writer and a fluent and eloquent speaker. He went to California in the early '50s, and in time became one of the conspicuous figures in that state. He filled several positions of trust under the Federal government. Always self-contained, keen-witted, affable and of an amiable disposition, he was one of the most companionable of men. He died a few years ago and left a large estate.

The Hon. Fred Woodbridge, ex-member of congress for the Vergennes district. Vermont, was a man of exceptional ability, both as a lawyer and a representative in congress. He had a well-trained mind, large experience in public affairs, much practical sense, and was a speaker of fluency and force. Dignified, courteous and genial, with his fine physique and handsome face, he was the cynosure of many eyes. His wife, a daughter of the Green Mountain state, was an accomplished lady of rare beauty and grace.

Barney Williams, well known in the United States said Great Britain as an actor in comedy, was traveling in Europe for the benefit of his health. He was full of vivacity, despite his ill health, and his wit, charming manner and amiable disposition made him a welcome guest wherever he went. Williams died soon after, and his wife, who was with him in his travels, was an actress of great ability and still lives, but never followed her profession after his death.

For many weeks I was the companion of the five talented Americans I have just described. I am the only one now living. A little later in the autumn, and while Paris was still besieged, many other distinguished Americans came to Brussels and sojourned there from a few days to as many weeks. Gen. Burnside, the gallant

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and handsome soldier of the civil war, was one of the number. He visited Paris and saw the head of the provisional government, Jules Favre, and then went to the headquarters of the Prussian army to confer with Emperor William and Prince Bismarck. I understood that these visits were repeated. As a supposed result, a conference was held between the commanders of the contending forces and terms of peace were discussed. Bismarck's ultimatum was that Prussia should hold the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine without regard to its indemnity. The French refused peremptorily, preferring to fight it out to the end.

Gen. Hazen, of the United States army, was a visitor at Brussels during the fall. He was a, popular officer, who served in the civil war and won distinction for bravery and efficiency. He was the object of much attention from the American colony during his brief sojourn there. Gen. Dan. Butterfield and family were also at Brussels for some weeks. He, like Gen. Hazen, made a fine reputation in the civil war, serving in the Army of the Potomac. Judge P. H. Morgan of New Orleans, a distinguished lawyer and jurist, had his residence in Brussels while his children were in school there. We became intimate with the framily during their stay in Brussels. The judge divided his time between Brussels and New Orleans. He was a Union man during the war, and Gen. Grant, before the close of his second administration, appointed him the American member of the Tribunal or Court of Cairo, Egypt, for the trial of civil matters. Judge Morgan was a striking figure on the streets of Brussels. He had a splendid physique, was over six feet tall, erect, and weighed over 200 pounds, with a flowing beard and a handsome face, He was usually reticent, but courteous and of a kind disposition.

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And there, came to Brussels, also, Mr. Montgomery Gibbs, formerly a well known New York lawyer, and his wife. He had held some diplomatic and afterwards some financial position on the continent, and was well known in all the diplomatic and financial circles of Europe and Great Britain. The well known jurist, the Hon. Hugh T. Dickey of Chicago, and family were for some time in Brussels, and were prominent members of the American colony. Gen. Ledlie, an artillerist in the civil war and a well-known engineer and bridge builder of Chicago, and his wife passed several weeks there. Mr. and Mrs. George M. Pullman and Mr. and Mrs. Potter Palmer were there for a few days only. Mr. Palmer, who was planning to build a large hotel in Chicago, was making a tour of Europe with his architect, studying the architecture of the hotels of the European capitals with the object of utilizing the information obtained in the construction of his projected Chicago hotel. So crowded were the hotels in Brussels that he and his wife were compelled to occupy a 7x9 room in a second class hotel.

Another prominent Chicago man, the Hon. J. B. Rice, ex-mayor of Chicago, with his wife and two young lady daughters came to Brussels to spend some months. I knew Mr. Rice by reputation but had never met him. During the fall of 1870 I saw Mr. Rice at the consulate nearly every day and our families became intimately acquainted. Mr. Rice was a man of quiet manner, inclined to be reticent, of wide and varied information, and of large experience in public affairs, having served as a member of congress, and as mayor of the city of Chicago. He was a successful man of business, and when in the mood was an interesting talker. As the mayor of the city of Chicago he made a reputation as a clear headed, energetic, efficient and honest official. I became well acquainted

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with him at Brussels, met him often in after years at Chicago and seldom in my life have I known a man who impressed me so thoroughly with his sturdy manliness as he. His wife and accomplished and vivacious daughters did much during their residence in, Brussels in conjunction with Mrs. P. H. Smith of Chicago, and Mrs. W. H. Ryder, of New York, to infuse life into the American colony, especially among its ladies. During the fall and early winter of 1870, Admiral Glisson, commander of the Mediteranian fleet had his flagship with other war ships of the fleet at the Port of Antwerp. He, as well as other officers of his fleet were frequent visitors at Brussels and were always well received by the American colony.

In the late autumn of 1870 I made the acquaintance at Brussels of Gen. Cluseret, sometimes called the "soldier of fortune," whose military career was singularly eventful and romantic. Born in France and educated in the national military school at St. Cyr, he served in the army with distinction and was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor. He left the army for political reasons and opened a painters studio in Paris. He re-entered the army and served in Algeria, and was in the Crimenian war. After leaving the army again, he joined Garabaldi in Italy. He came to the United States in early 1862 and served as an aide on General McClellan's staff with the rank of colonel; was assigned to Gen. Fremont, who gave him a command in the cavalry corps, and was soon after brevetted a brigadier general. He left the Union army and located in New York city, where he started a newspaper advocating the claims of Gen. Fremont for the Presidency. He returned to France, established a newspaper, and was imprisoned for violently attacking the government. He escaped and left France. After the fall of the empire he returned to Paris and joined the

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Commune and became its minister of war. He was soon after arrested, escaped to England and finally settled in Switzerland. I met him in Brussels when he was on his way to join the Commune. He did not have the appearance of the "dashing and fearless" soldier, but more that of a man in one of the professions, clerical or legal, and in manner was courteous, modest and affable. He was an able writer and the author of several works of a military and political character.

During the winter of 1870-711 received a call at the consulate from Mrs. Merriman, of New York city, whose acquaintance I had made in Washington, D. C., soon after the war. She was a lady of rare personal charms and highly accomplished, and had just returned from Italy where she was associated with other American and English ladies in carrying out a scheme to found several schools of a high grade for the education of young ladies. She said they had received encouragement in London and Paris, both in sympathy and material aid, and would certainly make the enterprise a success. A few years later she was married to the eloquent priest of Notre Dame, Paris, Pere Hyacinth, (afterwards the Rev. Mr. Loyson.) Mr. Loyson visited Chicago with his wife in the early 80's on a religious mission connected with his pastoral work in Paris. He was met by a number of prominent ladies and gentlemen of Chicago at my house, where a meeting was held at which he explained the object of his mission, and gave some account of the work in which he was engaged.

There came to Brussels about this time an old friend in the person of the Rev. S. G. Spees, who succeeded the Rev. Mr. Kent in the pastorate of the First Presbyterian church at Galena, III., about 1850. He was making a tour in Great Britian and Central Europe for the benefit of his health and incidentally, to examine the methods

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of instruction in the colleges and universities of those countries, to utilize in a college projected by himself and his friends at Cedar Falls, Ia., which place had been his home for some years. Dr. Spees was well known in the entire Northwest, and had the reputation of being a clergyman of marked ability as a sermonizer, energetic, zealous, and devoted to the interests of his work as a Christian minister. He was prominent in educational circles, and what is not usual in men of his profession, was shrewd and discriminating in business affairs.

Soon after the fall of the empire and Paris had been besieged the method of sending letters of light weight out of Paris by means of balloons was begun. Balloons were sent out semi-weekly in a northernly direction, carrying 300 to 500 pounds of mail matter, almost exclusively letters, weighing one-eighth of an ounce. There was more difficulty in getting letters into Paris than in getting them out. Minister Washburne kept a full journal of everything that transpired in Paris, and as a matter of safety, had his journal once a week press copied, on very light paper and the copy sent to his wife by balloon to Brussels, which, after having read she would forward to Gen. C. C. Washburn, then Governor of the state of Wisconsin. I had the privilege often of reading the journal while in the hands of Mrs. Washburne at Brussels.

The latter part of January, 1871, after an armistice of several days, terms of capitulation were agreed upon and 30,000 Prussian troops entered the city of Paris, bivouacked on the Champs Elysee for two days, and then returned to their camps outside of the city limits. The siege of Paris continued for 132 days. The provisional government moved from Bordeaux, where it had been located since its organization, to Versailles, ten miles from Paris.

That portion of the people in Paris who had been

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dissatisfied with the action of the government for surrendering to the Prussians, and composed mostly of the middle and lower classes, led by unscrupulous politicians, organized a government in Paris and called it The Commune. It openly opposed and defied the government at Versailles, In a short time it was able to muster nearly 100,000 troops, and a terrible and bloody conflict began which lasted two months. The Provisional government was compelled to lay siege to Paris. During the first siege of Paris all the representatives of foreign countries had one after the other left and were mostly at Tours, their legations having been left in charge of subordinates, the exceptions being the American minister, Mr. Washburne, and the Swiss minister, Dr. Freye, who remained at their posts discharging their official duties through both sieges.

About the middle of March I went to Paris to pay a friendly visit to my old friend, Minister Washburne. The Commune was in full blast, and Paris was being bombarded by the French troops from Mt. Valerian and other points on the south side of the river Seine. On the afternoon of the second day of my visit I witnessed the terrible fusilade on the Rue de la Paixnear the Place Mendome. While standing on the sidewalk in front of the banking house of Bowles Brothers on Rue de la Paix, I saw some 2,000 or more civilians, all unarmed, evidently belonging to the better class of citizens, pass down the street en masse to the Place Vendome, where a body of Commune troops were stationed. One company had been placed across the street at the entrance to Place Vendome. The crowd, apparently a good-natured one, on arriving where the troops were stationed, began to expostulate with them for their conduct in joining the Commune, and entreated them to lay down their arms. In a few minutes shots were tired above the heads of the

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crowd, and soon after a full volley was fired directly into it with frightful effect. It was standing about one hundred yards from the troops and in the line of their fire. A Belgium engineer was shot down at my side. The crowd dispersed rapidly. I stepped into the doorway of the Hotel Holland, and going to the second story, looked out and saw ten dead bodies on the deserted street. The excitement in the central part of the city, as a result, was intense. Shops were closed and all traffic was suspended. I decided to leave Paris for Brussels by the evening railroad train. Towards evening Mr. Washburne took me in his carriage from the legation, near the Arch of Triumph, through the heart of the city to the Belgium railroad station in the northern part of the city. In passing along the boulevards from the Place de la Concorde to the Bastile we were halted several times by troops placed across the boulevard. The officer in command, on coming to the carriage door, was saluted by Mr. Washburne, who simply said "le Ministre Americain," when the ranks would at once be opened and his carriage allowed to pass.

Some four weeks later I had official business which required my presence in Paris. As before, I was permit to enter Paris on my official papers. I found the Commune still vigorously opposing the government troops, but it had lost ground, and the Versailles army (so called) was very near the city, and the city was being badly injured by its artillery, especially on its southern and western sides. On the second day of my stay I accompanied Mr. Washburne in his carriage to the Trocedore, some distance down the Seine, to witness the effect of shells sent occasionally from Mt. Vadrian. We left our carriage near the Seine and walked to the top of the hill. While waiting to see a shell explode, one fell and exploded less than 200 yards from where we stood. I

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was very much interested, but Mr. Washburne suggested in a very emphatic manner that we leave at once, which we did and returned to the legation.

The next day I accompanied him in his carriage to Versailles, where he often went to meet the officers of the Provisional government. I had the pleasure of meeting Mon. Thiers, soon after the President of the Republic of France, and Mon, Jules Favre, afterwards Minister of Foreign Affairs under President Theirs. A few days later the Commune, or insurgents, pulled down the beautiful historical monument known as the "Napoleon column," in Place Vendome, out of sheer vandalism. A few weeks later the Versailles army succeeded in driving the "Communards," or insurgents, into the heart of Paris and compelled a surrender, but, before surrendering, the "vandels" set fire to and destroyed a number of public buildings, including the Palace of the Tuilleries and the Hotel de Ville.

In the latter part of the winter of 1871, my only son, Arthur, who had joined me at Brussels in the autumn of 1868, returned to the United States. After having graduated at the University of Wisconsin he went to Brussels and entered the "Universitie Libre" of that city, and took a course in the sciences. He passed his examination in the summer of 1870 and received a diploma as Bachelor of Sciences. In the autumn he was appointed and served for some months as bearer of dispatches for the United States from London to the United States legations at Paris and Berlin. He studied law after his return to the United States, practiced his profession in Chicago for nearly twenty years, when he was elected one of the judges of the superior court of Chicago. He has just been re-elected to serve a term of six years.

During the two months reign of the Commune in

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Paris, many thousands of its people left that city, a large portion of whom came to Brussels so that Belgium's capital was again filled with strangers. During the spring and summer of 1871 many distinguished Americans sojourned there, and our American colony which had suffered depletion after the close of the Franco-Prussian war received many accessions. Among others who came was G. W. Fishback, of St. Louis, the editor of the "St. Louis Republican" and his family. He was a quiet man, of amiable disposition and kindly manner, of eminent good sense, who won the respect and esteem of all who came in contact with him. Gen. J. H. Wilson, the famous Union commander of cavalry in the army of the Tennessee during the Civil war was also in Brussels for some days.

About this time there came also Mrs. Colonel Mulligan, of Chicago, the widow of Colonel James A. Mulligan, who, in the early part of the civil war, won so much renown for his heroic defense of Lexington, Mo. His name is the synonim of all that is patriotic, brave and gallant in the American soldier. Aside from being a great soldier and an able lawyer, he was exceptionally gifted as a graceful and forcible writer and an eloquent speaker. Mrs. Mulligan had her three little daughters with her, for whom she was trying to find some suitable French school. She is one of the best known ladies in Chicago, of much grace and charm of manner, and of rare intelligence. She had the compliment paid her of being appointed by the President, United States pension agent at Chicago, which position she filled for four years with marked ability. Her three amiable and accomplished daughters now live in Chicago, and are well known in its society circles.

The latter part of the summer of 1871 two distinguished citizens of Chicago visited Brussels viz. Judge

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Drummond of the United States District Court, and James Carter; formerly a banker with whom I transacted business in Galena in the 50's, and before he moved to Chicago, where he lived twenty years before his death. He was born in Scotland and educated there. In the 40's he came to the United States with his friends, George Smith and Alex. Mitchell, all intending to engage in the banking business. Smith located in Chicago, Mitchell in Wilwaukee, and Carter in Galena. They were all successful bankers. Smith and Mitchell became the most prominent bankers in the northwest.

Soon after, the Americans at Brussels were gratified to have among them ex-Governor Reuben E. Fenton, of New York, who had just been elected to the United States senate to succeed the distinguished statesman Hon. E. D. Morgan, and the Hon. Lyman Tremain, former judge, a lawyer of distinction, ex-United States Attorney General of New York, and ex-member of congress. Upon the invitation of these gentlemen I spent a day with them at Antwerp visiting the collections of paintings, sculpture, etc. Both were genial and affable and charming conversationalists, being full of reminiscences and anecdote. The day to me was a most enjoyable one and will never be forgotten.

About this time I was called upon at the consulate by Gen. Henry Wilson, United States Senator and Vice-President of the United States during Gen. Grant's second administration as President. He came in hurriedly, to make inquiries as how he could best visit the battlefield of Waterloo. I replied that I would accompany him, and induced him to stay and take breakfast with my family. After breakfast we took a carriage for the battlefield twelve miles distant. We reached there in good time and were enabled to go over the field with a guide before luncheon. He was deeply interested and seemed

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to enjoy every moment. This distinguished American statesman, for whom I always had great admiration, and who I had met in Washington, after the war, was in fine health and spirits, and during our ride he was affable and talked freely, and gave me much inside information with regard to war operations on the Potomac, gained by him as the chairman of the Senate committee of military affairs. On our return to Brussels he paid his respects to the United States Minister, J. Russell Jones, and then ascertained that preparations had been made to have him dine at the Legation, the dinner to be followed by an informal reception. To the sore disappointment of the Minister and many Americans who desired to meet him, Gen. Wilson informed the Minister that he would have to leave for London at 6 o'clock that evening to meet an engagement there the next morning.

Not long after the close of the Franco German war I met at Brussels and had some conversation with an intelligent German officer who had served in the war as a colonel of cavalry. While speaking of the amount of indemnity demanded, I remarked that Prince Bismarck, whom I regarded as without a peer in Europe as a statesman and diplomat, had made a grave mistake in retaining the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. The French government would and could have paid more indemnity, but the wresting from it of these provinces was regarded by the French as a wrong never to be forgiven. Had Bismarck not insisted on this ultimatum after the battle of Sedan, terms of capitulation could have been agreed upon, and the war have ended satisfactorily to the Prussians and have saved the French the fearful loss of lives and property through the insane actions of the Commune, and the Prussians a long campaign before the capitulation of Paris. The French nation has taken a vow to again possess the provinces coute qui coute. The colonel

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replied that he thought I was mistaken and that the Prince had acted wisely.

Since the close of the war the French government has expended many millions in money, fortifying its eastern border from Belgium to the Jura. The Prussian government has been compelled to do the same on the Rhine from the Belgium border to Switzerland. The French army has been increased from year to year, and the Prussian army has also been increased, and now, when the Czar of Russia suggests to all the powers in Europe that an agreement be entered into looking to the gradual reduction of all standing armies, Prussia consents or rather favors the suggestion, but France says no, not until Alsace and Lorraine have been won back.

In the middle of the forenoon of October, 10, 1871, the newspapers of Brussels, in extras, gave the startling intelligence that Chicago was burning, that ten blocks in the heart of the city were totally destroyed, and the loss was $100,000,000 and many lives lost. By evening it was stated that the burnt district was two and a half miles long and one mile wide, covering the entire central portion of the city, the total loss estimated to be $200,000,000, and that all the fire insurance companies had failed. The excitement in Brussels was intense, especially among the Americans. Within the next ten days meetings of sympathizers were held in London, Manchester, Liverpool, Berlin, Paris and Brussels and large sums of money were subscribed for the relief of the sufferers. London alone subscribed $100,000. I had many friends in Chicago whom I knew were among the sufferers. Most of my moneyed interest in Chicago was stock in the West Division Street railway, which had suffered very little. Later in the month news came of widespread and destructive fires in the pine districts of Wisconsin, and the loss estimated at $100,000,000 and thousands

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of lives lost. Moreover, news came that there was a panic in the stock market of New York. Judge Drummond of Chicago, who was in Brussels, immediately left for home. By the first of December telegrams were received stating that Chicago was being rapidly rebuilt, which greatly surprised the slower moving people of Brussels.

The following winter was a quiet one in Brussels, a natural reaction after a year and a half of business and social activity caused by the late Franco-Prussian war. Our American colony was greatly lessened, yet the attractiveness of this beautiful city, sometimes called "Le petit Paris," induced many American tourists to prolong their stay after reaching it. Its attractions to the visitor, especially in works of art, were great.

Among some of the last, Americans who came to Brussels was the well-known school book publisher of New York city, Albert S. Barnes, with his wife and a party of friends. They took apartments and remained in the city some time. Mr. Barnes was a man of wide culture, first-class business talent and of quiet and charming manner. Mrs. Barnes possessed rare personal and mental charms and great amiability of disposition. They soon became favorites in the colony. The acquaintance then formed ripened into friendship, which continued between the families for many years after their return to the United States. Soon after we took up our residence in Chicago we made the acquaintance of Charles J. Barnes and family, who have been and are still well known in its social circles. Mr. Barnes has been the manager of the Western department of the publishing house of A. S. Barnes & Co., of New York. He has managed the extensive business of his company with rare skill, discrimination and success. He is a gentleman of attractive personality, of a frank and genial disposition, and cordial and generous as a host.

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Soon after I assumed my duties of consul at Brussels I made the acquaintance of Mr. Eugene Verboeckhoven the celebrated painter of sheep and cattle, who had achieved a world-wide reputation. He had then been a painter, and in his early career a sculptor, for over forty years. He was genial and affable, and I frequently spent an hour with him in his great studio, which was filled with specimens of his work in painting and sculpture running through all these years. He was a hard and rapid worker, but the demand for his work was so great that he was at times a year behind in executing orders. His greatest success was in painting sheep in an enclosure or stable, or with a landscape about them. In the latter case, I once commented on the whiteness of his sheep in the landscape. He replied that long before he had spent one summer in Scotland, making studies of sheep on its heathery hills, and on these hills the fleece of the sheep is whiter, i. e., cleaner than elsewhere. I met him often at the banquets given by the artists' guild of Brussels, and as the senior in age and being the most distinguished artist, he was always the central figure and had the seat of honor.

About the first of January, 1872, I sent my resignation as United States Consul to the Department of State at Washington, to take effect the 1st of April, or as soon thereafter as my successor could be appointed and qualified. My three years' service in Brussels was in every way agreeable, but, as the object I had in view in accepting a consular appointment, which was to give my daughter the opportunity to learn the French language and to gratify my wife's desire to spend some time in Europe was accomplished, I felt a strong inclination to return to an active business life, and decided to go to Chicago, the place to which, of all others in the United States, I felt the most drawn. My successor in the Brussels

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consulate was Colonel John Wilson, a distinguished army surgeon during the civil war, who has served as Consul at Antwerp for three years and who was in every way admirably fitted to fill the position.

I left Brussels with some regret, for my family, as well as myself, had formed many pleasant acquaintances, not only among the Americans residing there, but also English and Belgium residents. I visited Brussels again in 1887, and found the city greatly improved and its population, like that of all the other large cities of Europe, greatly increased. After taking my wife and daughter on a tour through Germany, I left Brussels the early part of April, and, after a week spent in London, reached Chicago the latter part of the month.

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Chapter X.

CHICAGO AFTER THE GREAT FIRE of 1871,

On the 25th of April, 1872, I arrived at Chicago from Europe, where I expected to locate and engage in business. My wife and daughter accompanied me, and we were the welcomed guests of friends living on the South side, whom we had known in Europe. The next day, upon the invitation of a friend, I rode over the burned district. The sight was one of the saddest I had ever witnessed. I had no adequate idea or conception of the extent nor the completeness of the destruction caused by the terrific fire, which had no parallel in the world's history. The scene was simply appalling. I found great activity in the central or business part of the city. To my great surprise, I saw on Wabash avenue and State street immense buildings, temporarily constructed, filled with all kinds of merchandise and an active business being done, and on other streets many large and expensive buildings in process of construction. The people I met were all busy and hopeful, and not in the least cast down by the terrible disaster of the autumn before. The offices of professional and real estate men, as well as those of the banks, were in buildings on the West and South sides, just outside of the burnt district. Some few were in improvised buildings in the central part of the city. Ten years later, when looking at the rebuilt district, with its magnificent structures, which in point of stability and beauty of architecture surpassed

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in every respect the buildings which stood there before the fire, I said: "Verily, the great fire was a blessing in disguise to this people." My family, as well as myself, did not feel like strangers in that city of 300,000 inhabitants. We met everywhere and were cordially welcomed by men and women we had known in other parts of the state years before, and many delightful people whose acquaintance we had made during our stay in Europe.

In the summer of 1872 I organized the Home National Bank, intending it to be a West side banking institution. Its paid up capital was $250,000, and I secured for directors a few capitalists and the rest manufacturers living in the West division of the city. I was elected president of the board of directors and opened the bank on Washington and Halsted streets, the center of the business district of the West side. Soon afterwards I was appointed a member of, the board of education, a member of the board of management of the Chicago Athseneam, a member of the board of directors of the Chicago Stock Exchange, one of the executive committee of the Citizens' Association, and also on the board of management of a benevolent organization. I soon began to realize that I was doing a great deal of work for the public, leaving me but little time to attend to my own personal affairs.

Some two or three years after I had located in Chicago a movement was made by leading citizens to construct a large building on the lake front, to be used for holding annual exhibitions of farm products and manufactured articles, including works of art. It was to be known as the Interstate Exposition building. I favored the project heartily, feeling, that if there was a place in the United States favorably located for such exhibitions, it was Chicago, situated in the geographical center of the best part of the continent of North America, very accessible

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by railroad and by water from all points and having about it, within a radius of 500 miles, more fertile lands than any other large city in the world. The project met with general favor. The building, inexpensive, but convenient and comfortable, covering an area of 250 by 800 feet, with spacious galleries, was erected. For nearly a score of years extensive exhibitions were held annually, which without interfering with state or county fairs in the Northwest, met a want long and generally felt. There is no question that Chicago was greatly benefitted by these annual exhibitions, which lasted from thirty to forty days. The building was removed a few years ago, and I am gratified to know that prominent capitalists and business men are planning to erect, in the near future, a larger and more substantial building for the same general purpose. Another movement on the part of far-sighted and enterprising citizens was the securing of land for a system of extensive parks and boulevards. It has taken many years to carry out so far the plans adopted, which when completed will give Chicago more extensive parks and boulevards than any other city in the world.

In the early spring of 1874 a few old-time abolitionists of Chicago planned to hold a national reunion of old abolitionists at Chicago. The project met with a hearty response from all parts of the country, and the 10th day of the following June was fixed upon as the time for holding the reunion, which was to last three days. Allan Pinkerton, R. B. Derrickson and other well-known citizens of Chicago, were the executive committee and Zebina Eastman, the editor of "The Tree of Liberty" and the "Daily News" in Chicago in 1845 6, was secretary. The sessions were held in the Second Baptist, the Second Congregational and the Park Congregational churches, one day's session in each church. Vice President

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Henry Wilson of Massachusetts, had promised to attend the reunion and act as president. I was chosen as first vice president, Hon. J. B. Grinnell, M. C., of Iowa, as second, and the Hon. James Birney of Michigan, as third vice president. Mr. Birney was the son of the distinguished statesman and early abolitionist, the Hon. James B. Birney of Kentucky, for a long time the earnest and able advocate of gradual emancipation in his own state and the founder of and a prominent leader in the American Anti-Slavery society. James Birney was appointed in 1876, by President Grant, United States Minister Resident at The Hague. At the first day's session Governor Beveridge of Illinois, delivered the address of welcome, and I responded in behalf of the meeting in the absence of Vice President Wilson, who, at the last hour, was prevented from coming to Chicago by serious illness in his family. The secretary of the executive committee, Mr. Eastman, read an interesting paper on the martyrdom of the Rev. E. P. Lovejoy at Alton. III., in 1837. Mrs. Jane G. Swisshelm, a well-known writer and lecturer, and for many years the editor of the "Saturday Visitor," published at Pittsburgh, Pa., delivered an exceedingly able address. The second day the meetings, morning, afternoon and evening, were addressed by the Rev. Dr. W. H. Brisbane, an old-time abolitionist, writer and lecturer; Mrs. Harper, a highly educated colored woman of Philadelphia; President Blanchard of Wheaton College, Ill.; Joseph W. Alden, editor of "The Emancipator," and the Hon. Joseph Gillette. The third day a valuable historical paper was read by the Rev. Mr. Goodell of Janesville, Wis., giving the history of the rise and fall of slavery in the United States. The afternoon of the third day was given to listening to personal experiences in the days when the "underground railroad" was in active operation, The desire to speak by persons

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in attendance was so great that the time was limited by vote to ten minutes for each speaker, and for the last hour it was limited to five minutes, and finally, when the gavel fell and the announcement was made of the adjournment of the reunion sine die, it was agreed that the session be continued informally to permit persons desiring to speak to do so.

This gathering or reunion was composed of men and women from all parts of the country (not a few being Quakers from Ohio, Pennsylvania and Kentucky), most of whom were already well advanced in life, and who, for more than a score of years previous to the civil war, had wrought heroically, impelled by honest convictions, to abolish a detested system of human slavery and to aid all in bondage and seeking freedom to gain it. When, finally, the civil war had secured for the slave this long sought, liberty they had met to praise God and tell what they had done and suffered toward furthering this grand result. The proceedings of this reunion had been kept for the purpose of having them published in book form, in compliance with the wishes of its members. Soon after the close of the reunion, however, by an accident, all the records, which were regarded as historically valuable, were destroyed. I have, therefore, in the foregoing pages, tried to give from notes I made at the time a full synopsis of the proceedings of that remarkable gathering. Many letters of regret were received from distinguished citizens from all over the country, among others, one of great interest from the Hon. Charles Francis Adams of Massachusetts.

In the summer of 1873, accompanied by my wife, I visited California, going directly to San Francisco. This was my first visit to that great state, which had been so full of interest to me since the early '50s, when I came near joining a party of friends who were going there

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overland. I was impressed not only with the beauty and grandeur of the scenery, but also with the wonderful productiveness of its soil, its great mineral wealth and the wonderful salubrity of its climate, making it one of the grandest states in the Union. Five years ago I spent a winter in California, making Los Angeles my home. I had many years before spent a winter in Italy, and I am fully convinced that Southern California has a climate far superior to that of Italy, especially for people with weak lungs or who need "building up." The productiveness of the soil of Southern California almost surpasses belief. Three crops are easily obtained from the same land in one year. This vast state, 700 miles in length and susceptible of supporting a dense population, is divided at about 250 miles from its southern boundary by the Mohave range of mountains, and will at some future day, I feel sure, be divided into two states, Upper and Lower California. Los Angeles, almost in the geographical center of the lower half, would naturally be its capital. It is a city already of nearly 100,000 inhabitants and growing in population faster than any other city in the state. Twenty-five years hence its population will reach nearly a quarter of a million and in time may become the rival of San Francisco in this respect.

In 1893, during a five months stay in Los Angeles, I became well acquainted with Mrs. Gen. Fremont, ne Jessie Benton, who had been a resident of the place for several years. She was living in a delightful part of the city in a beautiful cottage surrounded by orange trees, the gift of a number of the citizens of the place who had known her husband after the Mexican war, when he was commanding a small force of United States troops stationed there. Her only daughter was living with her. Mrs. Fremont although nearly 70 years of age was in excellent health with all her mental faculties entirely

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unimpaired. About the time her husband was the candidate for President (1856) when she was in the prime of life, was regarded as one of the most beautiful and brilliant women in Washington society. She had been very highly educated and her father Col. Benton of St. Louis (afterward United States Senator) took unusual pains with her when a girl, giving much personal attention to her education. She became a fine linguist and read and conversed in five languages. I was a little surprised to find her speak French so fluently. She is fund of the language and speaks it whenever she has the opportunity. As a conversationalist she excels, and delights in talking of the past connected with her long and eventful life. Her two sons are in the service of the government, one having been educated in the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, and the other in the Military Academy at West Point. Both were in the late Spanish-American war and made excellent records, one in the navy and the other in the army. They are proving "worthy sons of a noble sire," Mrs. Freemont is always glad to receive calls from visitors to Los Angeles.

While in California in 1873, we were the guests for some days of Governor Newton Booth, living in Sacramento the capital of the state. His career was a remarkable one. As a "hoosier boy" just out of college, he went to California, made some money, returned home, studied law, was admitted to practice, went back to California, and settled in Sacramento where he became the manager of the largest wholesale grocery house in the state. In the 60's he was elected a State Senator, and soon afterwards Governor of the state. While Governor he was elected to the United States Senate, and served one term. His popularity in the state was great. He never severed his connection with the great mercantile house of Booth & Co., of which he had been the head for nearly 30 years,

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until his death in 1893. He was always a careful student and during his official life was regarded as one of the most scholarly men in the state, and all his state papers while Governor, and his speeches in congress which were infrequent, indicated the thorough scholar and statesman. An unpretentious man of fine intellect, far sighted in business affairs, and of attractive manner. When in the senate at Washington, he was the intimate friend of one of Illinois' favorite sons, Gen. R. J. Oglesby then United. States Senator, who held his brother senator from California in high esteem.

Among the distinguished men I met and afterward knew well in San Francisco, was the Hon. J. K. Swift, a lawyer of exceptional ability, whose practice was large and who was generally regarded as one of the "coming men" of the coast. He was appointed one of the special commission chosen to negotiate a commercial treaty with China, of which the Hon. (Dr.) J. B. Angell, president of Ann Arbor University, Mich., and late United States Embassador to Turkey was President. His bright intellect, and wide information in regard to commercial matters in China, made him a valuable member of the commismission. After his return to the United States he was appointed Minister to Japan, and died there before the end of his term of service.

During my stay in San Francisco, I often met one of my old army comrades of the civil war in the person of Colonel Alex Hawes of the Ninth Illinois Infantry whose regiment, during the first two years of the war, was brigaded with mine, the Twelfth Illinois infantry, which brigade part of the time was commanded by Gen. Oglesby. For nearly a score of years Colonel Hawes had held the responsible position of general agent of the New York Life Insurance Company for the Pacific coast, and was one of the best known men in San Francisco.

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He made a splendid record in the civil war during his four years of service. He possesses administrative ability of a high order, an attractive personality, is frank and generous in disposition and highly esteemed by all who know him. Some years ago he was sent by the company to London, England, to superintend its large business in Great Britain.

In the latter part of the '80s I met at a dinner party at the house of a mutual friend in Chicago Joseph Jefferson, the celebrated actor. The conversation at the table was in regard to early times in Chicago and the Northwest. I mentioned incidently that in 1840 I knew him at Galena and that we had played town ball together. He looked up in surprise, and said: "Are you Gus Chetlain, the athlete, as the boys called him, of the Campbell school, whom I knew when my father and McKenzie ran a theater there for a season?" I replied, "I am." "Well, well," he continued, "I remember that winter well. I played occasionally when a role suitable for a girl or a boy happened to be on the bill, for I was only 11 years of age, and as I had leisure, I joined in the sports of the boys of Campbell's school, which was kept in the next door to our improvised theater. There were a lot of bright boys in that school with whom I became acquainted and of whom I have often thought since, wondering what had become of them." After dinner we were in the library, and, when cigars had been lighted, he said: "Now tell me about those Galena boys. What has become of them?" I replied: There was Eugene Strode, the oldest son of Colonel Strode, and one of the oldest of the boys, who studied for the ministry and became a distinguished Baptist clergyman in Tennessee. He is now dead. John Q. Charles, the son of 'Squire Charles, the old justice, who studied law and became a merchant for a time, went to Pike's Peak in the early

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'50s, moved to Denver, practiced law, went to the legislature, made a big success in some land deal, and is now one of Denver's millionaire lawyers. Bolton Strother, related to the distinguished family of Strothers in Virginia, the handsome and bright scholar who studied law in Galena, practiced there a while, moved to Chicago, won a high position at the bar, and when 35 years of age, through the influence of his friend and admirer, Stephen A. Douglas, was appointed collector of the Port of Chicago. He was a brilliant fellow, but was careless and irregular in his habits, and died soon after reaching 40 years of age. There was James M. Maughs, very bright and a good debater at the age of 15, who when 20 years of age was appointed by Governor Ford of Illinois, one of the three aides on his staff with the rank of colonel of cavalry. In the latter '40s he moved with his father, who was a, lumberman, to Central Wisconsin and engaged in the lumber business with great success for a time, and then lost all by timber fires and general bad luck. There too, was the handsome and bright little Watson Smoker, your favorite among the boys, who took to steamboating on the lower Mississippi, first as a clerk and then as a captain. He was popular and successful, but died before middle life. Albert Stephenson (Buck Hooper) was the mechanical genius of the school, who, at the age of 12 with a pocket knife, some lead and tin, ingeniously constructed a small engine, 8x32 inches in size, which worked admirably. He took a position as, an engineer on one of our large steamboats, invented several valuable improvements for steam engines, and died a few years ago in St. Louis. Abner Hodgins, the quiet and studious boy of the school, who when as a clerk in a lumber firm, moved to Winona Minn., engaged in the manufacture and sale of lumber, was elected the mayor of the city and is now one of the honored and

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wealthy men of that place. (He has recently died.) Calmes Wight, son of State Senator A. G. S. Wight, one of our oldest boys, went into the Mexican war and was elected the first lieutenant of Captain Crow's Galena company and made an excellent record as a soldier. A few years later, when a young lawyer of recognized ability, he died when on his way to St. Louis.

Then I asked Mr. Jefferson how it came about that the Jefferson-McKenzie troupe was in so far an out of the way place in winter as the lead mines, with such a large and able corps of actors. He replied, in substance, that the Jefferson-McKenzie troupe wanted to go West for a year as a venture. They left New York in the spring and made their way to Buffalo by canal, playing in the larger places on their route. After a brief engagement at Buffalo they took a steamer for Chicago, stopping for a few days at Cleveland, Detroit and Milwaukee. They spent the later summer and fall in Chicago, doing a fine paying business, when they proceeded to Galena in open wagons, taking their stage paraphernalia with them. They played in Galena until the close of the year, when they went to Dubuque for a month or more, returned to Galena, where they remained until after the opening of navigation in April. Leaving Galena the troupe went to Burlington by steamboat and then to Quincy, Peoria and Springfield, filling brief engagements in each place. The intention was to stop in Springfield all summer, erect a temporary playhouse or theater, and play there all the next winter during the session of the legislature. During the summer McKenzie and wife left the troupe. Jefferson played in Springfield all winter and then went south to Memphis and Mobile, at which latter place he died, and young Joe, with his mother and a younger sister, were left to shift for themselves.

In the latter part of 1879, when Gen. Grant was

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about to return from his memorable tour around the world, a movement was started in the East to place him in nomination for the Presidency in 1880. The three leading public men most active in the movement were Senators Conklin of New York, Logan of Illinois, and Cameron of Pennsylvania. These men, with all others who joined in the movement, claimed that Gen. Grant would be nominated in convention by acclamation, and the character of his reception after his tour around the world by the people, without regard to party, from San Francisco to New York, seemed to justify their claim. When Gen. Grant, after his return, was consulted, he said that he would not consent to be a candidate; but finally stated that he would take no part in the movement, and that the nomination should either have to come to him unsolicited or not at all. Gen. Grant's old friend, ex-Minister Washburne, then residing in Chicago, gave his early support to the movement. Later, however, and after the ovations were over and an anti-third term sentiment had sprung up in the Republican party, he became convinced that Gen. Grant would never permit his name to be used in the convention if there was to be a contest, and he foresaw that a contest was inevitable.

Gen. Grant took his family to his Galena home and soon after started on a tour through the South, Cuba and Mexico. It was arranged that Mr. Washburne was to join the general and his party in Cuba and go with them to Mexico. For some reason I never understood, Mr. Washburne did not carry out the agreement. As the winter wore away it became evident to the leaders of the party that a more pronounced anti-third term sentiment was growing in the party in various parts of the country, many prominent German Republicans taking the lead. Mr. Washburne, as Gen. Grant's best friend, was appealed to to stop the movement, secure Grant's nomination

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the following June, and after throwing out the suggestion that in case Gen. Grant should decline to go before the convention, he, Washburne, would certainly be taken up and nominated. Others appealed to Mr. Washburne to come out openly and declare himself a candidate. His invariable reply to the latter was: "I am not a candidate. I am a Grant man, and will support him for President."

In the month of March, 1880, a Republican club was organized at Mt. Carroll, Ill., and named the Washburne Republican club, the intention of the club being to advocate the claims of Mr. Washburne for President. I discussed the matter with Mr. Washburne, and he in my presence, wrote to the president of the club, protesting against the use of his name for the club, saying that he "was a Grant man and not a candidate for President." About this time many Republicans in the state began to distrust Mr. Washburne's sincerity as a supporter of Gen. Grant, and talked about it openly. I went to Mr. Washburne and told him want I had heard, and added that he ought to stop certain of his friends I named from publicly supporting him, and that the feeling against him was growing bitter. He replied that he had done everything possible to prevent people from supporting him, and had said a thousand times that he was not a candidate, but a supporter of Grant for President. I added: "All that is doubtless true, but something ought to be done at once to set you right with the Grant men. Your only hope is with the Grant supporters. If anything should happen to him, and you are on right terms with his adherents, they would undoubtedly favor you, but the way things are going on, in such an emergency you would be ground to powder." He simply replied, "I have done all I can — more I cannot do."

As the spring advanced, matters grew worse. Washburne

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continued to receive many letters begging him to cut loose from Gen. Grant and take an independent stand as a candidate before the convention. This he would not do, for he was pledged to Grant and to Grant's supporters, and he would stand by his pledges. I saw him every day. He seemed perplexed and worried. About the 1st of May I met Gen. Grant at Mr. Washburne's home in Chicago, and it seemed to me then that their former friendly relations were unchanged. Gen. Grant was on his way to Springfield, with a party of leading Republicans, to hold a conference. Mr. Washburne joined the party, although more than half sick, and his ailment I knew was more mental than physical. Arrived at Springfield, the party were invited to dine with the Governor. Mr. Washburne accepted with the rest of the party. Before the end of the dinner he begged to be excused on account of illness, went to his hotel took a late train for the East and stopped at the house of a relative at Bridgeport, Conn., went to his bed a sick man, and remained there for some weeks.

The convention was held in Chicago early in June. The Grant men were united and sanguine. The opposition was not united, but determined. The proceedings of that remarkable convention are a matter of history. The delegates voting for Grant, numbering 306, stood together without a break through many ballotings. Finally the opposition united, and Gen. Garfield was nominated. Gen. Grant during the session of the convention was at his home in Galena. A private telegraph wire in the officer of his old staff officer, Gen. W. R. Rowley, gave him the proceedings of the convention direct and without delay. A dispatch came to him at 11 o'clock the day of Garfield's nomination, stating that at 1 o'clock he (Grant) would be nominated. Instead, at 1 o'clock a message came announcing the nomination of Gen. Garfield.

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Gen. Grant exhibited no unusual emotion. He rose from his seat, adjusted his hat, lighted his cigar and remarked: "Well, I am glad that as good a man as Garfield has received the nomination." He then started for his home to give his wife the news.

The next day he said to Gen. Rowley: "My friends have not treated me well. They assured me that there would be no serious opposition to me in the convention. I could not afford to go before that convention and be defeated" It is very clear that Gen. Grant was not aware before the convention of the strong opposition to him, or rather to the third term, as was shown by the vote of the convention. Gen. Grant felt his defeat very keenly. Mr. Washburne did not receive many votes in the convention, although he was the second choice of very many of the Grant delegates. He had reached Detroit on his way home when Garfield was nominated. The feeling among many of the Grant delegates who had stood solidly and so long for their candidate, seemed to intensify against Washburne after the adjournment, and Gen. Grant shared in the feeling. Washburne's conduct was condemned in bitter terms, and he was charged with having acted perfidiously. In the excitement, much was said and done which was clearly unjust to Mr. Washburne.

The politicians who started to make Gen. Grant President for the third time did it, I believe, to head off a movement in favor of Mr. Washburne, whose popularity since his return as Embassador to France was very great, especially with the Germans. Senator Conkling had been a bitter enemy of Washburne's for twenty years, the outgrowth of a serious quarrel when both were members of the House of Representatives. Gen. Logan was strenuously opposed to him because he feared his political influence in the state of Illinois should he

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become President. As to Senator Cameron, he, to say the least, was never an admirer of Mr. Washburne, and did not want to see him President. Gen. Grant, who was just about to return from his tour around the world, was just the man for them, if he could be induced to accept the nomination. They moved judiciously and obtained his consent to be a candidate, which he gave with great reluctance and on condition that there was to be no opposition to him in the convention. Although Mr. Washburne, early and with much enthusiasm, joined in the movement to make his old friend again President, I have always been of the opinion that by the middle of the next winter he became convinced that Gen. Grant would not be nominated and held to that idea to the very last. He knew better than any one else the growing opposition to a third term, which would inevitably bring on a contest in the convention and which, when discovered by Gen. Grant, would induce him to peremptorily decline to be a candidate. It was asserted, during and after the convention, that Mr. Washburne controlled enough votes among the anti-third term delegates to have given Gen. Grant the nomination had he so willed. This was not true. Mr. Washburne had a few friends among the so called opponents to Gen. Grant. His many friends were among the Grant delegates. What few he had in the opposition to Grant were not under his control. There was no combination favoring Mr. Washburne or any one else who was opposed to Grant. The contest was not between Gen. Grant and some one else, but between Gen. Grant and the anti-third term idea.

The breach between these two old and trusted friends way complete. They never met again after the Springfield dinner at the gubernatorial mansion. So bitter and unrelenting was Gen. Grant that when writing his memoirs just before his death, he almost entirely

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ignored his old friend. The breach between these two great men of world-wide renown was the saddest that had ever occurred in the history of the nation. I, too, suffered with Mr. Washburne in Gen. Grant's estimation, for he believed that I, who had been his friend throughout, had advised and upheld Mr. Washburne in his course. The blow to both was severe, and neither ever fully recovered from its effect.

Many years have elapsed since the occurrences related above took place. Gen. Grant I had always regarded as my friend, and as a soldier he was my ideal. Mr. Washburne had been my intimate friend for nearly two score years. The longer I live the more I am convinced, knowing as I do their close friendly relations during and after the civil war, that Gen. Grant ought never to have consented to be a candidate for the Presidency the third time, and when asked to take the nomination should have replied: "No, gentlemen, I will not accept the nomination, but there is my friend, Mr. Washburne, well qualified for the high position; nominate him and I will work for his election."

In February, 1885, when Gen. Grant was so ill at his home in New York city that his physicians believed he could live but a short time, Mr. Washburne left hurriedly for New York and returned in ten days. After his return he seemed ill at ease and depressed in spirits. In conversation with him about his visit to New York, he said, with some hesitancy, that he had gone there hoping that it might result in a meeting with Gen. Grant and possibly a reconciliation between them. He said he went to one of the leading hotels of the city and all the daily papers had noticed his arrival. When I asked him if he made an effort to see Gen. Grant, he answered. "No. The General knew I was in the city, and if he had desired to see me he could easily have notified

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me. He was the greater man, and it was for him to extend his hand, which I would have taken with pleasure." I never heard him allude to the matter again.

In the latter part of the '70s there drifted into Chicago six young men from Galena. They were James W. Scott, Christian C. Kohlsaat, George B. Swift, Herman Kohlsaat, Hempstead Washburne and Arthur H. Chetlain. They were all Galena boys and at times schoolmates, who often went out on little excursions to shoot turkeys, pheasants and quail on the wooded bluffs of the Mississippi river west of Galena. In time, one after the other located in Chicago, and it so happened that in the early '90s, without any concert of action or combination, Scott was the manager and part proprietor of the "Times-Herald," and Herman Kohlsaat, proprietor and manager of the "Inter Ocean," both leading daily newspapers of the city. George B. Swift was mayor of the city, and was preceded by Hempstead Washburne and Carter H. Harrison, who was mayor during the world's fair year. Christian C. Kohlsaat was judge of the Cook County Probate Court, and Arthur H. Chetlain one of the judges of the Superior Court of Chicago, An old and prominent Chicagoan remarked at the time "that it looks very much as if Chicago was being run by Galena men." All who were officials were regarded as upright, able and efficient in the discharge of their official duties. The two who were managers of newspapers achieved wide reputations for energy, tact, discrimination and excellent administrative ability.

In 1892 I organized the Industrial Bank of Chicago, with a paid-up capital of $200,000, locating it in the manufacturing district lying near West Twenty-second street and Blue Island avenue. The need of banking facilities had long been felt in that district by the lumber and coal dealers and iron manufacturers. I was elected

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the president of the board of directors. Fifteen months after its doors had been opened for business I was taken severely ill, and my eyesight became seriously impaired. I was compelled to give up all business. I went to California for a year for the benefit of my health. After my return I found myself still unfit for business, and sold out my interest in the institution, greatly to my sorrow, for when I organized it I intended the scheme to be the last business venture of my life. The bank started under most favorable auspices and its business met the expectation of its managers. In the board of directors were James B. Goodman and W. D. Goodman, extensive lumber manufacturers and dealers, who had large interests in pine lands in Wisconsin, with the reputation of being some of Chicago's most sagacious and successful business men; Louis Hutt, ex-county treasurer and a large manufacturer and dealer in lumber John McLaren, now the president of the Hide and Leather Bank of Chicago, a financier of recognized ability, and Davey S. Pate and B. M. Hair, well known lumbermen, whose business qualifications were of a high order, and who ranked among the leading and successful lumbermen of Chicago.

In 1881 there was started a scheme to celebrate the semi-centenial year of Chicago's existence as a chartered city, by a unique international military encampment to last twenty days. Troops of the regular army, of National Guards of various states, and a few small bodies of troops from Europe were to go into camp together and give drills for prizes, etc., thereby giving them an opportunity to fraternize. The project was well received and approved of by many leading citizens of Chicago who pledged material aid. It was estimated that the cost of the enterprise, including the expense of bringing troops from Europe and subsisting them while in the encampment, would be about $200,000. The

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month of October was fixed upon as the time for holding the encampment. I was not one of the original promoters of the scheme, but was chosen Vice-President of the organization with the view of securing my services in obtaining troops from the various countries in Europe. Ex-Governor, J. L. Beveridge, a man of large experience in business affairs was the President of the organization. Gen. C. S. Bentley of the Iowa National Guards, then a resident of Chicago, and one of the original projectors of the enterprise, was chosen as General Manager or Commander, on account of his previous experience, having managed with success several inter-state encampments of National Guards, assisted by troops of the regular army, and for his well known energy and executive ability.

In the latter part of May I sailed for Europe, accompanied by Gen. C. S. Bentley, the General Manager, who was to assist me in securing troops in England, Holland and Belgium. The State Department at Washington as the result of an interview with Hon. T. B. Bayard, the Secretary of State, had provided me with an official letter to each of our diplomatic representatives in England and Europe, instructing him to give me such aid as he could in carrying out my mission. These letters were placed in my hand by Secretary Bayard in person. I learned, soon after reaching Europe, that Secretary Bayard, after the letters of introduction had been prepared, was informed that the enterprise was of a private character and for personal gain, and at once sent a circular letter to each one to whom my letters were addressed, cautioning him against doing anything that might lead other governments to believe that our government was endorsing the scheme, that it was a private enterprise, etc. Had Secretary Bayard said this to me when he gave me the letters in question as he should have done, I

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think I would not have gone to Europe, but have returned to Chicago and advised abandoning the enterprise, at least so far as trying to get troops from Europe.

My treatment by the United States ministers was courteous and nothing more. At Brussels I made the discovery alluded to, after I had visited London and Paris. It was then too late to think of retreating and I went on with my mission without the co-operation of our ministers. From Brussels I went to The Hague (Holland) and then to Berlin, Copenhagen, Stockholm, St. Petersburg, Vienna and Berne. All the ministers of war I met treated me with consideration despite the "shady" character of my credentials, and in every instance I was permitted to have interviews with them, without the usual formality of making a written request for an audience through the American Legation, and being compelled to wait, sometimes for days for a reply. Gen. Ferron, the French Minister of War, at the request of an official in the office of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, whom I had known in the United States, granted me an immediate audience. I used his action as a precedent afterwards with all other officials, with the result given above.

I will here digress to say that General Ferron, the French Minister of War, had been informed before I saw him that I was a personal friend of Gen. Grant. At the audience granted me, after I had stated my business briefly, and had agreed to see him again upon my return from Northern Europe I rose to go. He said, "No, General, be seated, I want to talk with you about Gen. Grant, who I am told you knew well." Upon my assuring him that such was the case he went on to say, "I was in command in Algeria during your great war, and was impressed with Gen. Grant's admirable conduct at Fort

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Donelson and the splendid victory he there achieved. From that time to the end of the war I studied him carefully. You had many able commanders in your war, as had also the Confederates. Your General Sherman showed great ability as the commander of a large army. General Sheridan was simply splendid as a cavalry officer, and as commanders of great ability you had besides, McClellan, Thomas Meade and Rosecrans. Now tell me General, wherein do you think Grant was a great commander?" I hesitated a moment and replied, "Gen. Grant never claimed to be a tactician. He probably was not a greater organizer than some of the Generals you have named, but as a cool, determined and persistent fighter he had no equal ill our army. Gen. Grant had a mathematical brain, and his forte was as a strategist or planner of campaigns. His old commandant at the military academy at West Point, while Gen. Grant was a cadet, Gen. Charles F. Smith, one of the oldest and ablest generals in our civil war, told me before the battle of Fort Donelson, that Gen. Grant, as a cadet, was wonderfully proficient in mathematics." I said farther, "I don't think General, that the true history of Gen. Grant has yet been written. We are too near the scenes of that great war, but in time, such a historian as your Thiers or Macaulay, of England, or our own Prescott, will give to the world a true history of that great military commander, and then I think it will be found that in high strategy i. e. in planning campaigns for an army, or rather armies of 1,200,000 men scattered along a line of nearly one thousand miles in length, Gen. Grant could do so better and more successfully than any other military commander that this century has produced." Gen. Ferron became deeply interested, and as I finished he brought his hand down upon his knee with some force and said, "General, that is the conclusion I reached

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long ago." Gen. Ferron was then a man nearly sixty years of age, tall, spare, gray haired, with a kindly face and a dignified and courteous manner. I learned afterwards that the General had the reputation of being one of the most accomplished officers in the French army, and an authority in army matters, not only in France, but in all Europe.

The result of my visit to the countries I have named was as follows: The law in France prohibited her armed troops from going beyond her limits. The proposition made to Gen. Ferron was to allow, say forty cadets of the National Military school at St. Cyr to go to Chicago to join an equal number of graduates from West Point, to be together at the encampment, and then all go to West Point for a visit. After my return from Northern Europe, Gen. Ferron said that my proposition had been favorably considered, but he regretted to say that all the cadets of the National Military school at St. Cyr who had graduated in June had been assigned to armies in various parts of the world, and that, had the encampment been held in July or August my proposition would doubtless have been accepted.

In London there were two independent regiments, like the famous Seventh of New York, and the First regiment of Illinois National Guards of Chicago, composed of young men in the professions, trades, etc. From one of the two. "The Scottish Rifles," we hoped to get one company of eighty men with its officers and its lieutenant colonel and his staff. At Brussels we were to get a company of eighty picked men, twenty from each of the four arms of the service, with its officers and a major general and his staff officers. At The Hague, Holland, a general with hisstaff officers and fifteen lieutenants of the line agreed to come. Prussia had regular troops only, and

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would not permit them to go to the United States, fearing they might not return, as there was no provision in the treaty with the United States by which they could be compelled to return. At St. Petersburg I was cordially received by the Minister of War, General De Feldman, who informed me that my request had been considered, and that the government regretted that some complications in the southeast border of the empire might become serious, and it was not deemed advisable to permit any part of the army to leave the empire; that under ordinary circumstances the government would have been glad to send 100 or more picked men with their officers and a general officer and staff by a man of war to New York, without expense to any one. At Vienna conditions were much the same as at Berlin, but the government would send a general officer and staff to represent their country at the International Military Encampment. At Berne I found no difficulty in securing eighty sharpshooters and their officers and a colonel and staff. That there could be no doubt as to our ability to meet the expense incurred by the visiting foreign troops, there was an agreement in every instance that immediately upon my return to Chicago I was to place in some bank funds estimated to be sufficient to defray the expenses of the contingent to New York, and from there to Chicago and during the encampment and return. At Denmark, Norway and Sweden no deposit of funds was asked for, and there were sent eighty picked men with their officers, and besides twenty-one officers, including two colonels. The contingent was in command of Colonel Lilliehook, commander at Stockholm of the regiment of Royal Guards. He was an officer of distinction, both brave and accomplished and of large experience, who had actively participated in two wars. After my return from Europe, about the close of

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July, I was surprised to find that the managers had failed to raise by subscription the money necessary to meet the estimated expenses of bringing foreign troops to the encampment. There had been lack of energy and system in obtaining subscriptions. They had on the books less than $100,000, when over $200,000 would be required to carry out the agreements made while on my mission. I immediately notified the parties in London, The Hague and Berne that their contingents had been eliminated from troops to come from foreign countries. The Belgium contingent, a very desirable one, at the last moment decided not to come. The Scandinavian officers, after their return to their various countries, wrote back to the management expressing thanks for the courteous treatment they had received while at Chicago.

The month of October was a most disagreeable one for a military encampment. The cold and wet weather prevented visitors from attending. Moreover, the National Guards of the state, especially those of the city of Chicago, for some real or fancied slight on the part of the management, failed to give the encampment the support expected. The government was liberal in sending some of its best troops of infantry, cavalry and artillery, who co-operated cordially with the management in its efforts to make the encampment a success. It was not, however, the success its friends had hoped for and confidently expected.

I have given above in detail my experience while on my missions to obtain foreign troops to take part in the International Military Encampment held in Chicago in 1887, to show that troops can be obtained in foreign countries for such a purpose. The idea of bringing together troops of various countries to fraternize for a time is a, good one, and cannot result in other than mutual good.

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As I came into daily contact with many of Chicago's active and enterprising men, I was more impressed with them than with Chicago itself, wonderful as it has bee in its growth and prosperity. And now, looking backward over more than a quarter of a century, I find that many men with whom my life became unconsciously interwoven in society, in politics and in business affairs, are and will be a part of me the rest of my life. Among those now dead, whom I vividly recall, is that singular character, John Wentworth, I knew him well, and yet he was and ever will be an enigma to me. Every one recognized his wonderful power over men. As an editor of a newspaper, a representative in congress, and as a political leader he was "one in a million." Had this gifted man been less devoted to John Wentworth and more so to humanity about him, he would have ranked higher among the nation's great men.

J. Young Scammon, once almost an autocrat in Chicago in finance/in politics, in society and in public affairs, was a born leader of men. He had a clear intellect, broad education, large experience, and was gifted as a vigorous writer and impressive speaker. The real strength and beauty of his character was clearly seen in his patient philosophical and cheerful endurance of adversity through financial disasters which overtook him several years before his death.

There was also a brother banker, W. C. Coolbaugh, the banker and able financier, who held such a distinguished place among the financial men of the Northwest. It is a pity that he did not live out his natural life to show to the world the power he possessed. That he was a man of great mental force, clear-headed and far-sighted, no one who knew him could doubt.

I knew as far back as 1858, Emory Storrs, the brilliant, learned and resourceful lawyer and captivating orator,

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who, had he practiced more discrimination in the management of his every-day private affairs would have held a higher position among those who are deemed truly great. His marked ability as a lawyer was universally recognized and his friends all over the country made efforts with two administrations to have him appointed United States attorney general. If he failed to be appointed, it was not because he lacked the requisite ability.

And Leonard Swett, the great lawyer who had few peers in the state, and who was the intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln and of Senator and former Judge David Davis. He always seemed to me like the tall and. shapely oak in the forest. I knew him well, admired his splendid ability, and loved him for his stern integrity and generous and sympathetic disposition.

About 1856 I first met Judge Lyman Turnbull, the distinguished lawyer, able jurist and ripe statesman, who during the dark days of the civil war, while, chairman of the Senate Committee on Judiciary, did so much in, shaping in a constitutional manner important legislation, and, after the war, legislation bearing on the reconstruction of the seceded Southern states.

I knew well the sound lawyer and learned jurist, Judge C. B. Lawrence, for many years preceding his death a resident of Chicago, and who, for some time, was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the state of Illinois, and later was appointed by President Hayes one of the five commissioners, of which Senator McVeagh of Pennsylvania, was the chairman, to investigate the returns made by the state of Louisiana for President the year before. Few men whom I have known intimately impressed me with their nobility of character more than he. Of wide and varied learning and a good conversationalist, he was a favorite wherever he was known.

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James W. McVicker, the veteran theatrical manager of Chicago, was a man of acute mental perception, of firm convictions, of sturdy integrity, with a generous disposition, and who was so conspicuous in his active loyalty to the Union at the breaking out of the civil war that he was elected an honorary member of the Illinois Commandery of Loyal Legion of the United States. I knew him intimately, and loved him for his admirable qualities of head and heart.

There too was the Rev. Dr. Patterson, the recognized leader of the Presbyterian church in the Northwest for over two score of years before his death. Of commanding presence, untiring energy and will force, a sound and learned theologian and an able and convincing speaker. I had often heard him in the pulpit of the Rev. Aratus Kent at Galena long before I knew him in Chicago. He was one of a type of men fast disappearing, and was a potent factor in the building up of the Presbyterian church and in founding educational institutions. When he died a few years ago, the loss was not only to his church, but to all other Christian denominations.

And my good friend and pastor for fifteen years, Professor David Swing, the ripe scholar, Christian philosopher, humanitarian and great sermonizer. Few men with so little of the graces of oratory have succeeded in drawing such large audiences as did he for so many years. His great learning, quiet and kindly disposition, broad and liberal views and ready wit, naturally drew men to him. In the use of language as a public speaker he was not only scholarly, but his diction was of unsurpassed excellence, the result of natural ability and of careful mental training.

Carter H. Harrison, formerly a member of congress, from Chicago and for many years its mayor, was one of the most remarkable men I ever knew. Of broad education,

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wide and varied information, keen perception in affairs, large experience, a thorough politician, an excellent judge of men, and of an attractive personality, a most fascinating conversationalist, gifted as a writer, and a fluent and forcible speaker. His son, Carter H. Harrison, now mayor of Chicago, has much of his father's mental virility and political sagacity, with possibly more energy, less experience in public affairs, but tactful and keenly discriminating as an official. He has in him the elements of success in a high degree.

George M. Pullman, a "king" among men of large affairs, was one of Chicago's most remarkable men. Superbly endowed with mental force, he was ingenious, resourceful, sagacious, energetic and conservative. In the twoscore years of his active business life he achieved a reputation that "girdled the world."

Edward G. Mason, the eminent lawyer, so long and so well known in Chicago, was a man of great natural ability and superior education, who, for many years previous to his death, was the efficient President of the Chicago Historical Society, being the successor of the Hon. E. B. Washburne, former United States Minister to France. His mind was a vast storehouse of rare and valuable information gathered largely from the annals of the past. Immediately preceding his death his qualifications were considered with a view to his appointment as President of Yale College.

Gen. Walter Q. Gresham was in many respects a rare man, of much positive strength of character and of a most amiable disposition. He made a brilliant record in the civil war. Gen. Grant appreciated him as a soldier, and also as a lawyer and jurist. After the war, while President, he appointed him Judge of the United States District Court of Indiana. He was subsequently appointed Judge of the United States Circuit Court at

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Chicago. He filled these positions with marked ability. He was Postmaster General under President Arthur and was appointed by President Cleveland Secretary of State, and died while he was an incumbent of that office. I knew Gen. Gresham well when he was for some time my neighbor in Chicago. I admired him for his learning and unassuming and kindly manner. He was a favorite with the former soldiers of the civil war, and while Judge of the United States Circuit Court was chosen commander of the Illinois commandery of the Loyal Legion.

Judge Mark Skinner was one of the best types of noble manhood. Living, he was honored — dead, he wag mourned. Though dead, his labors and his Christian example remain, and they form his fittest monument. He was an early settler in Chicago, and during his long residence in that city he impressed himself upon its people and institutions, as few other men had done. He was an unassuming Christian, a public spirited citizen, a genuine patriot, and a true friend. His great work as President of the Sanitary Commission held in Chicago in 1864 will never be forgotten by the loyal people of the country. He was a lawyer of ability, and a conscientious judge. His conspicuous loyalty to the Union during the civil war induced the Loyal Legion to make him an honorary member.

Henry W. King, an early merchant in Chicago, and who died recently, was one of Judge Skinner's neighbors and esteemed friends. Mr. King was a strong character, His work for nearly a quarter of a century as President of the Board of Managers of the Chicago "Relief and Aid Society" organized after the great fire, was a notable one. In performing it he displayed rare executive ability, excellent judgment and untiring industry. His death was an almost irreparable loss to the society. I

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knew Judge Skinner and Mr. King well, and loved them for their many admirable qualities of mind and heart.

Col. T. Lysle Dickey, a former captain of the Mexican war, was one of Illinois, early cavalry officers who I first met after the battle of Donelson. He was an able lawyer, a sound jurist, and a modest, brave and efficient commander of cavalry who never failed to receive the commendation of his superior officers for faithful service. Gen. Grant regarded him as one of his most excellent officers and appointed him his chief of cavalry in 1862, which position he filled until he left the army in 1863. He was the assistant United States Attorney General during President Johnson's administration, and in 1876 was elected to the Supreme Court of Illinois, where he served until his death in 1885. A Kentuckian by birth, but an Illinoisan from his boyhood, he was well known and highly esteemed, not only by the bar of the state, but by his fellow citizens as well.

Major Joseph Kirkland entered the volunteer service in the civil war at an early time as a private, was commissioned a lieutenant after his three months service, received a staff appointment, and by his zeal, bravery and efficiency rose to the rank of Major. He was an able lawyer, and a writer of recognized ability, the latter, a quality inherited from his gifted mother, and was the author of several books, including "Zury" and the "Story of Chicago." He was a leader in the literary circles of Chicago for many years, and for some time previous to his death was the President of the "Twentieth Century Club" of Chicago. He was a cultured and courteous gentleman, and had many friends and admirers.

There, too, was my old friend, the learned lawyer and distinguished and profound jurist, Judge John D. Caton, whose official acts as Associate Justice and afterward Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Illinois and

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his many private enterprises make a conspicuous page ill the early history of Illinois. After leaving the bench he traveled extensively in Europe, China and Japan, and wrote several books filled with valuable information gathered during his extensive travels. He was a man of great simplicity of character, directness of purpose, integrity, and of a kindly disposition,

Three lawyers in Chicago whom I knew well and appreciated were Wirt Dexter, of keen intellect and of superior ability in his profession, and gifted as an eloquent speaker; E. C. Larned, the accomplished and courteous gentleman and distinguished lawyer, and the Hon. Isaac N. Arnold, the friend of Abraham Lincoln and the learned lawyer, scholar and statesman.

I also knew well Andrew Shumau, former Lieutenant Governor of Illinois, and for many years the able and genial editor of the Chicago "Evening Journal," and Anton Hesing, the venerable editor of the "Staats Zeitung," and his talented son, Washington Hesing, late postmaster at Chicago, and Robert Law. who in the '50s was at Galena, a contractor on the Illinois Central railroad, and for many years an extensive dealer in coal in Chicago, and A. M. Billings and Jacob Beidler, friends and neighbors for many years on the West side and both multi-millionaires, and R. P. Derrickson, former member of the legislature, and the extensive manufacturer of and dealer in lumber, and the public-spirited citizen, S. S. Hayes, the brainy lawyer and the efficient city comptroller after the great fire.

Among the many men who were in the civil war as active participants and who have passed away, and not mentioned in the foregoing pages, was my esteemed friend, Gen. William E. Strong, an exceptionally brave and efficient officer during his long term of over four

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years of service in the volunteer army. Of an engaging personality, clear-headed, far seeing and successful as a business man, and unselfish and public spirited as a citizen. He was loyal to his country and true to his friends, a veritable Bayard, "sans peur et sans reproche."

Gen. Phil H. Sheridan was the ideal American soldier, whose name is a synonym for all that is brave and heroic in the patriotic defender of his country. In 1883, when the Illinois commandery of the military order of the Loyal Legion of the United States was instituted in Chicago, be was elected its commander, and served until his removal to Washington. He went to Europe in 1870 to witness the military operations in the Franco-Prussian war. Prince Bismarck, after having had an interview with him, made the remark: "That man is a good fighter, and he looks it."

And that gallant soldier, Gen. William T. Sherman, whose death in 1883 caused heartfelt sorrow among his army comrades, to whom all were deeply attached. I was one of a large delegation of his friends who went to St. Louis to attend his funeral. I knew him somewhat during the war, but in the last ten years of his life I became intimately acquainted with him, and he was frequently a guest at my home in Chicago, where all were very fond of him. He was a grand and noble man. The world said he was peculiar in disposition. Well, he was William T. Sherman, and there was no other army officer like him. Large-brained, large-hearted, impulsive at times, but sensible, upright and true always.

Gen. Julius White was not only a brave and efficient soldier, but also a man of thought and action and successful in business affairs. After the civil war he was appointed United States Minister to the Argentine Republic and filled the position with marked ability. Before the civil war be was prominent in the politics of his

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state as a Republican, especially in the memorable Lincoln campaign in 1860, and won the reputation of being energetic, shrewd and discriminating. His uniform courtesy and kindly manner made him popular.

Gen. J. D. Webster was at the breaking out of the civil war an ex-captain of the regular army. He ranked high as a military engineer and became in 1862 chief engineer of Gen. Grant's staff, where his services were of a most valuable character. His energy was proverbial, his judgment excellent, and his resourceful brain led him to suggest much which proved a great benefit to the service. He possessed wide and varied information, and was a most entertaining and instructive conversationalist.

Gen. George W. Smith, who died recently, and who was one of Chicago's prominent lawyers, was a neighbor of mine for many years. He served in the civil war with great efficiency and was regarded as one of the best and bravest of Illinois' regimental commanders. At the close of the war he was brevetted a brigadier general for meritorious services. He was elected State Treasurer of Illinois in 1866 and served one term. His judgment as a business lawyer was regarded as sound and reliable, and his practice as counselor was large and lucrative. Endowed with many admirable traits of character he was universally beloved.

Gen. I. N. Stiles was the brave soldier, able and successful lawyer, and the witty and genial companion, Colonel J. H. Howe, the gallant soldier, tawyer, jurist and railroad attorney, and Gen. H. N. Eldredge, the brave soldier, learned lawyer and a courteous, generous and companionable man.

A third of a century has passed since the civil war ended. For over twenty-five years of that time I have lived in Chicago and have mingled with my army comrades.

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Among those still living, with many of whom I have been intimate and who have not been mentioned in foregoing pages, are Gen. John C. Black, intellectually one of the ablest of the able men of Illinois, who won distinction in the civil war by his courage, efficiency and thorough knowledge of his duties. His attainments as a lawyer are of a high order, and he has few equals as a scholarly writer and a fluent and forcible speaker. He has filled with marked ability the offices of United States Commissioner of Pensions and of United States District Attorney for the Northern district of Illinois. He is courteous and genial in manner and a favorite in social and literary circles.

Major E. A. Blodgett, so well known in Chicago, has been the commander of the Illinois Department of the G. A. R. one year. During his long service in the civil war he was as brave as the bravest and conspicuously efficient. In civil life he has won a high reputation as a shrewd and successful business man. He has quiet energy, is a good Judge of men, is genial and companionable, frank and generous, and a favorite with the old soldier element.

My old-time friend, Gen. John Corson Smith, formerly of Galena, has a record in the civil war of which any American patriot might well be proud. Years ago he was the Treasurer and afterwards Lieutenant Governor of the state of Illinois. He has clear judgment, rare practical intelligence and is cordial and kindly in manner. He is a high and distinguished Mason and Odd Fellow. It is believed that the general has the rare faculty of being able to call more men in the state of Illinois by their full names than any other man in it.

Gen. Thomas O. Osborn, the soldier and diplomat, a a brave and distinguished officer in the civil War, had few equals and no superiors. He was the United States

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Minister Resident at Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic. for sixteen years, achieving a high reputation for sound judgment and unusual skill in managing the affairs of his country as its representative at a foreign court. He possesses rare general intelligence, is an able lawyer and an eloquent speaker.

Colonel James A. Sexton, so well known in Chicago, was its postmaster one term by appointment of President Harrison. He commanded the Illinois department of the G. A. R. one year, and at the time of his death, which occurred recently, was commander of the National De-Department. He made a splendid record during his long service in the civil war, and when but twenty years of age, with the rank of captain, won distinction by successfully commanding a regiment in battle. His attractive personality, integrity, practical sense and cordial and kindly manner made him popular outside as well as inside of army circles. He was a careful student of events, well informed, and withal a graceful and impressive speaker. Shortly before his death he was honored by being appointed by President McKinley one of the Commision to investigate the conduct of the late Spanish-American war.

Gen. Smith D. Atkins, whom I knew before the civil war, has been for twenty-four years past the postmaster at Freeport, Ill., and for many years the editor and proprietor of the "Freeport Journal." His long service in the civil war, especially while in command of cavalry, was full of deeds of daring and great efficiency. He was a Freesoiler and afterwards a Republican, and has always been influential in the counsels of his party. He is a vigorous writer and an effective speaker, and is widely known and highly esteemed throughout the state.

Gen. J. B. Leake is a lawyer of recognized ability, and for one term served as United States District Attorney

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for the Northern district of Illinois. As an officer in the civil war he possessed valuable soldierly qualities in an eminent degree.

My esteemed friend, Gen. A. C. McClurg, the ripe scholar and polished and courteous gentleman, was also the brave and accomplished soldier of the civil war with, a record of exceptional merit.

Gen. William Sooy Smith, who as a military engineer in the civil war had few equals, and who as the commander of a brigade was skillful, brave and efficient. He has served for one year as commander of the Illinois Commandery of the Loyal Legion.

Major George Hunt of the Twelfth regiment Illinois Infantry, rose from the ranks in his four years' service to a Majority. After the war he was elected to fill the office of Attorney General of the state of Illinois, and made a record seldom equalled. He is now practicing his profession in Chicago, where he has taken a deservedly high position at the bar.

Gen. Joseph Stockton is a careful, conservative and successful man of business, was a gallant soldier in the civil war, and is a public spirited citizen of much amiability and popularity.

My friend, J. Mason Loomis, is the born soldier who was always fond of the profession of arms. In the civil war, as a regimental or brigade commander, he proved himself in an eminent degree a courageous and skillful officer, especially in battle, for which he never failed to receive the unqualified commendation of his superior officers.

Gen. Orrin L. Mann, the sheriff of Cook county for four years soon after the civil war, is endowed with fine natural ability, has a well-trained mind, and so constituted mentally that whatever he undertakes to do he does well. His army record is one of unusual excellence.

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Gen. John McNulta is one of the best known men in the state of Illinois, and is an excellent type of the American volunteer soldier. A learned lawyer, a sagacious man of affairs, a public spirited citizen of sturdy integrity, genial in disposition and exceptionally generous. He is intensely loyal to his country, and invariably true to his friends.

Col. George K. Dauchy, one of Chicago's extensive iron manufacturers, is a man of broad education, of high literary attainments, of keen business perception, conservative and successful. His record in the civil war was an exceptionally creditable one. Suave in manner, and of a kindly disposition, he is highly esteemed by all who know him, especially by his army comrades.

Col. F. A. Stevenson has long been known in Chicago as a lawyer of ability and a successful man of business. He entered the army early in the civil war and won distinction, especially as a staff officer, possessing a thorough knowledge of his duties, with tact, vigilence and bravery. As a business manager he is clear sighted and conservative. His engaging personality, frank and generous disposition makes him a favorite in the circles in which he moves.

I knew Captain Samuel E. Gross nearly a quarter of a century ago when he operated in Chicago as a real estate agent, in a small way. He soon developed rare ability and discrimination. His shrewdness and skill in subdividing and improving outlying tracts of land for suburban residences has placed him at the front rank of real estate operators in Chicago, and has made him very wealthy. He has literary taste, and is the author of several books. He served in the army during the civil war and won distinction for bravery and efficiency. He has practical intelligence, is cordial in manner, and is a genial and generous host.

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Gen. Green B. Raum is an eminently practical man, and was a soldier, not only brave, but resourceful and efficient as the commander of a regiment or a brigade. He was United States Commissioner of Pensions at Washington for four years, and discharged the duties of the office with ability.

Gen. R. N. Pearson, whose career in the civil war was marked by energy, intelligence and personal courage in an eminent degree. He commanded a regiment of Infantry with discrimination and success before he was 21 years of age. His frank and cordial manner makes him a favorite with the ex-soldiery.

In your intercourse with some men you are naturally drawn to them. Such a one is my friend and neighbor in Chicago, Major William Vocke, the able lawyer, diligent student, ripe scholar, the brave and efficient soldier in the civil war, and the courteous and generous host.

Captain Eugene Cary, past commander of the Illinois Commandery of the Loyal Legion, is a quiet, refined, intellectual and suave gentleman, the conspicuously gallant soldier in the civil war, the public spirited citizen, the clear sighted man of affairs, and the genial companion.

The "Saul" of the Illinois Commandery of the Loyal Legion, is Colonel J. B. Keeler, of superb physique, large bodied, large minded, and large hearted, and seemingly born to command men. As a soldier in the civil war his record was an admirable one, replete with deeds of daring. He is a sagacious and successful man of business, and his genuine kindness of disposition makes him a favorite with all who know him.

Gen. (Bishop) Samuel Fallows is one of the earnest and able leaders of the Reformed Episcopal church in Chicago. He entered the service in the civil war as the

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chaplain of a Wisconsin regiment of volunteers, and was soon appointed its colonel and commander. At the close of the war he was appointed a brigadier general by brevet for gallant and meritorious services. His bravery and efficiency as the commander of a regiment was only equalled by his zeal and devotion as a chaplain. He is a graceful and forcible speaker and has had conferred upon him the honorary degrees of D. D. and L. L. D.

The Rev. Dr. Arthur Edwards is the veteran editor of the "Northwestern Christian Advocate," published in Chicago. He rendered his country valuable service in the civil war as a chaplain. His marked ability and discrimination as a writer has long been recognized, as well as was his zeal, earnestness and devotion to his sacred calling. His attractive personality, sympathetic disposition, affability and wide and varied learning make him one of the most companionable of men.

I have always had great esteem for my friend, Colonel Huntington W. Jackson, the handsome, courteous and accomplished gentleman, and the brave, intelligent and successful soldier of the civil war. He is a distinguished member of the Chicago bar, and one of the best types of the energetic and public-spirited citizen.

There are three Judges on the bench in Chicago who are members of the Illinois Commandery of the Loyal Legion, the first-named having served for one year as its commander. They are Colonels R. S. Tuthill and A. N. Waterman of the circuit court, and Captain H. V. Freeman of the superior court, all officers of the civil war whose records were unusually meritorious. Their learning and ability as jurists are only equalled by their bravery and efficiency as soldiers while in the service.

Gen. Charles Fitzsimons, so well and favorably known in Chicago for a score of years, is a gallant officer who served in a New York regiment of cavalry and was

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brevetted a brigadier general at the close of the war for meritorious services. He is a civil engineer of recognized ability, and has had much to do with public works in Chicago. A forceful character, frank and cordial in manner, and highly esteemed by his fellow citizens.

Gen. Walter R. Bobbins is another cavalry officer who served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac during the civil war, and was also made a brigadier general by brevet for gallant services. He came to Chicago soon after the war and engaged in the lumber trade. His energy, industry, uprightness and approved methods in business have made him a prominent figure in lumber circles. He is a popular member of the Loyal Legion and of other army societies.

One of the prominent figures in the military circles of Chicago is Gen. John L. Beveridge, a former member of congress and ex-governor of the state of Illinois. He is a lawyer of learning, who practiced his profession in Chicago before the war. His record in the civil war, as the colonel of the Seventeenth Illinois cavalry, is one of rare excellence. The general has an impressive personality, much natural ability, a well trained intellect, large experience in public affairs, much practical intelligence, is dignified and courteous in manner, of a kindly disposition, and is a ready and forcible speaker.

One of the most admirable characters I know among the former soldiery of the civil war is Colonel Augustus Jacobson, the exceptionally brave and efficient soldier and the cultured and accomplished gentleman. He has literary tastes and marked ability as a writer and lecturer on practical subjects, such as manual (mechanical) training schools for boys and young men. With an acute and well-trained intellect, he has good judgment broad sympathies and a courteous, genial and attractive manner, He is an excellent representative of the American patriot and soldier of foreign birth.

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The Rev. Dr. N. D. Hillis is a talented and popular young clergyman, and the successor of Prof. David Swing in the Central church. He is broad-minded, liberal in his views as a theologian, and an earnest, active and persistent worker, not only in his own church and congregation, but also among all classes. He is emphatically a man of ideas as well as of action, and a fluent and effective speaker. His genuine kindness of disposition and wide and varied learning naturally draws men to him and makes him popular. He has recently become the pastor of Plymouth church. Brooklyn, N. Y.

Some time in the latter '50's there came from Chicago to Galena a young, fair faced and, highly educated German of courteous and winning manner, named George Schneider, who addressed a large German, political meeting in a very eloquent manner. He was then and had been for several years a prominent and influential politician in the northwest. In 1854-5 he was the editor of the Staats Zeitung of Chicago, the most influential German paper in the Northwest. It was anti-slavery and an early advocate of free soil. Mr. Schneider was a delegate to the Philadelphia convention which nominated Gen. Fremont for the presidency, and was also a delegate to the Chicago convention which nominated Mr. Lincoln. He was chairman of the executive committee of the Union Defense committee of the state and in 1862 was appointed by his old friend, President Lincoln, collector of U. S. revenue for the Chicago district, which position he filled for four years. He was appointed U. S. Consul to Denmark in 1851, and U. S. Minister Resident to Switzerland in 1876, but declined the latter appointment. In 1871 when the National Bank of Illinois was organized in Chicago he was elected its president and filled the position for over twenty-five years, during which time he won the reputation of being

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a shrewd; sound and conservative financier. During his residence of forty-five years in Chicago he has been recognized as one of the best types of the citizen of foreign birth. Mr. Schneider's genial and cordial manner, his kindly disposition and marked intelligence has made him popular with all classes.

John G. Shortall is one of Chicago's active and successful men of business. He is besides, a reformer, philanthropist and humanitarian. For many years he has been the efficient president of the Chicago Humane Society, and also for some time the president of the National Humane Society. When a young man of eighteen he went to Galena from New York where he had served on the reportorial staff of the "Daily Tribune," and was employed by the Illinois Central R. R., after which in 1853 he took a position as reporter for the "Galena Jeffersonian," edited by Dr. C. H. Ray. He possesses intense mental activity, a clear head and marked executive force.

Judge W. H. Blodgett who has served so long and so well as judge of the U. S. District Court at Chicago is one of Northern Illinois' oldest, best and most highly esteemed citizens. He studied law in Chicago with Scammon and Judd in the '40s, was in the legislature of Illinois for many years and served as director, attorney and president of a railroad. In all the positions he occupied he showed himself energetic, resourceful, of sound judgment and successful. I have long known Judge Blodgett and have always admired him for his learning, integrity and kindly disposition. He is now living in retirement in his old home at Waukegan, Ill.

I knew the Hon. A. M. Jones of Warren, Ill., before the civil war. Not long after the close of the war he was elected to the legislature and served several terms. He took a high position in the lower house and was the recognized leader of the Republicans. His restless energy,

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discrimination, tact and persistency naturaly made him a leader. As a sagacious politician he had few equals and no superiors in his state. He made Chicago his home in the early '80s and '90s. His residence is now in southern Wisconsin. In disposition he is genial, frank, affable and withal an excellent judge of men.

Judge Bradwell, the veteran editor and proprietor of the Chicago "Legal News" has been prominent as a citizen of Chicago for nearly half a century. During the civil war he was a member of the committee of safety and a recognized power among Chicago's active, loyal citizens. He is clear headed and resolute and his probity has never been questioned. He has filled positions of honor and trust in the state.

I knew in Galena in the early '50s a bright eyed, active, industrious boy of some 12 years of age, the son of a widow. Through the influence of a good friend he made his way to Chicago, entered a bank as a messenger, and later a mercantile house as a clerk. In time he became the head of the wholesale house of Felix, Marston & Blair. B. F. Felix is one of Chicago's best known and most highly esteemed citizens. His shrewdness and reliability in business affairs are everywhere recognized, and his frank and generous disposition make him a charming companion.

Joseph Medill, for so many years the veteran editor of the Chicago Tribune, with whom I have spent pleasantly and profitably so many hours at his Chicago home, and the nestor of the press of the Northwest, is a unique character. His great ability as a newspaper writer has long been recognized, and he clearly ranks with and is the peer of any of that group of great editors now all dead, Greely, Bennett, Raymond, Weed and Parke Godwin. He has been an indefatigable worker all his life, is

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a great reader and has a retentive memory. His information on almost every subject is wide and correct. As a conversationalist he has no superiors, and he is always interesting and instructive. He was the mayor of Chicago just after the great fire, and has filled important positions of honor and trust under the Federal government.

Robert T. Lincoln is one of Chicago's favorite citizens, who, in his quiet way, has impressed them with his brain power, sound judgment and great executive force. He is a recognized lawyer of ability. His experience in public affairs as Secretary of War, and more especially as United States Embassador to England, where he won a high reputation for statesmanship, clearly fits him for any position in the gift of the American people. He is modest, courteous, self-contained and kind-hearted.

Thomas F. Chard, my immediate neighbor in Chicago for some years, is a clear-headed and successful man of business. He is a constant and careful reader, whose mind is stored with varied and valuable information, and who wields a graceful and vigorous pen. His mental acquirements and attractive manner are appreciated by a large circle of friends.

Thomas B. Bryan for over forty years has been a prominent figure in Chicago. As a learned, able and successful lawyer he has few equals at the bar of that city. He was appointed by President Lincoln the president of the Board of Commissioners for the District of Columbia, which virtually made him its governor. He has filled other important positions of trust under the Federal government since. Probably no other man in the past twoscore years has inaugurated so many projects to promote the best interests of Chicago, or has been so active and potent in carrying them out. He is endowed with superior natural ability, is broadly educated

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and has been an assiduous student all his life. As a man of affairs he has few equals. He has a magnetic personality, untiring energy, keen business perception, kindliness of manner, and withal is a fluent and impressive speaker.

I have an old and valued friend in J. McGregor Adams, the well-known manufacturer, who for nearly a quarter of a century has been identified with almost every movement designed to advance Chicago's welfare. His practical sense good judgment and kindly and attractive manner and sympathetic disposition has made him popular with all classes. Practically retired from active business, he spends his leisure time at his charming home, "Yarrow," at Highland Park, a Chicago suburb, where he is known as the "Laird of Yarrow."

My friend and neighbor, Potter Palmer, the veteran man of affairs, whose life for nearly half a century has been so closely identified with Chicago's social, moral and material development, is far-seeing, conservative and of sound judgment, who moves on business lines that almost always lead to success.

Lyman Gage, now Secretary of the United States Treasury, is a product of Chicago. Forty years ago he was a bank clerk, and has since ascended the ladder step by step, until now he is on the topmost round. He has been recognized in Chicago as an able and conservative financier for many years. The whole country now concedes his ability as such. Broad-minded, of clear, cool and reliable judgment and general practical intelligence, with his recent large experience in national affairs, unquestionably qualifies him to fill any position in the gift of his countrymen.

George L. Dunlap is an old-time friend, whose successful career as a railroad manager in the Northwest is well known, and which success was due to his force

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energy, keen business insight, and the practical and often ingenious methods he employed. He has an attractive personality, a generous and kindly disposition, which makes him one of the most companionable of men.

W. W. Kimball, the extensive manufacturer of organs and pianos was one of a group of my intimate friends. He is a level-headed, far-seeing, intensely active and successful business man, and is genial, witty and magnetic with his friends, and always a cordial and generous host.

Franklin McVeagh is one of a number of my esteemed friends and neighbors on the North side. I became well acquainted with him in the latter 70s, while I was a member of the executive committee of the Citizens' Association of Chicago, of which he was the president. He is a man of rare culture, of much brain force, clear-sighted in business affairs and a public spirited citizen. He is recognized in society as a courteous, dignified and kind-hearted gentleman.

W. J. Onahan, long a citizen of Chicago, has a well trained intellect, is a persistent student and a popular lecturer. He has been closely identified with Chicago's various interests as a private citizen and a public official. He filled, by appointment, the office of city comptroller for three terms, discharging its duties faithfully and well. His interest in educational matters has been active and potent, and he has been connected with the management, indirectly, of several of the leading educational institutions of the Northwest, one of the most prominent of which has honored him by the bestowal of the honorary degree of L. L. D. He has by a long and persistent effort and at great expense collected the largest and most valuable library of books, old and new, of Irish literature in the United States. He is still in the prime of life, a courteous, cultured, genial and kind hearted gentleman.

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In the early '50s Charles T. Trego was a clerk in one of Galena's large mercantile houses. His industry, intelligence and strict devotion to his duties were well known. A few years before the war he moved to Chicago, became connected with a commission firm, and soon afterwards operated alone. In a few years he became a prominent and influential member of the Board of Trade. His keen discrimination and conservative methods made him successful. His integrity and unvarying fairness in his business transactions gave him a high position among his fellow members.

Among my near neighbors and esteemed friends of the north side was Edward F. Lawrence who recently died. I knew him in Galena in the '50s when employed by a Boston mercantile house to look after its western business. He was a shrewd and successful business man and an able financier, who for many years before his death was a director of the First National Bank of Chicago. He was a generous, genial and companionable man.

Two young men from the state of New York located in Chicago in the '40s Charles B. and John V. Farwell, ambitious, brainy, energetic, sagacious and of good judgment, who in time engaged in mercantile business, and met with marked success. They have always been public spirited and active factors in pushing forward any project to benefit Chicago and its people. Charles B. besides being a successful merchant developed rare ability as a statesman and financier, as was shown by his services as a Representative in Congress and later as a United States Senator. While in the Senate he did much in securing the location of the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago. John V. always had much religious zeal and enthusiasm. Through his close connections with, and material support of the Young Men's Christian Association for over a quarter of a century he has exerted a powerful

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Christian influence far beyond the limits of his own state. While engaged in this work he unconsciously builded for himself a monument more enduring than granite.

One of the clear-headed, broad-minded and most aggressive and successful men in Chicago, is its old citizen, George E. Adams, who was one of its most efficient members of Congress a few years ago. He is constantly suggesting schemes and enterprises to benefit the city of Chicago and is ever ready to aid in executing them. He is a lawyer of recognized ability, has had large experience in public affairs, and backed by his wealth and personal influence he usually succeeds in accomplishing whatever he undertakes, especially if he believes it to be for the public good. He is a man of culture, is courteous in manner, and a thoroughly up-to-date American.

During the latter part of the '70s five young men of Chicago were frequently at my house, all being intimate friends and college chums of my son, and some of them were at times members of my family. They were all professional men. Twenty years have wrought great changes, yet all are in Chicago, practicing their professions. Stephen S. Gregory, the son of one of Wisconsin's most distinguished lawyers, has practiced law in Chicago with success for over twenty-five years. He is recognized as one of the ablest lawyers of the that bar. His attainments in his profession are high. He is a man of broad sympathies, literary taste, and marked ability as a writer, and is frank, cordial and courteous in manner. Hempstead Washburne was Chicago's efficient mayor the year before the Worlds Fair. He is a lawyer and has won the reputation of being learned and able as also that of being a financier of much discrimination and shrewdness. Henry S. Robbins is a profound lawyer, of clear and keen intellect and thoroughly versed in the practice of his profession. He is genial in disposition

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and a most charming host. Dr. Charles H. Vilas, a younger brother of ex-United States Senator Vilas of Wisconsin, distinguished in his profession, is of an impressive and attractive personality, of wide and varied information, a fine conversationalist and a favorite in the social circles of Chicago. He is now and has been for some years the dean of Hahnemann College of Chicago. Herman B. Wickersham is a clear headed lawyer, industrious, painstaking and successful. In the early years of his practice in Chicago he was in the office of the late Judge Turnbull, who held him in high esteem. Mr. Wickersham, as a practical and efficient business lawyer, stands deservedly high. He has recently been elected President of the Marquette Club of Chicago.

One of the most popular men in the society circles of the North side is Orrin W. Potter, one of Chicago's able financiers, a successful business man, and now president of one of the leading banks of the city. He possesses a high order of administrative ability, practical intelligence, cool and reliable judgment, and in disposition is kind and cordial and one of the most generous of hosts.

Among the many Board of Trade men I have known in Chicago, Charles W. Brega is one of the most remarkable in this, that over a score of years ago, while an active member of a commission firm, he met with unusual success on the Board of Trade, and had the wisdom to know when he was "well off," practically gave up his business, and has since operated in other and safer financial lines. His acute discrimination, practical good sense and conservative business methods are well known. His kindly and generous disposition makes him socially one of the most attractive of men.

I am an admirer of Henry J. Willing, the energetic and clear-headed man of affairs, whose energy, industry,

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persistency and devotion to his duties as an active member of the mercantile house, of Field and Letter, were proverbial. He retired from active business years ago, and now; with a generous hand, assists those less fortunate in life.

E. B. McCagg, the learned lawyer, ripe scholar and courteous and accomplished gentleman, has been a resident of Chicago for nearly half a century, and is the center of a large circle of cultured friends. He is a writer of rare force and elegance. Although not a politician, he has filled positions of trust in the state. For his conspicuous loyalty to the Union during the civil war he was elected an honorary member of the Loyal Legion.

W. R. Harper, L. L. D., is one of the leading and best known educators of the country, and for years past has been President of the University of Chicago. What he has accomplished for that institution during his administration by his zeal, tact and excellent judgment is simply a marvel. Still in middle life, possessed of great natural ability, highly learned, intensely energetic, of unusual brain fierce and of keen discrimination in judging of men, if he lives, he cannot fail to accomplish still more in making the University of Chicago what he intends it shall be, viz: the greatest and most advanced school of learning on this continent.

Rev. Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus made his advent in Chicago some ten years ago, as the pastor of Plymouth church, and at once took a high place as a pulpit and platform orator of great force and eloquence. Although comparatively a young man, having scarcely reached middle life, he has already accomplished much as an earnest and untiring worker in the broad field of Christian effort to elevate and bless mankind of all classes and conditions in life. For some years he has been at

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the head of the management of the Armour Institute of Chicago, where he has shown himself possessed of superior administrative ability. Broadly educated, of an ardent temperament, liberal in his views as a theologian, he is a sincere, unassuming and kind-hearted Christian man, much beloved by all who know him. He has recently become the pastor of the Central church, as the successor of Dr. D. N. Hillis.

I know and have appreciated that group of Christian stalwarts in Chicago who for over a score of years have earnestly and fearlessly led the hosts of righteousness against the powers of evil and wrong doing, and who have joined hands in performing effective work in lifting erring humanity to a higher moral plane. They are the Rev. Drs. Henson, Locke, Noble, Goodwin, Emil Hirsch, H. W. Thomas, and Bishops Cheney, McLaren, Fallows and Foley. The noble and unselfish Christian work of all these years will never be fully known and appreciated until after they have gone to their reward.

William Penn Nixon, whom have known since he assumed the management of the "Daily Inter Ocean," one of the leading newspapers of Chicago, more than twenty years ago, is one of the best known and most highly esteemed of its citizens, and is now the United States Collector of the Port of Chicago by appointment of President McKinley. He possesses great will force, energy and acute discrimination, and in his quiet and methodical way manages to accomplish much. He is a man of thought as well as of action, is a careful student of events, and possesses rare practical intelligence. In disposition he is unassuming, genial, generous and companionable.

There are in Chicago many men of large affairs, whose phenomenal success in their various vocations has been and is the marvel of the world. Armour, Marshall

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Field, Allerton Ream, the Cudahys, Nelson Morris, Seigel, Leiter, Sr., Fairbank, Otto Young and scores more who might be named, whose intuition leads them almost invariably to do the right thing, and whose magic touch seems to turn dross into pure gold.

Fernando Jones, an early settler of Chicago, has a retentive memory, and for years past has been a walking encyclopedia of interesting events connected with Chicago in the '80s and '40s, Mr. Jones has always been a keen observer of persons and things, and has large experience and excellent judgment. The information he has been able to give his fellow citizens in relation to the value of realty within the limits of the county of Cook has been regarded as reliable, and hence valuable. In the early years of his residence in Chicago there was a group of energetic and sagacious men to which he belonged, composed in part of P. W. F. Peck, Alex N. Fullerton, Silas Cobb, Dr. Foster, Jerome Beecher, Archibald Clybourne, F. C. Sherman, Philo Carpenter and Walter L. Newberry, who did much as shrewd and far-sighted business men in developing its resources and in advancing as well their own pecuniary interests, for they all in time became wealthy.

Soon after I took up my residence in Chicago I made the acquaintance of Amos Hall, for many years previous to his death the treasurer of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad. He was a man of mental force, great practical intelligence, uprightness and amiability, of a kindly disposition, and was not only respected, but beloved by all who knew him. His daughter, Mrs. Colonel Fred L. Fake, who resides in Chicago and is well known in society circles, has inherited much of her father's mentality, attractive manner and genuine good nature.

Some fifteen years ago circumstances brought me in

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close contact with Elmer Washburn, who was a candidate for mayor of Chicago in 1891. When a young man he served for a time as a volunteer in the civil war, and was, not long after the war, the marshal or chief of police of Chicago for two years. He filled a position of trust under the government at Washington in the '70s. He was for some time the president of the board of management of the Union Stock Yards of Chicago, and afterwards president of the Stock Yards Bank, He is a quiet but forceful character, an excellent judge of men, the embodiment of effective energy, and is now a large contractor on public works in New York, with his son, Frank Washburn, who is a civil engineer of superior attainments.

I have long known Eugene S. Pike, a man of large business affairs and a financier of recognized ability, who, for many years has been connected with the management of the First National Bank of Chicago. He has energy, keen business perception, good judgment, and operates on conservative and safe lines. In manner he is frank and cordial, in disposition kind and sympathetic, and is generous as a host.

John R. Walsh, for many years the president of the Chicago National Bank, is one of the remarkable men of Chicago. Like his brother banker, the Hon. Lyman Gage, president of the First National Bank of Chicago, and now Secretary of the Treasury at Washington, he began his career at the foot of the ladder, a newsboy then the owner of a newspaper and periodical stand, and later the organizer and manager of the Northwestern News company, the largest and most successful establishment of the kind in the country. A quarter of a century ago he began business as a banker. Some men are said to be born soldiers and others born poets. Mr. Walsh is evidently the born banker and financier. He

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has a keen intellect, a well balanced mind, and is an excellent judge of men. Of quick perception and intense energy, he may at times be somewhat impulsive, but when the emergency arises, his cold-blood judgment asserts itself. His management of affairs outside of banking is masterful and successful. He is, moreover, a public spirited citizen, ever ready to assist generously in carrying out any project which is clearly for the public good. He is still in the prime of life, and if nothing unforseen happens, he will, I believe, achieve a reputation as a financier in the next decade which will be more than national.

The Hon. George Peck, a lawyer of national reputation, located in Chicago, a few years ago for the practice of his profession. For a half score of years he had been the attorney for the Santa Fe system of railroads and lived in Kansas, where he achieved great distinction in his profession. He was supported by delegates of some of the trans-Mississippi states as a candidate for the Presidency in the Republican National Convention of 1896. He possesses much natural ability, a keen and well trained intellect, energy, tact, good judgment, an attractive personality, and is generous, and kind hearted. He is, moreover, highly gifted as an eloquent and forcible speaker.

Among my esteemed friends in Chicago is the Hon. John S. Miller, the well known and able lawyer, who was the corporation counsel under the administration of Mayor Washburne in 1891-3, and is now the president of the Union League Club of Chicago. He stands deservedly high at the bar, having much mental force, energy, keen discrimination and probity, and whose success in his profession has been exceptionally great. He possesses largely the elements of popularity, viz: rare practical intelligence, knowledge of human nature, a frank and genial manner, and a generous disposition.

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I met the Hon. Lorenzo Brentano, the scholar, lawyer, editor, diplomat and statesman in Europe in 1872, when he was on his way to Dresden to fill the position of United States Consul. Mr. Brentano was a strong character and impressed all who came in contact with him as a man of unusual mental force and broad sympathies. He was my neighbor in Chicago in the '80s, and I esteemed him for his many admirable qualities of head and heart. He served in Congress most efficiently for one term. His son the Hon. Theo. Brentano, for many years a Circuit Judge in Chicago has his father's strong and vigorous mentality, good judgment and amiable disposition. He possesses a judicial mind and ably fills his position on the bench.

Years ago I often met in business circles and in society on the south side, two prominent citizens who have died recently. Charles M. Henderson, with his brother, Wilbur S. Henderson, the extensive boot and shoe manufacturers, and Edson G. Keith, the broad guaged merchant and capitalist of the firm of Keith Bros. These men were friends and neighbors, equally patriotic, public spirited and unassuming zealous and devoted Christians, actively interested in the great work of elevating humanity to a higher intellectual, moral and religious plane. They were shrewd, sagacious business men and exceptionally successful. When such men are removed, the loss to the community is great, and often irreparable.

DeWitt C. Cregier whose acquaintance I made in the latter '70s was a man of unusual force of character. For some years, before he was elected the mayor of Chicago, he was the general superintendent of the West Division street railroad and made a most efficient manager. He possessed thorough knowledge of his duties and was energetic and discriminating. He served two terms as mayor of Chicago. During President Cleveland's second administration he received the appointment of United

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States Store Keeper of Army Supplies in Chicago. His large experience, practical intelligence, uprightness, good judgment with a quiet but attractive manner, drew men to him and made him popular. He was a high and influential Mason. I have met him often in Masonic circles during the past twenty years. He presided over a convocation of Royal Arch Masons or over a conclave of Knights Templar with rare dignity and ability, was gifted in Masonic work, and greatly beloved by the fraternity. When he died (1898) he was sincerely mourned by many of his fellow citizens outside of Masonic circles.

I would not be doing myself justice were I to pass unnoticed my esteemed friend, Edmond Bruwaert, who for nearly a decade was the Consul General for France at Chicago, and so well known to the business men of that city, as well as in its social circles. In the latter '70s Mr. Washburne, at that time United States Ambassador to France, told me that in the diplomatic circles of Paris Mr. Bruwaert, who then was not many years past his majority, was regarded as the brightest young diplomat of his age in France. He made commercial treaties a study and became an expert. For many years he was often chosen as secretary of high commissions appointed by the French government to negotiate commercial treaties with European and other nations. So learned and skillful was he that at the age of 35, without solicitation or effort on his part, he had been decorated ten times by other nations after treaties of this kind had been made. The last decoration, "Knight Commander of Gustav Wasa of Sweden," was conferred upon him by King Oscar of Sweden in the '80s, after the conclusion of a commercial treaty with France. The Republic of France has made him a "Chevalier of the Legion of Honor," and he is an officer of the order. All who

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know him will bear me out in saying that he is a thoroughly cultured, genial, suave and courteous gentleman, possessing unusual general practical intelligence. In the latter part of the '80s, when France sent a high commission to China to negotiate a commercial treaty, Mr. Bruwaert was taken from his post in Chicago to accompany it as secretary. Political complications arose and the commission, after a few months' stay at Pekin, returned with its mission unfulfilled. He is now Consul General for France in New York city, and his friends expect that he will soon be promoted to Minister Resident at some foreign court. A few years ago he married Miss Susie King, one of Chicago's most beautiful and accomplished young ladies and a favorite in society.

Among other men living in the North division of the city, with whom I came in frequent contact, was Abram M. Pence, for a quarter of a century a prominent member of the Chicago bar. His superior ability as a lawyer has always been recognized, and, having a judicial mind, he should have been placed on the bench of Chicago long ago. He has the reputation of being one of the most public spirited citizens of that division of the city.

One of Chicago's veteran lumbermen and long a resident of the North side is George Farnsworth, late president of the Oconto Lumber company and now virtually retired from business. His mental force, large experience and excellent judgment, has made him for many years an authority in lumber circles. His successor as the president of the company, James G. Brooks, well known as a successful lumberman and long connected with that company, has energy, acute business perception and good judgment. His uprightness and fairness in dealing with others is generally recognized.

George B. Harris, a valued friend and resident of

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the North side, is the Vice President of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and also President of the Chicago, Burlington & Northern railroads, and has the reputation of being the best railroad manager of his age in the Northwest. He is the incarnation of effective energy, and his judgment in railroad matters is of superior excellence. When "off duty" he is an interesting talker, a genial companion, and a generous host.

Another well-known and popular Northsider is Luther Laflin Mills, the learned lawyer, brilliant orator and one of the best types of excellent manhood.

Soon after the great fire of 1871, when the North side, south of Lincoln Park began to be rebuilt, there came into the district a number of men of prominence, with whom I became well acquainted. Among those still living who have not been alluded to in foregoing pages are Dr. Ralph N. Isham, the eminent practitioner; Volney C. Turner, capitalist and former efficient President of the North Division Street railway; S. M. Nickerson, President of the First National Bank of Chicago; A. H. Burley, ex-city comptroller, capitalist and banker; Hon. Lambert Tree, lawyer, jurist and ex-United States Minister to Belgium and Russia; Hon. D. B. Magruder, lawyer, and associate justice of the supreme court of Illinois; F. B. Peabody, prominent operator in mortgages and loans; A. A. Carpenter, a leading lumberman, capitalist and banker; Gen. F. S. Winston, lawyer, capitalist and ex-United States Minister to Persia; Dr. Robert Collyer, the eminent Unitarian clergymen, now of New York city; Orson Smith, President of the Merchants' Loan and Trust Company of Chicago; James W. Odell, long a prominent Board of Trade operator before his retirement; Calvin S. Wheeler, the veteran banker (now retired) and former President of the Continental National Bank of Chicago; E. W. Blatchford, manufacturer and

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capitalist, and W. D. Kerfoot, a leading real estate operator and now comptroller of the city of Chicago.

Among those who have passed away are Cyrus H, McCormick, of world-wide reputation as an inventor and manufacturer of farming implements; Mahlon Ogden, capitalist and operator in realties; S. H. Kerfoot, prominent as an operator in loans and realties, Sam Jones, capitalist and financier; Colonel Lucien Tilton, long connected with the management of the Illinois Central railroad; S. Corning Judd, eminent lawyer and postmaster of Chicago in the '80s; W. D. Houtaling, prominent lumberman and capitalist; Hon. Norman B. Judd, lawyer, legislator and Minister to Germany: John DeKoven, capitalist and banker, and Perry H. Smith, the railway magnate.

There were many men in the state outside of the city of Chicago who, before, during and after the civil war I knew well and with many of whom I was on terms of friendly intimacy. Among those now numbered with the dead I will name the following: Gen. Richard Rowett of Macoupin county, the large hearted, clear headed and brave soldier of the civil war, who was a forceful character and greatly beloved by all his comrades.

Gen. John Tillson of Quincy, Ill., to whom I was much attached, was the recognized poet of the Army of the Tennessee. He was ever chivalrous, brave and of an attractive personality. In the '70s he held the office of United States Collector of Internal Revenue for the Quincy district.

Gen. T. E. G. Ransom, whose thorough knowledge of his duties as a soldier and whose conspicuous bravery in action made him the cynosure of all eyes and greatly endeared him to all his army comrades.

Gen. W. W. Belknap, a learned, and distinguished lawyer in Iowa, enterred the volunteer service at the

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breaking out of the civil war as the colonel of a regiment, and made a very creditable record for intelligence, bravery and efficiency. He impressed Gen. Grant as a man of unusual ability, executive force and integrity. He appointed him Secretary of War, as the successor of Gen. John A. Rawlins. He resigned his office before the end of his term for reasons I need not here state and for which he was subjected to severe criticism in certain quarters, but his friends who knew all the facts esteemed him none the less. Gen. Belknap was a strong and well poised character, and his management of the war office was excellent in every respect. He was always popular with the "old soldiers" of the Army of the Tennessee. I was fond of him and admired him for his true manliness, generosity and genuine kindliness of heart. His son, Hugh R. Belknap, member of congress from one of the Chicago districts, has much of his father's mental force, administrative ability and amiability. He is "a worthy son of a noble sire."

One of my most highly esteemed army friends was Gen. Lucius Fairchild of Wisconsin. He commanded for some time the Iron Brigade of Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry in the Army of the Potomac, where he achieved great renown for bravery and unusual efficiency. After the war he was successively elected for six terms governor of his state, was United States Consul at Liverpool four years (1872-76) and in the '80s was commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic one year Possessed of unusual practical intelligence, of a kind disposition and attractive manner, he was one of the most beloved and popular of the ex-soldiers of the civil war.

The Rev. Joel Grant of Lockport, Ill., was appointed in the summer of 1861 chaplain of the Twelfth Illinois Infantry, which regiment I commanded for over two

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years. He was highly educated, unassuming, patient and industrious. His singular devotion to his duties and faithfulness in their discharge won for him during his four years of service, the respect and love of the men of his regiment and the unqualified commendation of his superior officers.

Capt. Guy C. Ward, of the Twelfth Illinois, so well and favorably known before the war in Southern Illinois, was killed in battle at Corinth. He was a good type of the intelligent, patriotic citizen and of the modest, brave and faithful soldier. Captain F. B. Ferris, of my regiment, also one of Princeton's (Ill.) esteemed citizens, died from wounds received at Shiloh. His courage and devotion to his duties made him an exceptionally valuable officer. Captain W. T. Swain, of the same regiment and from the same county, was also mortally wounded at Shiloh. Captain Swain was a strong character, faithful and brave as a soldier, and public spirited as a citizen, whose integrity was never questioned. Princeton lost another of its best citizens when Lieutenant Wright Seaman was killed at Shiloh. He, too, belonged to the Twelfth regiment and was beloved by all his comrades and was a brave, intelligent and efficient officer.

Among my friends now living in Illinois and in other sections of the Northwest who have not before been mentioned, I will name the following: Gen. J. G. Martin, a prominent citizen and banker of Salem, Ill., a soldier in the civil war who achieved an enviable reputation, and who not long ago was commander of the Illinois Department of the G. A. R His actions through life have always been guided by a clear and sound judgment.

My admiration was always great for Gen. J. J. Phillips

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of the Ninth Illinois Infantry, a bright young lawyer before the war and now Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the state of Illinois. He was a dashing, brave, and intelligent soldier of the civil war, who when, as a Lieutenant Colonel in command of Walry in 1863, had rank and opportunity favored him, would have been the "Phil Sheridan" of the Army of the Tennessee.

One of the prominent citizens of Fulton county, Ill., is Gen. L. F. Ross, who, when in the civil war, always performed his duty in a most gallant and efficient manner. His zeal, energy and good judgment, when in the command of a regiment or of a brigade, were conspicuous, and made for him a record of rare excellence.

Elgin, Ill., is the home of a well known citizen, Gen. J. S. Wilcox, who, as a soldier in the civil war during his four years' service, showed rare intelligence, marked ability and military prowess. He had no superior as a regimental commander in the Army of the Tennessee.

Gen. John B. Turchin, now living in Southern Illinois, of military training in Europe when young, entered the volunteer army in Chicago as a Colonel in the early days of the civil war. His two years' service was replete with deeds of daring and marked efficiency, the result, in a measure, of his early military training.

I have an esteemed friend in Gen. Thomas J. Henderson, of Princeton, Ill., the veteran soldier and statesman, who has great brain force and who is endowed with the rare faculty of always doing well whatever he undertakes to do. He has served several terms as a member of congress, and filled soon after the war, positions of trust under the Federal government. He is deservedly popular throughout the state.

Gen. John M. Palmer, whom I have long known, the astute lawyer, learned jurist and able statesman of

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Springfield, Ill., was a brave and efficient commander of volunteers in the civil war. His clear and strong intellect made his practical methods in the war valuable to the army and the country.

Gen. William C. Kueffner of Bellville, Ill., having gained some military knowledge in Germany when a young man, made a most intelligent and efficient officer, and his long service of over four years in the gallant "old Ninth Illinois" was a notable one. He commanded the regiment in Sherman's famous campaign through Georgia. He held after the war positions of honor and trust under the general government.

My friend, Gen. John B. Sanborn, at the breaking out of the civil war was a young, highly educated and popular lawyer at St. Paul, Minn. He was intensely loyal to the Union, was early appointed quartermaster general by the Governor, and was a prominent factor in recruiting four regiments of volunteers for the war. He was commissioned in 1862 the Colonel of the Fourth regiment Minn. Infty., and began a service which was marked throughout by zeal, intelligence and efficiency. He attracted the attention of General Grant, who detailed him to perform duties requiring tact and discrimination After the war he served in both branches of the state legislature and afterwards filled positions of trust under the Federal Government. He stands high in his profession, and is one of the most prominent and honored citizens of his state.

I knew well in 1863 Gen. John I. Rinaker, afterwards a member of congress from Carlinville, Ill., as our regiments were in the same brigade for several months. He was an intelligent, painstaking and brave soldier, who was conscientious in the discharge of his duty, either as the commander of a regiment or of a brigade. He has been an influential member of the Republican

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party in the state, and since the war, besides serving with distinction two terms in congress, has filled offices of honor and trust in the state. I was impressed with three traits in Gen. Rinaker's character, viz: practical intelligence, modesty and integrity.

Gen. David B. Henderson of Dubuque, Ia., who has just been elected to congress from his district for the ninth time, is one of Iowa's volunteers in the civil war who achieved a high reputation for bravery and general efficiency. He has for some time been the chairman of the committee on military affairs in the House of Representatives, where, during the Spanish-American war, he was enabled to do much to aid the government in successfully prosecuting the war. Gen. Henderson has in him the elements of success. Although an ardent Republican, he has always been stronger than his party in his congressional district. In manner he is cordial and attractive. Endowed with much natural ability, he is well educated, has had long experience in national affairs and is energetic, resourceful and a ready and forcible speaker.

In 1863 I served with Colonel W. P. Hepburn of the Second Iowa cavalry on a military commission for two months. He was then a young lawyer of marked ability. His record in the war was one of exceptional excellence. In the '80s he was elected a member of congress for the Clarinda, Ia., district and served two terms. He was afterwards appointed by President Harrison, Solicitor of the Treasury and later re-elected to congress, and is a prominent and influential member of the House of Representatives. He has a keen intellect, much will force and persistency, and as an impressive and convincing speaker has few superiors in the House. He was a prominent candidate for United States senator before the legislature of Iowa two years ago.

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Ex-Governor George W. Peck of Milwaukee, Wis., has been for many years a prominent figure in the state of Wisconsin. He began life when a boy in a country newspaper office, and in time became the proprietor of "Peck's Sun," a weekly newspaper published in Milwaukee, and achieved a national reputation as a writer of articles under the head of "Peck's Bad Boy," in which he showed marked ability as a humorous writer. He was elected twice the Governor of the state of Wisconsin, after he had served one term as mayor of Milwaukee. His army record in a Wisconsin regiment during the civil war was a very creditable one. Governor Peck is a forceful character, possessing intelligence, energy, tact and discrimination. His attractive personality, keen sense of the humorous, genial temperament, generous disposition and gracious manner have made him popular with the masses. He has returned to his "first love," and is again the editor and proprietor of "Peck's Weekly Sun," published in Milwaukee.

Captain H. A. Castle of St. Paul, was also a soldier in the civil war, with a most creditable record. For some years after the war he was the editor and proprietor of the "St. Paul Dispatch," and afterwards was appointed postmaster at St. Paul. He was not only a gallant soldier, but also a cultured gentleman, who has been the center of a circle of friends and admirers of tastes similar to his own. He has held various positions of trust under the state and Federal governments. I have long known Captain Castle and esteem him for his many attractive traits of character.

I am an admirer of Colonel William F. Vilas of Madison, Wis., who entered the volunteer army as a colonel of a Wisconsin regiment in the early days of the civil war, but who, from ill health, was compelled to retire before the end of his second year of service. He is

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a lawyer of great learning and ability, and possesses a strong, keen and well trained intellect. In the '80s he was elected United States senator for Wisconsin, and afterwards was Postmaster General by appointment of President Cleveland. He has energy, acute discrimination and administrative talent of a high order. When Gen. Grant was received and entertained in Chicago by the Society of the Army of the Tennessee after his tour around the world, Col. Vilas delivered an address at the banquet of exceptional beauty, force and eloquence, which gave him a national reputation as an orator. He is dignified and courteous in manner, and in disposition generous and kind-hearted.

The events of 1861 are more indellibly impressed upon my mind than those of any other year in my life. In April 1861 I found myself in Springfield, Ill., at the head of a company of volunteers who had enlisted for three months service under President Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers. The legislature was in extra session, and prominent citizens from all parts of the state were in Springfield, many being connected with the six regiments of Infantry, the states quota under the call. The central figure was Governor Yates who had been inaugurated in January of that year. During my two weeks stay at the capital I became well acquainted with him. Possessed of a keen intellect and well trained mind, energy, large experience in public affairs, he was well fitted for the responsible position he held. He was intensely loyal to the Union, proved equal to the emergency, and became one of the six noted "war governors" of Union states. He was gifted as an orator, had a frank and winning manner, and was a great favorite with the masses. His son, Richard Yates, a lawyer of Jacksonville, Ill., has inherited his father's keen and vigorous intellect, energy and an attractive personality. He is

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now the United States Collector of Internal Revenue for the Jacksonville District, and is one of the most popular young politicians in the state.

Richard J. Oglesby, a young lawyer of ability was there, and had just been elected the Colonel of the Eighth regiment. He soon won distinction as a brave and efficient soldier, and was made a Major General at the end of two years service, was twice elected Governor of his state, and served one term as United States Senator. His strong and active mind, tireless energy, and excellent judgment combined with a rare talent as an impressive orator, and a frank, genial and generous disposition made him one of the most generally popular men in the state.

Ben M. Prentiss, an ex-Captain of the Mexican war was elected the Colonel of the Tenth regiment and was soon after elected Brigadier General of the six regiments just organized, over his competitor Captain Pope of the regular army. His splendid conduct at the battle of Shiloh while in command of a division, gave him great renown, and a Major General's commission.

Owen Lovejoy, the member of Congress from the Princeton District, and the bold, fearless and aggressive abolitionist of former days, was there also with military aspirations, and having failed to gain the command of a regiment went to Missouri and performed staff service during the succeeding summer and fall.

W. H. L. Wallace, the able and learned lawyer, was elected the Colonel of the Eleventh regiment. He rose rapidly, and as a Brigadier General commanded a division at Shiloh, where he was killed in battle. Gen. Grant afterwards spoke of him as the "splendid soldier."

Colonel John McArthur, of the Washington Independent Regiment (militia,) of Chicago, was there, and

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by his marshal bearing became a marked figure in the military circles. He was elected Colonel of the Twelfth regiment and soon rose to a Brigadier, and at the close of the war was appointed a Major General by brevet. His military career was marked throughout by rare intelligence, bravery and efficiency.

At that time I made the acquaintance of Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, who was the speaker of the House of Representatives. He was then young, well educated, clear headed, a lawyer of ability and a trusted friend of Abraham Lincoln. He served in the legislature three terms and was twice chosen speaker of the House; was elected a member of Congress three times, Governor of the state, and United States Senator three times. No other citizen has ever received more favors from the people of the state than he. I regard Senator Cullom as one of the most remarkable men the state of Illinois has ever produced. All through his long career in public life he has shown himself possessed of great mental force, excellent judgment, industry and integrity, and is recognized as one of the most efficient, reliable and influential members of the United States Senate.

Senator Cullom's colleague in the Senate, is the Hon. William E. Mason, of Chicago, whom I have known for two decades, is a lawyer of learning and ability, whose experience in public affairs covers many years. In disposition he is nearly the opposite of Senator Cullom. He has an ardent temperament an active and well trained intellect, quick mental perception, intense energy, and is aggressive and resourceful, and at times perhaps somewhat impulsive and impatient of opposition. He is a ready debater and an eloquent orator, and possesses the elements of popularity viz. keen wit, vivacity and a cordial and attractive manner.

I met Robert R. Hitt in 1858, when as a stenographer

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he was reporting the speeches of Abraham Lincoln in his noted debate with Stephen A Douglas. He is an "Illinois boy," and was educated at the Mount Morris Seminary, in which school at an early time were Gen. Rawlins, Senator Cullom and Gen. Beveridge. He was appointed Secretary of Legation of the French Embassy during Mr. Washburne's second term as Embassador. He has served as member of congress for the Galena district for nearly twenty years, and for a long time as chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Relations, for which position he is so eminently qualified. Mr. Hitt has been a close student of events, has a strong and well balanced mind, much general intelligence, untiring energy, tact and persistency, which have made him one of the most practical, useful and influential members of the House of Representatives. In manner he is courteous, genial and cordial.

In the latter '50s I became acquainted with John A. Logan, a member of congress and a prominent and influential Democrat of Southern Illinois. He entered the volunteer service in 1861 as the colonel of an Illinois regiment and soon proved himself a brave, skillful and intrepid soldier, and before the end of the war was one of the most distinguished commanders in the army of the West. After the war he was elected to the United States senate, where he displayed superior ability as a statesman. He was the Republican candidate for Vice President in 1884. For nearly forty years Gen. Logan was a conspicuous figure among the distinguished men of the nation. His fine symetrical physique, shapely and well-poised head, long straight black hair, swarthy complexion, heavy mustache, dark piercing eyes and a strong and handsome face made his personality striking. He possessed a strong intellect, quick mental perception, great will force, untiring energy, decided convictions

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and tenacity of purpose. He was at times impulsive and a little brusque in manner, but usually courteous, genial and gracious. After the war he was exceptionally popular with the array veterans and was elected and served one year as commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic.

Benjamin H. Grierson, the famous raider of the Army of the Tennessee, I knew well during the civil war. He possessed some rare qualities as a soldier, and especially as a commander of cavalry, and his untiring energy, vigilance, discrimination, pluck and persistency won for him a Brigadier's commission after his brilliant raid through Mississippi to Baton Rouge, La., and later that of a Major General. After his successful raid he was a conspicuous figure in the army of the West. In 1866 he was appointed Colonel of cavalry in the United States army, where he served principally in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona with great efficiency until his retirement a few years ago. He was brevetted a Brigadier and a Major General in the United States army for conspicuous efficiency in several campaigns against the Indians. His home is now at Jacksonville, Ill. He is still in robust health and his genial and gracious manner makes him a delightful companion, for he retains to a remarkable degree all the qualities of head and heart which made him a general favorite in the army.

Frederick Dent Grant, the oldest son of Gen. U. S. Grant, I knew in Galena when a schoolboy in the early '60s. He received a military education at West Point, and before the close of the war served for a brief period on his father's staff as an aide. He resigned his commission in the army at the close of his father's second term as President and engaged in civil pursuits. In the '80s he was appointed United States Embassador to Austria,

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where he won the reputation of being a careful, practical, intelligent, and efficient representative and was held in high esteem in the diplomatic circles at Vienna. Colonel Grant has inherited much of his father's strong mentality, good judgment and tenacity of purpose. I was gratified with the action of President McKinley in appointing him a Brigadier General of volunteers in the late Spanish-American war. I hope he will remain in the service, for I believe, should an opportunity present itself or an emergency arise, he would show himself possessed of a high order of military ability, especially in strategy, which was his father's forte.

Of the many prominent politicians I have known in the state of Wisconsin during the past forty years, Jeremiah M. Rusk was one of the most distinguished. I knew him in the latter '50s, when he was a young lawyer practicing his profession in the town of Viroqua in Western Wisconsin. He was a tall, broad-shouldered, unassuming, courteous young man of excellent habits. In 1862 he entered the volunteer service as Major of the Twenty-fifth Wisconsin infantry, became its Lieutenant Colonel, and at the close of the war was brevetted a Brigadier General for meritorious service at Vicksburg. Soon after he was elected Bank Comptroller of the state and then member of congress and served three terms. He declined the appointment of United States Minister to Paraguay and Uraguay, S. A. In 1882 he was elected governor of the state and re-elected twice, serving three consecutive terms. His administration of affairs as governor was replete with acts in which he displayed excellent judgment, firmness, tact and efficiency. Later he was appointed Secretary of Agriculture at Washington, and filled the position with rare ability and discrimination. During his long and varied career as a state and federal official he proved himself exceptionally capable,

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and was conscientious in the discharge of his duties. Governor Rusk was a quiet, dignified gentleman of great simplicity of character, and of a most kindly disposition.

I became acquainted with the Hon. Horatio C. Burchard during the political campaign of 1858. He was a lawyer of learning, who had located in Freeport, Ill., some years before, and had associated himself for practice with the Hon. Thomas J. Turner, a lawyer of recognized ability and an ex member of congress. Mr. Burchard, as a Republican, was influential in his party. He was twice elected a member of the legislature and took a high position as an able legislator, especialy on matters pertaining to finance. In the latter '60s he was elected to congress to succeed the Hon. E. B. Washburne, who had, resigned to assume the duties of Secretary of State under President Grant, and served four consecutive terms. Not long after leaving congress he was appointed Director of the United States Mint at Washington, D. C., and filled the position seven years with exceptional ability and efficiency. The position made him virtually the director general of all the mints and assay officers of the United States. In 1885 he was appointed by Governor Oglesby a member of the revenue commission to draft and report a plan for a revision of the revenue laws of the state. Throughout his long career as an official he showed himself most capable, especially in matters connected with finance and revenue, and achieved a high reputation as a statesman. In disposition he is unassuming, cordial, kind-hearted and companionable. He always kept near the people and was popular with them to an eminent degree.

John H. Addams was a prominent figure in Stephenson County, Illinois for over a quarter of a century before his death. He was an extensive farmer, operated a grist mill and for many years was the President of the

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Second National Bank of Freeport. He was tall, dignified and courteous, unassuming in manner, and generous and kind-hearted in disposition. He possessed great will force, excellent judgment, much practical intelligence and administrative ability. He filled various offices of trust in the county, and served sixteen years in the state senate, making a notable record as a careful, conscientious and conservative legislator. He was held in high esteem by the people of his Senatorial district. In the latter years of his life he was known as "Honest John Addams." I loved him for his many admirable traits of character.

Another resident of Northern Illinois, Allen C. Fuller, of Boone county, a lawyer and circuit judge, was a conspicuous figure in political circles for a third of a century before his retirement in the '80s. He was an early Republican, and in 1860, as an elector, held joint debates in the electorial district with John A. Rawlins, (afterwards General and Secretary of War,) who was a Douglas Democrat. He was appointed in 1862 Adjutant General of the state by Governor Yates to succeed Col. T. S. Mather who had resigned to accept the Colonelsy of a regiment of artillery. Gen. Fuller proved a most efficient officer, having good judgment, a thorough knowledge of his duties, firmness, energy and discrimination. Later he served as a member of the Legislature and was speaker of the House. He was a lawyer of ability, had large experience instate affairs, and it seems to me that his party should have recognized his ability and valuable services to the state by nominating him in the '80s for Governor. His son, Charles E. Fuller, of the same county, also a lawyer, has his father's strong and vigorous mentality and has represented his senatorial district in the Legislature for many years with distinguished ability.

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Mr. Waite Talcott, of Rockford, Winnebago county, one of its early settlers, was a man of much force of character, who in 1854 was elected as a Freesoiler to the State Senate, served one term and made a most creditable record. During his forty years residence in the county he became closely identified with its material, moral, religious and social interests, and impressed himself upon its people as being a clear headed, conscientious, public spirited, Christian citizen.

Judge William Lathrop, a lawyer of exceptional learning and ability has been a resident of Rockford for nearly two score years and been regarded as one of its foremost citizens, Some years ago he represented the Rockford District in Congress for one term and won distinction as an industrious, intelligent and efficient representative. He has done much as a public spirited citizen during all these years in advancing the best interests of the people of that city and county.

Before closing these brief sketches I must not omit to mention my esteemed friend and neighbor, Colonel LeGrand W. Perce, a learned and able lawyer of the Chicago bar. His record in the civil war was a credit able one, and after its close settled in the state of Mississippi. He was twice elected to Congress, and in the early '70s removed to Chicago where he practiced his profession. For some time he was an active and influential politician. He made corporation law a specialty, and now stands deservedly high as a corporation lawyer. Col. Perce, born and educated in one of the Atlantic states, possesses much natural ability, a strong and well trained mind, industry and energy, and in manner is unassuming, courteous and cordial.

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Chapter XI.

THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION 1893.

The great World's Columbian Exposition which celebrated the four hundredth anniversary of Christopher Columbus' discovery of America was held in Chicago in 1893. It was one of the grandest enterprises undertaken and executed in modern times. I quote briefly from the address of the Hon. William T. Baker, President of the Chicago Board of Trade, and President of the Chicago Local Directory, at the formal opening of the Columbian Exposition May 12th, 1893. "The act of Congress approved April 25th, 1890, providing for the Exposition states in the preamble that such an exhibition should be of a national and international character, so that not only the people of our Union and this continent, but those of all nations as well can participate, and to carry out this intention, Congress provided two agents to do its will. The first is a commission, consisting of two commissioners from each state and territory of the United States, appointed by the President, on the nomination of the Governors of the states and territories respectively, and eight commissioners at large, appointed by the President. The Board so constituted was designated the "World's Columbian Commission."

The other agent, recognized by the act of Congress is the World's Columbian Exposition, a corporation organized under the laws of the state of Illinois. This corporation has charge of the ways and means, the erection of buildings, the maintenance, protection and policing of

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the same, the granting of concessions, the collection and disbursement of all its revenues, and fixing the rules governing the Exposition. It is composed of upward of 2,800 stockholders and is controlled by a Board of forty-five directors. These directors have been chosen from among the active business men of Chicago."

In order that the city of Chicago might enjoy the honor conferred upon her by having the Exposition located in her midst, she was required to furnish an adequate site acceptable to the National Commission and $10,000,000 in money, which was, in the language of the act, considered necessary for the complete preparation for said Exposition. This obligation the citizens promptly met. The adequate site and $10,000,000 were provided, and on evidence thereof, the President of the United States issued his proclamation inviting the nations of the earth to participate in the Exposition.

When the matter was first discussed in Chicago by public spirited citizens in the latter part of 1890, comparatively few had faith to believe that Chicago could succeed in getting the Exposition, with New York city as a competitor. An organization was however effected, in which were many of Chicago's wealthiest and most enterprising citizens. A large and efficient local committee was appointed, and for over a year systematic, far reaching and effective work was accomplished in obtaining subscriptions toward the $10,000,000 required, and in securing the votes of Members of Congress fixing the site of the Exposition at Chicago.

Previous to any action on the part of Congress fixing the site of the Exposition, a committee or delegation of Chicago citizens was sent to Washington to look after Chicago's interests. The secretary of the local committee, E. F. Cragin, had gone to Washington in advance of the committee. Mr. Cragin, who in Chicago had been

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most efficient in his energetic and methodical work, continued it in Washington, and the final success in Congress was largely due to his industry and tact. I was to have gone to Washington with the sub-committee, but ill health prevented me. The vote in Congress giving to Chicago the location of the Exposition was a great surprise, especially to New York, which city confidently expected to get it.

After the location of the Columbian Exposition the local Board of Directors of forty-five was elected by the stockholders. The members were of Chicago's very best men, in point of experience, administrative ability and clear business perception. It was composed in part of such men as W. T. Baker, President of the Board; H. N. Higinbotham, who was chosen President of the Board the second year; Hon. T. B. Bryan, the Vice President; A. F. Seeberger, the Treasurer; W. K. Ackerman, the Auditor; F. W. Peck, Chairman of the Committee on Finance; Hemp. Washburne, Mayor; Lyman J. Gage, James W. Scott, Potter Palmer, E. G. Keith, Charles Henrotin, Adolph Nathan, James W. Ellsworth, A. H. Revell, Charles H. Schwab, Washington Porter, Otto Young, W. D. Kerfoot, S. W. Allerton, Charles E, Hutchinson, Eugene S. Pike, Arthur Dixon and George Schneider.

Colonel George R. Davis, ex-Member of Congress, whom I had known in Chicago for twenty years, was chosen by the National Commissioners as Director General. The choice was an eminently wise one. Another, writing of him, says: "His record in public affairs decided the selection. He has a wonderful knowledge of human nature, is well versed in the affairs of the world, and, it is said, he possesses that subtle tact which is often called diplomacy, with keen perception and comprehensive views he handles the multiform forces that are subject to his orders without blundering, and executes his

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tasks with rare ability." He filled the difficult position most satisfactorily, performing his arduous and complicated duties in a masterful manner.

William T. Baker, the President of the local Board of Directors, was the embodiment of energy, practical common sense and efficiency. The same may be said of H. N. Higinbotham, who succeeded him as President. Mr. T. B. Bryan throughout showed himself a sagacious, forceful and discriminating man of affairs. His great work, however, was done in assisting to secure the location of the Exposition. His address before the Congressional committee on the Columbian Exposition when presenting Chicago's claims, where he met the great orator, Chauncey Depew, who was doing the same thing for New York, was a powerful, ingenious and convincing effort, and did much towards securing for Chicago the site of the Exposition.

Under the direct management of the local Board of Directors and the indirect management of the National Board of Commissioners of which ex-United States Senator J. W. Palmer of Michigan, was President, and the Hon. J. T. Dickinson, the energetic and efficient Secretary, the success of the Exposition was the wonder of the world. Its location on the shore of the great Lake Michigan was unique and most favorable, the buildings constructed were surprisingly grand and beautiful, and the exhibits so varied and extensive that it seemed as if there was not a green spot on the earth that had not something there to represent it. There will be many World's Fairs or Expositions in the future. France will have one in 1900, and no expense will be spared to make it the grandest the "sun ever shone upon." It is my opinion, however, that there will never again be such a wonderful World's Fair or Exposition as the one that was held in Chicago in 1893.

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Another potent factor in making the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 such a pronounced success was the Woman's Department, controlled and managed by some of the brainiest and most practical women of our country. A department in a World's Fair to be managed solely by women was an innovation, and many doubted its feasibility. A National Board of Women Commissioners, two from each state and territory, and a local Board of Commissioners, consisting of nine women, were appointed. The Board of National Commissioners met in Chicago and organized by electing Mrs. Potter Palmer of Chicago, President, and Mrs. Ralph Trautman of New York city, First Vice President The choice of these officers was a most judicious one, especially that of Mrs. Palmer for President. Mrs. Palmer did not seek the office, for she distrusted her ability to fill the responsible position, but from the time she took the chair as President and delivered her address of acceptance to the end of her long and arduous administration, it was evident to all the commissioners that they had made a most wise selection. Inexperienced as she was in presiding over a large deliberative body and in the management of important and complicated business affairs, she made no mistake, but proved herself a woman of great intellectual force, energy, tact, keen discrimination and of almost unerring judgment. When her great work had been completed, she was one of the most widely known and greatly admired women in the world.

The local Board of Commissioners, composed of such women as Mrs. Colonel James A. Mulligan, Mrs. Sol. Thatcher, Mrs. Gen. M. R. M. Wallace, Mrs. Gen. A. L. Chetlain, Dr. Frances Dickenson, Mrs. L. Brace Shattuck, Mrs. Myra Bradwell, Mrs. George L. Dunlap, Mrs. Matilda B. Carse and Mrs. James R. Doolittle, was a most efficient one. All its members possessed zeal, good

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judgment and executive force and were unremitting in their efforts to make the Woman's Department a success. Mrs. Palmer, the President of the Board of National Commissioners, fully appreciated the efficient services rendered by the Local Board, as she did also the valuable work and advice of such able women as Mrs. Gen. Logan, Mrs. Gov. J. J. Bagley, and Mrs. S. S. C. Angell of Michigan, Mrs. Gov. R. J. Oglesby, Mrs. W. P. Lynde, of Wisconsin, Mrs. F. B. Clarke, of Minnesota. Mrs. Trautmann, of New York, and other members of the National Board who spent much time in Chicago, while prosecuting their work.

There grew out of the Columbian Exposition, an institution in Chicago which in time will be noted not only in this, but in all other civilized countries. I refer to the "Field Columbian Museum" started and upheld thus far largely by the munificent generosity of the "Merchant Prince," Marshal Field, long known in Chicago as a man of keen intellect and superior administrative ability.

A few years before the World's Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago a number of public spirited citizens started a movement to found in that city an Art Institute, believing that it was needed in the metropolis of the northwest. The leader in the movement was the comparatively young financier, Charles L. Hutchinson, the son of R. P. Hutchinson, the famous Board of Trade member and extensive operator of a score of years ago Young Hutchinson entered the project with zeal and energy, and backed by his wealth, was a potent factor in making it a success. He is forceful and far sighted as a a man of affairs, morally high-toned and one of the best poised characters I ever knew. He has as an earnest co-worker, Martin A. Ryerson, a man much like himself, highly educated, enthusiastic and wealthy, who, besides being scholarly is a great lover of art. A magnificent

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and substantial building was erected on the Lake Front for the uses of the Institute. The holding of the Columbian Exposition in Chicago gave it an impetus. Its management is admirable. Charles L. Hutchinson is the President of a Board of twenty-two directors composed of some of Chicago's most enterprising and sagacious citizens. James H. Dole, the Vice-President of the Board, is an old time prominent business man, whose activity as a director virtually makes him the general manager, for which position he is well qualified, having been an artist of considerable reputation in his early manhood. He has energy, tact and administrative ability of a high order.

W. R. French, long recognized in Chicago as an artist of unusual merit is the active Director of the Institution. He possesses great energy and acute discrimination. One of the Directors who gives much of his time in assisting the management is Charles W. Fullerton, the son of one of Chicago's early and prominent citizens, who has large business experience and artistic taste. Mr. Fullerton has recently donated a sum sufficient to construct a large lecture hall to be known as the "Fullerton Memorial Hall" in memory of his father, the late Alex. N. Fullerton. The Executive Committee of the Board of Directors is composed of C. L. Hutchinson, James H. Dole, Albert A. Sprague, Chas. H. Hamill, Gen. J. C. Black, Martin A. Ryerson and William T. Baker. The Art Institute under the judicious management of a body of such men cannot fail to be a success.

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Chapter XII.

NOTED WOMEN Of CHICAGO.

Chicago has a number of women of strong intellect, broadly educated, of advanced ideas and of much will force, which have made their influence felt far and wide. In the latter '70s Mrs. Kate Newell Doggett was a leader in the literary circles of Chicago, the founder of the Fortnightly Club of Chicago, and was its President until her death. She was a woman of exceptional culture, great energy, and had largely what the French call the savour faire.

About that time Miss Frances E. Willard began to be generally known as an advanced educator, editor, and a writer of ability. She was in the lecture field, and was at the head of the Woman's Christian Union, the leader of the White Cross Union, and later the President of the American branch of the National Council of Women, and of the World's Christian Temperance Union, which she had organized. She was a prolific writer, and the author of several books. Before her death, which occurred last year, (1898,) she was recognized as one of the strongest characters the last half of the 19th century had produced in the United States. The work of the last twenty years of her life was a great one, especially as an educator and reformer.

Mrs. Myra Brad well in an entirely different field of effort had achieved a wide reputation as a learned lawyer and the able and discriminating editor of the "Legal News" of Chicago before Miss Willard had become generally

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known. She possessed great mental force and much positive strength of character.

The Fortnightly Club was organized over 20 years ago, and it soon brought together many of the brightest and most cultured women of Chicago. The Club or Society was in some respects a literary training school of a high order, and many of the carefully prepared papers read before it by its members were unsurpassed in point of ability. The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 with its Congress of nations, its Congress of religions and the great work wrought by its Woman's Department, gave an impetus to woman to become an active participant in the great field of thought and action.

Mrs. Potter Palmer, to whom I have already alluded in connection with her remarkable work in the Woman's department of the Columbian Exposition was a member of the Fortnightly Club and had there displayed rare ability as a writer.

Dr. Sarah Hackett Stephenson for nearly a quarter of a century a resident of Chicago, is widely known not only as a skillful practitioner, but also as a popular lecturer. She has intellectual force, energy, rare practical intelligence, broad and advanced views of social and moral questions and withal is a ready and impressive speaker.

Mrs. Charles Henrotin, for some time the efficient President of the General Federation of Woman's Clubs, was active during the Columbian Exposition in the two Congresses alluded to, and was the Vice-President of the Woman's branch of the Congress auxiliary of the Columbian Exposition. She possesses a keen and well trained intellect, intense energy, tact and administrative ability, is a pleasing and forcible speaker, of cordial manner, and a kind and amiable disposition.

Dr. Julia Holmes Smith, who has practiced her profession

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in Chicago many years, is a careful student of events, has wide general information, will force, energy and executive ability. She served with efficiency as a Trustee of the University of Illinois.

Mrs. J. M. Flower is more of a reformer and humanitarian than any other of the distinguished women I have named. She has intellectual force, rare intelligence, untiring energy and excellent judgment, which qualities fit her to govern a state. Her work for years in endeavoring to ameliorate the condition of the poor and unfortunate, including the criminal class in the county jails, police stations, etc., has been a great one and not destitute of good results. She has filled the position of Trustee of the University of Illinois acceptably.

Miss Jane Addams, is the efficient manager of that unique institution, "The Hull House Social Settlement," patterned after Toynbee Hall, the first settlement which was founded in London about fifteen years ago, which has been running under her management for a half score of years in the heart of the city of Chicago, effected great good in a novel but practical way. Its charter states that the objects of the Hull House are "to provide a center for a higher civil and social life, to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial district of Chicago." Miss Addams has a strong and well trained mind, is intensely energetic and of sound judgment, who as a social reformer uses methods which are unusual. Not long since upon her own solicitation she was appointed Health Inspector of one of the worst districts in the city, and served one term most efficiently and acceptably. She is an attractive speaker and is often seen in the pulpit, and on the platform as a lecturer. She is the daughter of the Hon. John H. Addams, of Stephenson county, Ill., who was a farmer,

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manufacturer and banker, and a State Senator for sixteen years.

There are other women in Chicago who possess unusual mental force, excellent judgment, effective energy, acute discrimination and marked ability in managing affairs, such as Mrs. John N. Jewett, former President of the Fortnightly Club, Vice President-at-large for Illinois of the Daughters of the American Revolution and President of the Antiquarian Society of Chicago, and Mrs. Gen. M. R. M. Wallace, late President of the Woman's Club of Chicago and President of the National Relief Corps of the G. A. R.

Mrs. George L. Dun lap, long prominent in benevolent and philanthropic work in the city of Chicago, is a forceful character, and in her work pursues practical lines. Her exceptional efficiency has always been recognized. During the Columbian Exposition she was the President of the Board of Women which constructed and managed the Children's building.

Mrs. J. J. Glessner, a woman of strong mentality, many accomplishments and a well directed energy, founded, soon after the Columbian Exposition, the Antiquarian Society of Chicago, and has long been a generous and discriminating patron of music and art in Chicago. Mrs. J. Young Scammon, a woman of marked force of character, excellent judgment and practical in her methods, founded some years ago the Decorative Art Society of Chicago and has always been active in its management.

Mrs. E. W. Blatchford, one of the most thoroughly sensible and practical Christian women of Chicago, some years ago, as a philanthropic, work, organized the first kindergarten in the city. Kindergartens are now very numerous and have become a part of our system of public schools. Miss Julia Lathrop, a woman of high literary

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attainments and an advanced reformer, is a member of the Illinois State Board of Charities. Mrs. Matilda B. Carse, well known in the literary, charitable and humanitarian circles of Chicago, of exceptional will force and administrative ability, has for many years been prominently connected with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and is one of the Managing Board of the "Woman's Temple."

Mrs. Cyrus McCormick Sr., a woman of rare culture and broad sympathies, has with munificent liberality and discrimination aided religious societies and educational and charitable institutions in Chicago and elsewhere for many years; and Mrs. Lydia A. Coonley-Ward, strongly intellectual, effectively energetic, with broad views of moral and social questions, has long been a recognized conservative leader in reform and humanitarian movements in Chicago.

Mrs. Elizabeth A. Reed, of keen and well trained intellect, has written valuable books on Indian and Persian literature, and Miss Lillian Bell, the daughter of my esteemed army friend, Major W. W. Bell, has achieved a wide reputation by her boobs, written with marked ability; and Mrs. Dr. Horace Wardner, of much culture and mental strength, a reformer and humanitarian, is a lecturer and writer of unusual force, and well known throughout the state.

Mrs. Mary Hartwell Catherwood, of Hoopestown, Ill., who spends much of her time in Chicago and is well known in its literary clubs and circles, is a woman of high literary attainments and the author of nearly a half-score of books written since 1880. Her last books, "The Romance of Dollard," "The Bells of Ste Anne" and "The Storey of Tonti," have given her more than national reputation.

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Chapter XIII.

ARMY SOCIETIES,

I have had much to do with soldiers' organizations since I located in Chicago over twenty-five years ago. I have been a member of the Society of the Army of the Tennessee, the oldest and largest of the societies of the different armies of the civil war. It was organized in North Carolina in 1865, just before the close of the war, with Gen. John A. Rawlins as its President, Gen. A. Hickenlooper, of the artillery arm of the service and after the war Lieutenant Governor of Ohio, as Corresponding Secretary, and Colonel L. M. Dayton of Gen. Sherman's staff, and after the war a prominent manufacturer of Cincinnati, as Recording Secretary. The qualifications for membership for commissioned officers, was creditable service in the Department or Army of the Tennessee. The society has held thirty meetings in various parts of the West since its organization. The meetings are intended to be held annually. After the death of Gen. Rawlins, Gen. Sherman was chosen President and served most acceptably until his death in 1883. His successor was Gen. G. M. Dodge of Iowa, the last corps commander appointed by him on his march to the sea, who still holds the position. The original Corresponding Secretary, Gen. A. Hickenlooper, still fills the place. He was a brave and exceptionally valuable officer, and is now a highly esteemed and influential citizen of Cincinnati. After the death of Colonel Dayton in 1891, Colonel Cornelius Cadle was elected Recording Secretary,

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an officer with a most excellent record in the service, who possesses admirable qualifications for the somewhat arduous position he fills, viz: intelligence, industry and discrimination.

The society, from its organization, at considerable cost, has kept a careful record of all its proceedings, giving in full all papers read and addresses made, which proceedings are printed in a bound volume every year for the use of its members. There is, therefore, in the records of the society thus, kept, a mass of valuable historical information. Among the distinguished officers whose names are found on the roll of the society as members and who have died, are Generals Grant Sherman, Logan, Rawlins, Buckland, Corse, Gresham, Fisk, Leggett McCook, Hurlbut, Rowett, Rowley, J. E. Smith, Rusk, Pope, Rice, Belknap and Blair. The roll the society now shows a membership or less than 700.

The Grand Army of the Republic was organized in Illinois in the early part of 1866. It has been one of the most remarkable organizations of ex-soldiers the world has ever known. Out of the 2,000,000 men who volunteered to save the life of the nation and who served from three months to four years in the civil war, nearly one-fourth of whom were killed in battle or died from disease, over 300,000 of them, within a few years after the close of the war joined together and under solemn pledges formed a society or order, the objects of which were: First, to perpetuate the sacred memories of the war — second, to assist each other in the struggles of life — and third, for good fellowship. I became a member of the order in Illinois in 1866, and have always taken great pleasure in attending reunions, post meetings and "camp fires," where I have witnessed exhibitions of genuine comradeship. Probably four-fifths of this vast order is composed of men who served in the ranks. The

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longer I live the more I am impressed with the idea that the man "who carried a gun," i. e., the enlisted man in the ranks, is deserving of more honor than his fellow citizen who, more fortunate than he, held a commission, be the rank high or low. All were patriotic, but the patriotism of the former always seemed to me a degree higher than that of the latter. Nearly all the officers who belong to the societies of the Army of the Tennessee, the Potomac, the Cumberland, or of the Mititary order of the Loyal Legion, are also members of the Grand Army of the Republic.

Over fifteen years ago there was organized by the wives and daughters of the members of the G. A. R., an order connected with the G. A. R. and called the Veteran Relief Corps. Out of some 3,000 Posts in the United States there are very few without its relief corps. This addenda, formed and sustained by patriotic women, has done and is doing an amount of benevolent work that is incalculable. Its principal work is relieving the necessities of the families of unfortunate members of the order, and in case of death to look after and care for the widows and orphans.

Other orders composed of former soldiers of the civil war have been organized and patterned after the G. A. R. Some fifteen years ago when the order of the G. A. R. was at low ebb, the society of our "Our Country's Defenders" was instituted, but its existence was brief. A few years ago another order, The Union Veteran Legion, was organized with all the characteristics of the G. A. R. except that elegibility for membership requires a service of at least two years in the civil war. It has now numerous posts in the country, especially in the western states.

The military order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, was instituted at Philadelphia in 1878. Its objects are to cherish the memories and associations

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of the war waged in defense and indivisibility of the Republic; to strengthen the ties of fraternal fellowship and sympathy formed by companionship in arms, and to advance the best interests of the soldiers and sailors of the United States. Its principles and objects are not dissimilar to those of the "Order of the Cincinnati" institution soon after the close of the Revolutionary war, of which Gen. George Washington was the first commander. The chief difference was in the qualifications for membership. In the Order of the Cincinnati, no officer of less grade than a Lieutenant Colonel was eligible to membership. The Military Order of the Loyal Legion admits all commissioned officers or ex-officers of the army and navy from the highest to the lowest grade viz. that of Second Lieutenant, and is therefore of a more popular character. A good military record and an honorable life as a citizen are required. Membership is hereditary descending to the oldest of the male line or in default of male issue to the oldest in the collateral line. The son of a member when he becomes of age is eligible as a member of the second class, and at the death of his father becomes a member of the first class. The Order of the Cincinnati has now four state commanderies, with members of the second and third generations.

I was one of the fourteen members of the Order who instituted the Illinois Commandery in 1880. Gen. Phil. H. Sheridan was its first commander. There are now twenty state commanderies in the United States with a membership of about 8000. The order is not secret nor political, and only incidentally benevolent.

We have on our rolls of membership as companions, Generals Grant, Hancock, Sherman, Sheridan, Hayes, McClellan, Garfield, Logan, Meade, Burnside and Arthur, now numbered with the dead, and a long list of distinguished commanders still living. The Illinois Commandery

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which holds its meetings monthly in Chicago has a membership of about 700, nearly one-tenth of whom are members of the second, and of the first-class by succession. Col. J. Mason Loomis succeeded Gen. Sheridan as commander, and served one year. Since then a new commander has been elected every year. The last commander, Col. Charles W. Davis, died recently before the end of his official term. He had been the Recorder of the Commandery for some ten years prior to 1896, serving with great acceptance. Col. Davis had an exceptionally excellent war record, and was a gentleman of culture and rare good nature. His predecessor as Recorder was Captain Richard Robins, formerly of the United States army, who was elected at the organization of the Commandery, proved a most intelligent and efficient officer. The present Recorder, Captain R. H. Mason, is a lawyer of recognized ability, and of scholarly attainments, with an admirable reputation as a soldier, and is highly esteemed by his companions.

I have in preceding pages alluded to many of my army comrades, who are members of the Commandery. There are many more of whom lain very fond, having been drawn to them by the natural law of affinity. They are men whose records in the civil war are of unsurpassed excellence and of which any American patriot might well be proud. Among the number is Gen. Walter C. Newberry, a citizen of large private affairs; Colonel William L. Barnum; prominent in fire insurance circles and an able business manager; Colonel Francis A. Riddle, a learned and successful lawyer; Major S. E. Barrett, the sagacious and exceptionally successful manufacturer; Gen. J. H. Stibbs, United States Pension Examiner at Chicago; Major I. P. Rumsey, of the Board of Trade management; Captain James G. Everest, the efficient railroad special agent and United States commissioner

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of the Vicksburg National cemetery; Gen. Milo S. Hascall, extensive operator in realties; Captain George H. Heafford, the popular railroad general passenger agent; Major W. L. B. Jenney, a civil and military engineer and a distinguished architect; Dr. J. Nevins Hyde, skillful in practice and of literary tastes; Gen. Charles W. Drew, a recognized authority in fire insurance and matters; Major Martin J. Russell, editor and a writer of ability; Captain Alfred T. Andreas, of literary taste and the publisher of the great history of Chicago; Major William E. Furness, learned as a lawyer and of high scholarly attainments; General Charles S. Bentley, member of the Board of Trade; Major Robert W. McClaughry, reformer, and an authority on the management of penal institutions; Colonel Henry L. Turner, banker, scholar, and long prominently connected with the Illinois National Guards and colonel of the First regiment; Captain Ephraim A. Otis, a learned and successful lawyer and commander of the Illinois Commandery of the Loyal Legion; Captain E. B. Sherman, well known and able lawyer of the Chicago bar, and Dr. O. W. Nixon, of the editorial staff of the Chicago Daily Inter Ocean;

Gen. Horace H. Thomas, ex-Speaker of the Legislature of Illinois and now United States Appraiser at the Port of Chicago; Captain Alonzo N. Reece, the clearheaded and successful merchant; Captain Sartell Prentice, an able lawyer and far sighted man of affairs; Colonel Edgar D. Swain, the distinguished dental surgeon and long prominent in the Illinois National Guards; Captain Amos J. Harding, the intelligent and successful manager of fire insurance, companies; Major Horatio L. Wait, the able lawyer, of literary taste and of recognized ability as a writer; Captain John McLarem, banker and a financier of recognized ability; Colonel Wilton A. Jenkins, active and successful in business; Dr. Edward

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O. F. Roler, of exceptional skill in surgery; Captain August Busse, successful in business, and formerly known as the "fighting captain" of his regiment. Colonel Byron M. Callender, of the Chicago Board of Trade, and now retired; Captain Peter Hand, a successful business man; Captain Charles T. Boal, a man of large private affairs; Colonel Charles R. E. Koch, in business, and for many years identified with the Illinois National Guards and for some time the colonel of a regiment; Colonel Manning D. Birge, in active business; Major D. V. Purington, a prominent manufacturer, and Dr. Samuel C. Plummer, an able and successful practitioner of Rock Island.

Colonel Isaac Clemens, a lawyer and successful practitioner, former member of Congress and later United States Pension Agent at Chicago; Captain William G. Cadle in active business; Major Maurice J. McGrath, for many years superintendent of mails in the Chicago postoffice; Col. George S. Roper, the "sweet singer" of the Commandery, who recently died; Captain Norman Ream, retired capitalist; Captain James B. Goodman, one of Chicago's lumber "Barons;" Gen. Charles T. Hotchkiss, active and successful in business; Col. John S. Cooper, a prominent lawyer of the Chicago bar; Major George Mason, proprietor of the Excelsior Iron Works; Dr. Horace Wardner, a distinguished practitioner, now virtually retired; Captain Theo. W. Letton, prominent in fire insurance circles; Major George L. Paddock, an able and distinguished lawyer of the Chicago bar; Major John D. Crabtree, a judge on the circuit bench. Col. Thomas E. Milchrist, ex-United States District Attorney at Chicago; Major Lumley Ingledew, real estate operator; Charles F. Matteson, the distinguished dental surgeon; Major James M. Ball, in active business. Captain James T. McAuley, a former, merchant, and now in life insurance, as a manager; Col. William A. McLean, capitalist, and Gen. Martin D. Hardin, U. S. A., retired.

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The three scores of young men who are members of the first and second classes are energetic, intelligent, and of good habits, who give promise of making excellent citizens and prove "worthy sons of noble sires." Many of them have already taken high positions in business affairs, and in the professions a few have achieved distinction.

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Chapter XIV.

THE DOMINION OF CANADA.

In the early part of 1894 I spent several months in Montreal. During my stay there I devoted my leisure time to the study of the Dominion of Canada. I was surprised to find how little I knew about that vast country lying contiguous to the United States and greatly surpassing it in area. Its arable lands, good, bad and indifferent, lying west of Lake Winnipeg and the Red River to the Rocky mountains, are estimated at 150,000,000 acres. The eastern part of the area is of unsurpassed fertility. If only one-third of this area, the part best adapted for the growth of wheat and other small grains, were cultivated and the yield put down at ten bushels of wheat per acre, the aggregate would be 500,000,000 bushels, an amount equal to the entire wheat crop of the United States. Should this great area of wheat lands be added to that of the United States, the total yield would be sufficient to supply the markets of the world.

Some fifteen years ago I joined a party of capitalists and visited Manitoba. While in Winnipeg we called upon the Hon. Mr. Couchon, the Governor of the Province of Manitoba, to pay him our respects. The question of wheat growing was discussed, and the Governor brought out a small bag containing some two quarts of wheat, which was a sample of that grown on land 1,500 miles in a direct line northwest of Winnipeg, at the headwaters of the McKenzie river. The wheat was well

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matured, large and plump. I state this fact to show how far northwest wheat can be successfully grown on this continent.

A charter has been obtained from the Parliament of Canada for the construction of a railway from Winnipeg to Fort York on the Hudson Bay called the Winnipeg & Great Northern railway. The length will be less than 700 miles. The intention of the projectors is to carry wheat to Fort York, store it in large elevators and ship it to Great Britain and Northern Europe during the two or three months of summer when the Hudson strait is open.

I learned another thing that interested me, viz: that the extensive territory of the Dominion lying south and east of the Hudson Bay to within a hundred and fifty miles northwest of the great valley of the St. Lawrence river and Lake Ontario and say two hundred miles west of the Atlantic coast in Labrador, had never been explored and was a terra incognita. This vast tract is well watered by some six or seven large rivers which flow into the Hudson bay from the south and east. A portion of this territory in Labrador, lying west of the Atlantic coast for two or three hundred miles, has recently been explored by a competent corps of scientific men appointed by the government. In this vast unexplored region geologists and mining experts believe that coal, iron and copper exists in large quantities, and that lands susceptible of cultivation and well adapted for grazing purposes will be found.

Another thing interested me, and that was the production of iron found in shallow lakes and dry bogs at the base of the range of the Laurentian mountains, similar to the Swedish iron, so largely imported in the United States, and extensively used for the manufacture of car wheels. The iron is smelted with charcoal and can be

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produced with profit only in a region where wood is abundant. Nearly 200 years ago some French missionaries began at Radnor on the St. Maurice river to smelt this ore in crude furnaces, producing two to three tons of pig iron a day. A few years ago a syndicate was formed to develope this industry of which George E. Drummond, Thomas J. Drummond, and J. T. McCall, of Montreal, iron manufacturers and dealers in imported and domestic metals, Thomas Griffin, an extensive manufacturer of car wheels in Chicago, and E. H. Griffin, a capitalist of Buffalo, N. Y., with a few capitalists of London, England, composed the syndicate, known as the "Canada Iron, Furnace Company, Limited." It bought the old French plant with 100,000 acres of timber land, lying in the Laurentian mountains near Radnor and up the St. Maurice river. It began at Radnor, the manufacture of pig iron on a large scale by improved methods of smelting. For some years the daily output of the Radnor Forges of the "Canada Iron Furnace Co.," has been from forty to fifty tons. This iron known as "bog iron" is found in various localities along the base of the Laurentian mountains which fringe the great valley of the St. Lawrence river from Quebec southwestward for 500 miles. Much of the pig iron is sold in Great Britain where it will soon supplant the Swedish iron.

The construction of the great highway, the Canadian Pacific railroad, across the continent, has greatly increased the carrying trade across the Atlantic and has proved a benefaction to all lower Canada. The entire system is admirably managed, the credit being due to the forceful energy, good judgment and practical methods employed by its President, William C. Van Home, who by the by is a product of Illinois, if not of Chicago. In the latter '50s or early '60s, a young man living in Joliet, Ill., obtained a position as brakeman of a freight

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train on a railroad running into Chicago. By industry and close application to his duties he rose step by step until he became an assistant manager of the Chicago & Alton railroad. His great energy and acute discrimination was recognized by ail railroad men. When the Canadian Pacific railroad needed a clear head to manage its extensive affairs its Board of Directors chose William C. Van Home as its President. He soon proved himself not only capable and efficient, but exceptionally so. A few years ago at the request of the Government of Canada, Queen Victoria knighted him, and he has since been Sir William C. Van Home. It is said that his old friend, the distinguished veteran railroad "King," T. B. Black-stone, President of the Chicago & Alton railroad, has the credit of having first discovered the genuine worth as a railroad operator of the "Illinois boy," and taught him many valuable lessons in railroad management. T. G. Shaughnessy, the former General Manager of the road and now its Vice-President, is, a product of Wisconsin. His father was a contractor in Milwaukee, and like his superior officer, Van Home, he began his career at the foot of the ladder on Wisconsin railroads. He is the embodiment of energy, industry and efficiency with a thorough knowledge of the details of railroad management.

One thing should immediately be done by the government of Canada, and that is the enlargement and deepening to twenty feet the Welland and other canals, which would give an impetus to the carrying trade of the Great Lakes. Before my visit to Montreal I believed that the greater part of the intelligent people of Lower Canada favored annexation to the United States. To my surprise, I found that not one in five favored it. As a general thing, the greater the intelligence of the person the more decided the opposition to the scheme of

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annexation. I was told that in Upper Canada a greater proportion of the people favored annexation.

The banking system of Canada interested me. The great Bank of Montreal, with its $12,000,000 chartered capital and nearly two-thirds as much more as a surplus which is used as capital, is not a national money institution like the Bank of England, but it does all the busines of the government of the Dominion. It has some forty to fifty branches in the Dominion and some half-dozen in the United States, two being on the Pacific coast, at San Francisco and Portland, Ore, respectively. The bank is conducted on sound banking principles and follows conservative and safe lines. Although unlike the Bank of England, it stands in Canada much as does the Bank of England in Great Britain.

I spent the summer of 1895 in Lower Canada and made a tour in the lake region of the Laurentian mountains northwest of Montreal, where, in its numerous small lakes and streams, the speckled trout are found in great numbers. I met there, and in the villages and hamlets at the base of the mountains, many of the early settlers of French origin called "habitants." They speak an imperfect French, which is almost a "patois" and not entirely intelligible to the Frenchman. Nearly all, however, speak a peculiar English or dialect almost as marked as that of the Creoles of Louisiana. I became very much interested in that singular people, usually well-to-do, who number nearly a million in Canada, and whose habits, customs and mode of living have changed very little in two hundred years. As is always the case with such people, they have cherished legends and traditions, many of the former being full of romance.

Dr. William H. Drummond, F. R. S., of Montreal, who spent, while fishing and hunting, much of his early life among the "habitants" of Lower Canada, has within

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the past few years collected many of their legends and traditions, which, with descriptions of their habits, customs, mode of living, manners, sentiments and superstitions, after having with great ingenuity and labor formulated, or rather created their dialect, put them into a volume of poems, "The Habitant, and other French-Canadian Poems." The book was issued less than two years ago, and he has done for the "habitants" of Canada what Harriet Beecher Stowe and others did for the blacks of the South, and what George W. Cable has done for the Creoles of Louisiana, especially in their dialect. Dr. Drummond's book caused something of a sensation in Canada, and its sale there, in Great Britain and in the United States has been exceptionally large. Dr. Louis Frechette, the French poet laureate of Canada, when writing of Dr. Drummond and his work, says: "If ever any one in Canada has deserved the title of ‘Pathfinder of a new land of song,’ it assuredly is he.

ROCKFORD, ILLINOIS.

I lived in Rockford in 1866 for nearly a year after leaving the army, and became well acquainted with the history of the place and most of its leading citizens. The city is the seat of Winnebago county, built on both sides of Rock river, which gives it a splendid water power, It is conceded to be the most beautiful city in the state, has a population of over 35,000, and has long been known as the "Forest City." The land in the county is of unsurpassed fertility. The town was founded in the early '40s, and was fortunate in having as early settlers men of mental force, energy and of great public spirit, who did much in its early days toward developing its resources and starting it on its career of prosperity. For over a quarter of a century it has been one of the most important manufacturing centers in the

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state and a thoroughly up-to-date city, with its extensive system of electric surface railways, splendid waterworks, electric street lights, well-paved streets, three daily newspapers, etc.

One of the early prominent figures of that town was John Holland, a wealthy banker and a man of much force of character, who carried on the business of banking under the firm name of Holland & Coleman. After the death of Mr. Holland in the latter '40s, Thomas D. Robertson, a practical banker, became associated with Coleman in conducting the business. In the early '50s Melancthon Starr located in Rockford and entered the bank of Coleman & Robertson as cashier. He had received his training in the bank of his father, Chandler Starr, an old-time New York banker, who, besides being a prominent banker, was an influential leader in the Whig party in the city and state. After the death of Mr. Coleman, Robertson and Starr continued the business, and when the bank, in the latter '60s, organized under the national banking law as the "Winnebago National Bank," Mr. Robertson became its President and Mr. Starr its Cashier. For over thirty years the bank flourished under the management of these two able financiers. Mr. Robertson is still its President, but Mr. Starr died some years ago and his place as Cashier has been filled by his son, Chandler Starr. This bank, which has carried on its business for over half a century is the pride of the city of Rockford. Under the management of Robertson & Starr this veteran moneyed institution did much for Rockford and Winnebago county. Mr. Robertson has been a sagacious, conservative and successful banker and a public spirited citizen. Mr. Starr's death was a severe loss to the community, in which he had lived for over a third of a century, and who had become closely identified with its material, social, moral and religious

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interests. His culture; attractive personality, uprightness and genial and kind disposition made him a general favorite. As a conversationalist he had few equals. He was one of the best types of the Christian gentleman.

Another early, prominent and influential citizen was John P. Manny, the extensive manufacturer of farming implements; who had much inventive genius, a well trained mind, quick business perception, integrity and a generous and kind nature. He was one of the most popular and highly esteemed citizens of Winnebago county. William A. Talcott located in Rockford when a young man and became identified with the great manufacturing establishment of Emerson & Co., so long and favorably known in the Northwest. He has the reputation of being one of the most far-sighted and successful business men in that community. With much mental force, energy and industry, he possesses unusual administrative ability, and has shown rare discrimination as a financier. A careful student of events, he has gained much information and is an interesting talker. He has literary taste and is a forceful writer. In disposition he is genial and kind-hearted, and as a host is cordial and generous.

John Edwards came to Rockford in the early '50s from Lowell, Mass., where he had been for some years engaged in the lumber business. Possessed of much will force and energy, he soon became a prominent citizen. He was public spirited and one of the prime movers in founding the Rockford Female Seminary, now the Rockford Female College, an institution of wide reputation in the Northwest. In the latter '50s he donated to the city of Rockford a central tract of land for a public park. A few years after his death, which occurred in the early '70s, a fine fountain was erected in the park and called

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the "Edwards Memorial Fountain." He was a leading member of the Congregational church for many years before his death. His sound judgment, broad sympathies and sturdy integrity, gained for him the respect and confidence of the entire community.

Ralph Emerson, the head of the firm of Emerson & Co., for nearly half a century manufacturers of farming implements, has always been regarded, as Rockford's foremost citizen. His great brain power, quiet energy and practical methods in the management of large affairs, moving on conservative and safe lines, have led to success, and have been recognized by the community. Unassuming in manner and of a kindly disposition, he has always been closely identified with the educational and religious interests of the city which has so long been his home.

Other citizens besides those mentioned above, have been active and potent factors in advancing the various interests of that flourishing city. Dr. George Haskell was also an early settler, a man of education and administrative ability; W. A. Dickerman, an early merchant and a successful man of affairs; Dr. R. P. Lane, a banker and an enterprising citizen; Charles Horsman, a merchant and capitalist; Alexander Forbes an extensive manufacturer, and one of Rockford's most enterprising citizens, and Horatio Stone, a retired merchant who died recently, whose generous bequests to educational and charitable institutions of the city were appreciated by its citizens.

Winnebago county was conspicuously loyal to the Union during the civil war and sent more men than its quota to the front under the several, calls for volunteers. Rockford was singularly unfortunate in losing in battle so many of its regimental officers. Colonels Ellis, Nevius and Melancthon Smith were of the number. Had these

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exceptionally brave and capable officers been spared to return to their homes and former occupations, they doubtless would have been active and potent factors in promoting the welfare of the community. Major Patrick Flynn, a courageous, faithful and efficient officer, who was with Sherman on his "march to the sea," and still living, is the last surviving regimental officer who went out from "old Winnebago county."

PLATLEVILLE, WISCONSIN.

Platteville, in Grant county, is nearly due north of Galena in the northwestern section of the lead mine region. I knew the village somewhat in the '40s and well in the '50s. It has considerable mineral wealth in its vicinity and the land within an area of ten miles is of great fertility. Among its early settlers I now recall Major J. M. Rountree, to whom I have alluded elsewhere; Noah H. Virgin, a miller and manufacturer; Elijah Bayley, a merchant and capitalist; George R, Lawton, an expensive land owner; Leonard Coates; Isaac Hodges, banker and land proprietor; Charles H. Nye. educator; Dr. George W. Evans, a prominent surgeon in the civil war; Major Henry Gratiot, paymaster in the civil war; Dr. "Edward Cronin, a former Galenaian; Prof. J. L. Pickard, educator, afterwards Superintendent of Public Schools in Chicago; Rev. John Lewis, a young, zealous and able Congregational minister, who died in the latter '50s, and Colonel H. H. Virgin, a soldier of the civil war. Most the men I have named were energetic, sagacious and enterprising, and did much in making Platteville what it now is, a noted educational center. The "Platteville Academy" was incorporated in 1840, and under the management of Prof. Pickard and others nourished until 1857, when it gave up its charter and became a "State Normal School and Teachers' Institute." Ample funds

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have been provided by the state, and the institution, under judicious management, now ranks as one of the very best in the state. Of late years this school has been a great benefit to the city of Platteville, as many well-to-do people in all parts of the state having children to be educated have moved into the city to avail themselves of the superior educational advantages afforded by that and the other schools of the place.

The "Platteville Witness," which has been published for nearly forty years, is a newspaper of rare excellence. In 1864 to 1870 its editor and proprietor was George K. Shaw, a "Galena boy," and a brother of the late Judge J. M. Shaw of the circuit court of Minneapolis, Minn., who later became the able editor of the "Minneapolis Journal." On his retirement the "Witness" became the property of M. P. Rindlaub, an able and experienced newspaper man, who at once infused into it new life. The paper was enlarged and improved in many respects. Under Mr. Shaw's administration it became a pronounced Republican paper, and has so continued to the present time. Mr. Rindlaub, by judicious management and by the force and pertinancy of his editorials, has made it one of the very best newspapers in the state.

During the '40s and '50s the commercial and social relations between Galena and Platteville were close. The latter brought trade to Galena, from which point was shipped their farm products and lead. After the opening of railroad communication with Chicago and Milwaukee these relations changed.

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Chapter XV.

THE PHILAFRICAN LIBERATORS' LEAGUE.

Two years or more ago my attention was directed to a movement in Switzerland, Belgium, Great Britain and the United States to suppress the internal African slave trade, and that a society or organization was being formed in New York called the Philafrican Liberators League to assist in effecting this object. The movement was the result of reports from the Rev. Heli Chatelain, a French-Swiss American and an explorer in south central Africa. A condition of things was revealed by Mr. Chatelain that surprised and horrified the civilized world. It seems that a regular system of slavery has long existed in southern central Africa and that the slave trade in its worst form has been carried on with impunity on the southeast coast of Africa south of Zanzibar. The parties engaged in this nefarious traffic go into the interior of the country 300 to 500 miles, buy or capture men, women and grown-up children, and drive them in gangs, loading them with food needed for the journey, to some coast town and then sell them to parties who take them to the countries of the far East or to the East India islands. It is believed that over 50,000 every year are thus bought or captured and brought to the coast, and that sometimes nearly one-half of the number die from disease, brutal treatment or exposure while en route and are left by the roadside unburied to be devoured by wild beasts.

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Mr. Chatelain was the first to give to the world the facts briefly narrated above. Nearly a score of years ago he went from New York as a missionary to Loando, on the southwest coast of Africa. He is a fine linguist, was educated near his place of birth in the Canton of Neuchatel, Switzerland, and studied theology in New Jersey, United States, after which he went as a missionary to Africa. He was soon appointed by the government of the United States its commercial agent at Loando.

Soon after having translated the language of the nearest tribe into Portugese, the commercial language at Loando, he began his explorations and investigations with the results stated. His representations, made in Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, England and the United; States after his return from Africa, aroused deep interest everywhere, especially among statesmen, philanthropists and the clergy. In New York a Philafrican Liberators' League was organized at once with distinguished men of national reputation for directors, such as Rev. L. T. Chamberlain, D. D., the President of the League, well known in Chicago as the pastor of the New England: church in the '80s; Rev Josiah Strong, D. D.; Rev. W. W. Atterbury, D. D.; Rev. Joachim Elmendorf, D. D.; Rev. W. H. P. Faunce, D. D.; Rev. Lyman Abbott, D. D., late pastor of the Plymouth church, Brooklyn; Rev. David J. Burrill, D. D., formerly of Chicago; Rev. John H. Edwards, D. D., and Rev. A. F. Beard, D. D.; the Hon. Fred R. Coudert, the distinguished lawyer; Paul du Chaillu, the great African explorer; Booker T. Washington, the educator; Dr. Albert Shaw, the editor of the "Review of Reviews;" Gen. John Eaton; Horace E, Garth, prominent banker, and William J. Schieffelin. Hon. Thomas B. Bryan and Gen. A. L. Chetlain are the Chicago members of the Board of Directors.

The New York League began active work over a

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year ago, with Mr. Chatelain as the field manager. A year ago he left for Africa with a corps of competent aides to establish a station on the west coast of Africa known as Portugese West Africa. The place selected for the first station, named Lincoln, is on an elevated plateau or table land, 6,000 to 7,000 feet above the sea level, 150 miles from the coast, with a healthful climate, and surrounded by land of great fertility, well watered and well timbered. Mr. Chatelain has already as helpers, two young Christian physicians and three college graduates, two of whom are accompanied by their wives. All are now at Lincoln as missionaries "to civilize and Christianize" the natives.

As money has been liberally contributed, more competent helpers will be sent to Lincoln, after which other stations will be established farther into the interior, until a cordon of the stations will extend across the continent and be "cities of refuge" for all who seek freedom from oppression, The missionaries who go to Lincoln have transportation furnished them to their destination, and $300 given to each for his expenses for one year, after which they are to support themselves.

Rev. Dr. L. T. Chamberlain, the President of the League, is admirably fitted for the position, having zeal, good judgment and unusual administrative ability. Rev. Dr. J. H. Edwards, of the executive committee of the Board of Directors, was reared in Rockford, Ill., educated at Beloit college, Wis., and has been in the Christian ministry for over a third of a century. He is broadly educated, has a strong mentality, great executive force, and in disposition is genial, generous and sympathetic. Rev. Mr. Chatelain, the field manager of the League, is still in the prime of life, thoroughly educated, of intense energy, deep and sincere piety, large experience as a missionary and an explorer, and the best

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master of African languages living. If his life is spared, he will soon, by his well directed efforts and practical methods, raise up a corps of active Christian men and women who, aided by native helpers, will carry on the great and good work just begun in all parts of the "dark continent."

I have given in the foregoing, as briefly as I could, an account of the new work of "civilizing and Christianizing" the natives of Africa, a work in which I have become deeply interested and in which I assume the average reader will be also. I regard this undertaking in the field of missionary work as an advanced one. When the time shall have come that the missionary will be virtually self-supporting, a long stride will have been taken in the direction of "civilizing and Christianizing" the pagan world. I predict that it will not be long before this horrible system of slavery and the more horrible traffic in human beings will be broken up in Africa.

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Chapter XVI.

GALENA AND ITS MEN AT THE CLOSE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

Galena was founded nearly three-quarters of a century ago. It was the first city in the Northwest to organize under a charter. Its history is strange and interesting. Beginning at that early date it grew steadily in population and commercial importance until the middle of the '50s, when it began to lose its trade, which then was larger than that of Chicago. Up to that time its entire business had been done by steamboats running on the Mississippi river. Fever river, on which Galena is situated, was a narrow, crooked, but deep river, navigable at all seasons for the largest steamboats. As soon as railroad communication had been opened between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river competition began and Galena lost much of its trade. Its immediate neighbor, Dubuque, by a direct line only twelve miles distant, started only a few years later and, although more favorably located, being on the west side of the Mississippi river, was kept in check by Galena for a quarter of a century, when it took a start, and before the civil war it had distanced its competitor in volume of commercial business. Now Dubuque has a population of 40,000 and Galena about 7,000, a little less than it had in the '50s, when it was at the height of its commercial prosperity.

When Galena lost its wholesale trade it lost all. The mistake made, and it was a fatal one, by its capitalists was in keeping all their capital in trade. They might

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have reached out, (as they could easily have done in the '40s and '50s.) and have induced manufacturing establishments to locate there. Had that been done, after its trade had left they could have fallen back on their manufacturing industries. Dubuque began late, but its manufacturing interests are now very considerable and constantly increasing. Galena has endeavored within the past two decades to start various manufactures with little success. It is trying now with a better prospect of succeeding. Galena in the '50s had some forty wholesale houses, which commanded the trade of Western Wisconsin, Northeastern Iowa and Minnesota, and now has but five or six. Such a change is phenomenal and almost incredible.

And yet Galena is not a dead city nor a "deserted village." It has a good local retail trade, much wealth among its citizens, considerable culture, many churches, excellent public schools, a very valuable free circulating library, and ample railroad facilities. Its streets are lighted by electricity, excellent artesian well water is supplied to all by waterworks, and what must not be forgotten, that aside from its immediate agricultural resources, it has what no other western city has to any great extent, mineral resources as well. Hence, it will always be a prosperous city. When Galena was at the height of commercial prosperity, a veritable "bee hive" of activity, the hills surrounding the business portion of the city were dotted with houses of uncouth appearance, without trees or shrubbery about them, giving to the hills a bare and bleak appearance. I now look out upon these hills, with shade trees and beautiful lawns and houses of modern construction, filled with everything that makes a modern home attractive, making the view a beautiful and picturesque one. The average citizen of Galena is well to-do. There are comparatively few poor people.

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The bad element in its population is very bad, but not numerous. House rent is cheap, and all supplies needed by a family are abundant and obtained at little cost.

In the'30s and '40s the city of Galena, then the metropolis of the lead mine region, drew to it young and enterprising men from all parts of the country, especially from the Eastern, and Southern border States, mostly to engage in trade or to practice the professions. In time they removed to other places that offered greater inducements to them. These men, jurists, lawyers, physicians, mechanics and men of affairs, in very many instances became the leaders of men, and active and potent factors in everything that has marked the advance of the civilization of the last half of the Nineteenth century in the great West.

The moral and intellectual influence which they have exerted, directly or indirectly, to elevate and bless mankind cannot be estimated. Galena may well be proud of her past achievements in commerce and trade and in the development of the mineral resources of the region about her, and justly proud too of what her citizens and sons did in the late civil war to save the life of the nation. She had at the close of the war a general, a major general, two brevet major generals, a brigadier general and three brevet brigadier generals, and, including the county, out of a population of less than 27,000, over 3,000 brave and patriotic men volunteered and served in the army from one to four years. Sitting modestly on her five hills, she can point to objects within her limits which will always be of interest to the patriotic American citizen. There on West or Cemetery hill is the house in which lived the Great Commander before the war, and on the east hill overlooking the city is the house he occupied after the war and which the family still owns. In the public park is his statue in bronze,

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erected by the generous and patriotic citizen, Herman Kohlsaat of Chicago, formerly a "Galena boy." Within the walls of the Custom house is the great historical painting by Thomas Nast, "Peace in Union," depicting the surrender at Appomatox, a gift to the city from the same generous citizen. These objects will ever invest Galena with historic interest and be valuable object lessons to the children of the nation for generations to come.

She can point also to such of her distinguished citizens and sons as the late Elihu B. Washburne, the diplomat and statesman of world-wide renown; to such jurists, dead and living, as Thomas Drummond, Moses Hallett, B. R. Sheldon, Orville C. Pratt, Van H. Higgins, C. C. Kohlsaat, J. M. Shaw, Arthur H. Ghetlain, Jacob Fawcett, J. S. Baume and W. T. Hodson; as Governors, to Thomas Ford of Illinois, C. C. Wash burn of Wisconsin, W. R. Marshall of Minnesota, W. H. Gear of Iowa, and W. A. Richards of Wyoming; as distinguished and successful men of affairs; to J. M. Douglas, Henry and Nathan Corwith, Ben H. Campbell, the Ryan Brothers, JohnRoss, Herman Kohlspat, J. A. Packard, B. F. Felt, James W. Scott, L. S. Felt, Thomas Foster, W. J. Quan, J. Russell Jones, Wm. H. Hooper, Russell Blakeley and Richard Brown; as distinguished lawyers to Ben Mills, J. P. Hoge, Thompson Campbell, S. M. Wilson, John N. Jewett, J. B. Wells, A. C. French, E. A. Small, C. W. Churchman, Wellington W. Weigley, R. H. McClellan, John A. Rawlins, David Sheean and Colonel E. D. Baker, the lawyer, soldier, United States senator and brilliant orator, and to such noted clergymen as Rev, Drs. Arthur Swazey, S. G. Spees, George F. Magoun, A. C. Smith, Bishop J. H. Vincent and Elder Hooper Crews.

In looking back over the twenty-five years preceding the civil war spent in Galena as a boy and young man,

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the last ten of which were devoted to active business as a merchant, I cannot but think of the men with whom I associated in church, in society, and in business affairs, many of whom were among my intimate friends. Most of them have crossed the river into the great beyond. Not a few were men of strong character, whose personalities impressed me so deeply that; they can never be forgotten. Among those who have not been mentioned before in these pages is the Rev, Dr. Arthur Swazey, for many years pastor of the First Presbyterian church at Galena, a man of rare mental force and great loveliness of character who moved to Chicago, and for ten years was the editor-in-chief of the "Interior," the organ of the Presbyterian church of the northwest.

Warren W. Huntington, one of my most esteemed friends, for many years the business manager of The Galena Gazette, was by appointment of President Lincoln, postmaster at Galena, and held the office for twelve consecutive years. A man of much mental force, upright, public spirited, generous to a fault, intensely loyal to his country, and always true to his friends. The men who knew him the best, loved him the most.

John A. Packard, whose career in Galena as a wholesale merchant, and as a manufacturer in Chicago, was one of marked success, was recognized as a shrewd, far sighted business man of much positive strength of character, and of probity and honor.

L. S. Felt, for so many years a leading merchant in Galena, the intimate friend of Gen. Grant, a man of such marked ability in affairs, that had he been a merchant in Chicago or New York instead of Galena, he would undoubtedly have taken his place with the foremost merchants of either city.

William and James Ryan, early wholesale merchants in Galena and later extensive packers in Dubuque

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and Galena, were men of much brain force, clear sighted in business affairs, enterprising and successful. William, the elder, was a friend of Gen. Grant and conspicuously loyal to the Union during the civil war.

John E. Corwith, who died recently, a younger brother of Henry and Nathan Corwith, and for forty years a resident of Galena, was engaged in business, and for many years was the President of the "National Bank of Galena." He possessed a quiet force of character, was shrewd, conservative and discriminating in business affairs, with an attractive personality and kindliness of disposition. His judicious management in business secured for him a very large fortune. His cousin, David N. Corwith, an old resident and business man of Galena, its former City Treasurer, and now retired, has occupied the Gen. Grant house on East hill with his family for some twelve years, and is the custodian of many articles of historic interest owned by the General and, still held by his family.

James Spare, who came to Galena in the latter '30s was a builder and contractor, and a man of reliable judgment, much practical intelligence and conscientious in his dealings with others. I sat in his Sunday school class for some years and can bear testimony as to his moral worth and high Christian character. His brother, John C. Spare, who located in Galena about the same time is still there, highly esteemed by his fellow citizens. He is a shrewd student of events, has great practical intelligence, strong and decided convictions, with the courage to uphold and defend them.

Dr. Augustus Weirich, for so many years a successful practitioner in Galena, was highly learned and skillful in his profession, and a most estimable citizen, of whom it is related that some of his patients had so much confidence in his ability to heal all the diseases that

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flesh is heir to, that his presence alone without the use of medicine, would often effect a cure. His son, Dr. Augustus Weirich who succeeded him in his practice after his death, is a most highly educated and skillful practitioner, who stands deservedly high in the community.

Doctors J. S. Crawford and Charles W. Hempstead practiced in Galena for many years. Both had much natural ability and were thoroughly educated in their profession, and their skill as practitioners was generally recognized. Dr. Hempstead moved to Chicago, taking a high place among the medical fraternity. Dr. Crawford has a son, Dr. W. S. Crawford, who has taken up his father's practice in Galena and vicinity, and has won a high reputation as a successful practitioner.

Dr. E. D. Kittoe, surgeon of the forty-fifth Illinois Infantry, in the first year of the civil war, impressed himself upon the army of the Tennessee by his ability, skill and superior executive force, and later when in charge of important work in the medical department he maintained his high reputation. During his long term of service Dr. Kittoe, both as a surgeon and medical director, had no superior. Gen. Grant, on whose staff he served for some time as medical inspector, was much attached to him, and had great confidence in his skill, integrity and administrative ability.

Captain T. D. Connor, of the forty-fifth Illinois Infantry, who lost his life in the battle at Shiloh, was an intelligent and brave officer, and greatly beloved by the men of his company. As a business man in Galena before the war, he was well known and highly esteemed, whose word was regarded as "good as his bond," and in all dealings with others, was the soul of honor.

Major U. G. Scheller de Buol, a topographical engineer, with a European education, entered the volunteer service in 1861 and by order of Gen. C. F. Smith coustructed,

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in the fall of that year, the fortifications at Smithland, Ky., to command the mouth of the Cumberland river. I was in command of that military post, and while engaged in this work he was a member of my staff and one of my military family. In 1864, under Gen. C. C. Washburn, Commander of the District of Memphis, he improved and strengthened the extensive fortifications of Memphis, where he showed skill and excellent judgment, and for which service he was highly commended by the Engineer-in-Chief of the Department.

George M. Mitchell was an early settler in Galena and closely identified with all its interests for nearly two score of years. He was endowed with much natural ability, liberally educated, and had a genial, generous and kindly disposition. He filled many positions of trust in the city and county with fidelity and efficiency. When the civil war broke out his loyalty to the Union was conspicuous.

G. H. Mars, so well known and so highly esteemed by all old Galenians, had an attractive personality, much practical intelligence, a generous nature and a kind and sympathetic disposition. He filled several positions of trust in the city, and had he desired could have held many more. His was a strong and lovely character. Of such a man it can in truth be said, that the world is better for his having lived in it.

W. H. Snyder, for many years the popular and efficient cashier of the Merchant's National Bank of Galena, and who was held in such high esteem by the community in which he lived so long, had much positive strength of character, kindness of disposition and stern integrity. Such a type of manhood, when known, is always appreciated by discriminating minds. His successor as cashier, Charles S. Merrick, is the son of one of my old-time friends and one of Galena's successful merchants, and

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has the reputation of being exceptionally efficient and reliable.

Augustus Estey located in Galena in the latter '30s, having come from one of the New England states. He soon engaged in superintending mining operations and smelting lead ore with marked success. He was a clearheaded, careful and conservative man of business. For many years previous to his death he was the President of the Merchants' National Bank of Galena. His quiet energy and judicious management in business affairs was only equalled by his piety and devotion to his Christian duty. His life was full of good works. Though dead, his works and his example remain and they form his fittest monument. His son, Eugene Estey, a prominent and popular citizen of Galena, has managed the estate of his father since his death.

Frederic Stahl, an early settler of Galena, and for a score of years one of its leading wholesale merchants, was a man of few words, but possessed quiet energy, sound judgment, conservative in business affairs, and of much force and probity of character. He held several positions of trust in the state. He was a politician, but never a partisan.

Nicholas Stahl, brother of Frederic Stahl and his partner in business, possessed unusual ability and discrimination in business affairs, admirable in detail, painstaking and a man of great practical sense, was a sincere Christian, a public spirited citizen, having an exceptionally kind and sympathetic disposition.

Nelson Stillman, for so many years a wholesale merchant in Galena, was a quiet and unassuming man of great force of character, far sighted, of excellent judgment in business affairs and successful. He was a sincere, active and consistent Christian and one of the most loveable men I ever knew.

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Daniel Wann, who at an early day was of the mercantile house of Lytle & Wann in Galena, and in later years the collector of the port of Galena, which position he held with acceptance for nearly a score of years, was of a retiring disposition, had much practical intelligence and uprightness, and was a good type of the gentleman of the old school.

Colonel C. L. Stephenson was also for a few years collector of the port of Gilena and a conspicuous figure, large bodied, large brained, large hearted, blunt at times in manner, but of a most kind and sympathetic disposition. A close and careful student of events, he was well informal and hid great practical good sense. He was a Whig and later an uncompromising Republican and influential in the counsels of his party.

Captain Smith D. Harris, not long dead, was the last of the mining pioneers in the lead mines of 1823-25. He was highly esteemed for his superior judgment of affairs, simplicity of character, generous disposition and genuine integrity. During his long residence in Galena he did much to advance its best interests. As a steamboat captain he had a wide and excellent reputation in the '30s and '40s. His loyalty to the Union during the civil war was intense. He served as a captain in the Black-hawk war of 1832, and nothing but his advanced years prevented him from offering his services as a volunteer in 1861.

Harvey Mann, an old, well known and extensive farmer and stock breeder near Galena, was for many years a member of the County Board of Supervisors and a politician of influence. He possessed rare intelligence, good judgment and sturdy integrity.

Ralph S. Norris, who made his advent in Galena in the early '40s was a strong character. He was a clerk at first, and then engaged in business on his own

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account. For nearly twenty years he was the Treasurer of the county and politically one of the most popular men. He married, the only daughter of the late Deacon John Wood soon after locating in Galena, who is still living on the farm near the city. Mr. Norris was one of Jo Daviess county's best citizens, public spirited, generous, intelligent, upright and kind-hearted. "To know him was to love him."

Thomas P. Pate located in Galena with his family in the early '40s. He was born in England and was a practical gardener and a man o f rare intelligence and integrity. His two sons, Davey S. Pate and Alexander Pate, were educated in the Galena schools, and in the early '60s, soon after the death of their father, moved to Chicago. The older son went into the lumber business as a clerk, and in time began business on his own account. Having a thorough knowledge of the business, by judicious management he was not only successful, but became prominent and influential in lumber circles. The younger son engaged in the grain commission business, and is now a prominent operator in grain, and a banker at Wilmington, Ill. All old Galenians will remember Mr. Pate, the father, as a dignified, courteous and unassuming Christian gentleman.

Reimer Kohlsaat, the agent at Galena, of the American Bible Society, for the Lead Mine region in the early '50s, was the father of Judge C. C. Kohlsaat, Herman Kohlsaat and Ernest W. Kohlsaat, well known and prominent citizens of Chicago. He had much natural ability, was well educated, a leader in the Baptist denomination, and an active and efficient Director in the Galena Bible Society for many years. His zeal, good judgment and devotion to his duties as agent of the local, as well as of the parent society were recognized by all. In disposition he was courteous, modest, kind-hearted, sympathetic, and beloved by those who knew him.

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Col. T. E. Champion, of Warren, Ill., of the ninety-sixth Illinois Infantry, was before the war, a lawyer of learning in his profession, whose practice was for the most part at the Galena bar. He had in him the elements of the true soldier viz. intelligence, courage and devotion to his duties. As the commander of a regiment he had no superior. The record he made during his service was one of which any American patriot might well be proud.

Among the early merchants of Galena was A. M. Haines, who in the latter '40s opened a wholesale boot and shoe house. He had received a thorough training for his business, and was methodical, careful and conservative. His recent death was deeply regretted by his fellow citizens who always held him in high esteem.

J. B. Brown, the editor and proprietor of The Galena Gazette for many years, had much mental force, and was large hearted, genial, frank and companionable. As a writer he was vigorous and forceful. He was held in high esteem, not only by his fellow citizens of the Lead Mine region, but also by all who knew him in the state. The "Gazette" under his management was unquestionably the best paper published in a city of less than 10,000 inhabitants in the northwest. As an old employee recently said to me, "he never had to look up to anyone, and never would look down on anyone, he was our friend." Mr. A. W. Glessner, the present able, genial and popular editor and manager, is maintaining the high character of the paper.

My old time friend, Joshua Brookes, who died recently in Chicago, came to Galena in the early '40s, as a clerk in the book store of A. H. Burley, who was then, and is still a resident of Chicago. He soon became the proprietor of the establishment, and for over forty years was one of the leading book sellers of the northwest. He was a born book man, an assiduous reader, and gifted with a

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retentive memory he became an encyclopedia of literature. Men of the legal profession, clergymen, or the ordinary student or citizen, when seeking for literary information difficult to obtain would go to Brookes, who was usually able to give all that was desired. He had a keen and well trained intellect, was courteous and kind in manner, and always a charming companion. His religious convictions were strong and he was an earnest consistent Christian, and for many years a ruling elder in the First Presbyterian church at Galena.

Darius Hunkins was a prominent figure in Galena nearly a third of a century ago. A quiet, forceful man of acute discrimination in business affairs and of splendid administrative ability. He was an extensive contractor on the early railroads constructed in the West; he was a man of thought as well as, of action, and a citizen of which any community might well be proud.

Edgar M. Boutou, a noted farmer and stock breeder a few miles north of the city, was one of that well known group of men engaged in the same occupation, whose farms were all in a radius of a few miles, composed of S. S. Brown, R. S. Norris, Harvey Mann and Frederic Chetlain. Not only was he energetic, discriminating and successful in managing his affairs, but was also in disposition modest, generous and kind — a model citizen and neighbor.

Bush rod B. Howard, a lawer of ability at the Galena bar, was postmaster at Galena during President Buchanan's administration. He recruited the second company of volunteers in Galena for the war in April, 1861, and was chosen its captain. He was killed two months later in a railroad accident while taking his company to the front to join its regiment. He had much will force, energy, persistency and a frank and cordial manner. His

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loyalty to the Union was great, and possessing the elements of a successful soldier, had he lived he would undoubtedly have made a highly creditable record in the service. His two sons, a few years after the war, were educated, one at the Military Academy at West Point and the other at the Naval Academy at Annapolis. They have made good records as officers in their respective positions.

Henry Green of Elizabeth, a man of rare mental power and great loveliness of character, served as a County Supervisor for some years and afterwards was elected a member of the State Legislature and served three terms in the house and two terms in the senate where he became conspicuous for his sound judgment, general intelligence, efficiency and uprightness. He was a farmer, and also managed important mining operations for many years before his death.

About the middle of the '40s two young druggists located in Galena and were competitors in the prosecution of their business. Hector McNeill and Stewart Crawford were men of education and marked strength of character. They were "well up" in their profession as practical druggists, and were regarded by many of their fellow citizens, while under treatment for some of their ailments, as being as competent as the average physician, They were public spirited citizens and active and influential church members, who were ever ready to assist in any work to elevate and Christianize their fellow men. Thomas McNeill, a son of Hector McNeill, has succeeded his father in the drug business at Galena. He is thoroughly educated in his profession, has business qualifications of a high order and is a most estimable citizen.

William B. Green located in Galena in 1827. He was a practical surveyor, and at the breaking out of the Blackhawk war in 1832 joined and assisted in recruiting

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Captain Stephenson's company of Mounted Rangers. In 1836, when the settlers of the lead mine region lying within the state of Illinois, bought their lands from the government, Captain Green was chosen to represent them at the land office in Dixon as their agent. He performed his trust faithfully and to the satisfaction of all. In the '30s and '40s he filled many positions of honor and trust in the county. Captain Green was a man of mental force, great energy, attractive manner and wielded great influence in the community among all classes. He died in Chicago a few years ago. I was always very fond of him.

Stephen Jeffers, an early settler at Hanover, fifteen miles south of Galena, was an active and influential man in his town. Soon after the civil war began he volunteered and was chosen quartermaster of the Ninety-sixth Illinois. He displayed great ability in his official position and was promoted to the quartermaster department with the rank of major. He made an excellent record, showing rare zeal, intelligence and efficiency. After the war he returned to Hanover, where he lived until his death in 1898, highly esteemed by all his fellow citizens.

One of my friends in the '40s and '50s was the Hon. Richard Seal, who for many years was Judge of the County Court. He was liberally educated, of sound judgment, and faithful and impartial in the discharge of his official duties. Of infinite good nature and kindness of heart, he was one of Galena's most esteemed citizens. To name him was to praise him.

Simon Alderson of Council Hill, whom I knew intimately in the '50s and '60s, once a clergyman, afterwards a merchant, a manufacturer and a farmer, possessed will force, tireless energy, and was resourceful. His loyalty to the Union during the civil war was well known He was an active and influential member of

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the Methodist church, and wielded much influence for good.

Among my earliest friends in Galena was James M. Spratt, who died a year ago. We were schoolmates and intimate friends when young men. He was for many years a clerk in the mercantile house of L. S. Felt & Co. In the '50s he began business on his own account, and was for some forty years the proprietor of the popular dry goods house known as the "St. Louis Store." He was one of the best poised characters I ever knew. Unassuming and courteous in manner, he had rare; intelligence, excellent judgment, quiet energy, a thorough knowledge of his business and always followed conservative lines. His integrity was never questioned, and his reputation for fair dealing was generally recognized. I esteemed him for his many admirable traits of character.

Among the prominent men now living in Galena and well known to me, not mentioned in preceding pages, is John Ross, the President of the National Bank of Galena, who for many years was the "right hand" man of Henry Corwith. He possesses superior ability in business affairs, is a good judge of men, energetic, of large and varied experience and of sound judgment. He is genial, generous and kind hearted, and stands high in the estimation of all who know him, and his integrity has never been questioned. Galena rates him as one of her millionaires.

Thomas Foster, the nestor of Galena merchants, was in the early '40s, the senior member of the wholesale mercantile house of Foster & Stahl, and is now the President of the Merchants' National Bank of Galena. He possesses cool and reliable judgment, much practical intelligence, long experience in business, is forceful and discriminating, a sincere and consistent Christian, and is of a kind and sympathetic nature. With two exceptions,

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he is the last member of that group of noted active and successful wholesale merchants who did business in Galena in the '40s and '50s. Although reared in the South, his loyalty to the Union in the days of the civil war was conspicuous. He is one of Galena's most highly esteemed and best beloved citizens.

John Hellman, for-two score of years was one of Galena's prominent merchants, of quiet manner, but of much business sagacity, who seems always to have done the right thing at the right time. He is connected with the management of the Merchants' National Bank of Galena as a director, and is one of its most useful members. J. A. Burrichter, who for many years was his senior partner in business, but who died some years ago, had rare practical sense, simplicity of character, marked shrewdness in affairs and sturdy integrity.

Walter Ford, the efficient and popular cashier of the National Bank of Galena, whose service in that moneyed institution covers nearly the half of a century, has ever been courteous, painstaking, industrious and conscientious, a veritable "faithful servant." Mr. Ford may well be proud of the record he has made and the reputation he has achieved, for it is an unusual and highly honorable one.

John Fiddick, one of Galena's oldest retail merchants, has great ability, is clear sighted, conservative, and operates on lines that almost always assure success. He has been one of Galena's most active citizens in carrying out measures undertaken for the public good. His older brother, William, and former partner in business, who died a few years ago, began business in Galena in the early '40s. He was a man of rare business capacity and great amiability of disposition.

S. O. Stillman, one of the largest hardware merchants in the Northwest outside of Chicago, now retired,

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possessed in a marked degree the ability requisite to successfully manage such a business as his for so many years. His life of activity, probity and success gives him a high place in the esteem of his fellow citizens. He is an active director of the Merchants' National Bank of Galena.

The veteran bookseller, Joseph N. Waggoner, now retired, whose career as a bookseller in Galena for over half a century brought him in close contact with the people of the city and county, is a strong character. During all these years he has been a prominent member of the M. E. church, and his influence has been great in advancing the interests of that, as well as in assisting other denominations in the great work of elevating humanity to a higher moral and religious plane. His life has been a long, useful and honorable one.

Benjamin F. Felt, younger brother of Lucius S. Felt, who located in Galena in the early '40s, was a clerk and a few years later a grocery merchant, is a careful, industrious, far-sighted, conservative and upright man of business who has impressed himself upon the community in many ways, but especially by his generosity, manifested a few years ago in founding the Galena free circuting library and by performing other acts of a benevolent and philanthropic character, which have endeared him to his fellow citizens. He has always been a sincere and active Christian, whose works will be appreciated long after he has gone to his reward.

James B. Young and D. F. Loveland, merchants for many years in Galena and now retired from business, did much during the active years of their lives towards making Galena what she was when at her best. They always operated on conservative lines, had keen and quick business perception, energy, industry and stern integrity. As a result they were successful.

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Richard Barrett, long one of Galena's wholesale merchants, has in him as a business man the elements of success, viz: good judgment, intelligence, industry and persistency. Possessed of much will force and being of an unselfish nature, he has done much by his wise counsels, as well as by his generous deeds, in promoting the welfare of the community in which he has lived so long. He is a model citizen.

There is now living in Galena in retirement that veteran steamboat pilot so well known on the Mississippi river, Captain Thomas G. Drenning. During the civil war, as the pilot of the steamboat "Cricket," the flag boat of Admiral Porter, when it became necessary to run the boat down the Red river in close range of the enemy's batteries, after over thirty shots had struck it, one of which had carried away a portion of the pilot house, the Admiral getting within speaking distance asked the Captain, who was at the wheel badly wounded in the head by a piece of shell and bleeding profusely about the face and neck from the effects of splinters and broken glass, "how he was doing," replied, "I'm all right, Admiral, I'll stick to the wheel." The boat passed the batteries, although badly damaged and almost entirely disabled. Such an act of personal courage makes a man a hero. The incident is related in detail by Admiral Porter in his memoirs.

Colonel George Hicks, an old-time "Galena boy" and a lawyer for a time, who, for many years before the civil war, was on the editorial staff of The Galena Gazette, entered the volunteer service as a Captain in the Ninety-sixth Illinois Infantry, and at the end of three years was mustered out as Lieutenant Colonel, with a record of marked excellence. His intelligence, bravery and devotion to his duties was recognized by all and received the commendation of his superior officers. After the war he

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took up his residence in Kingston, Jamaica, where he was appointed Assistant General Superintendent of Public Instruction, to perform all the duties of superintendent outside of Kingston. His former experience as county superintendent of public instruction was of service to him and he has proved a most efficient and valuable official. He is held in high esteem by the authorities of Jamaica as an advanced and able educator.

The 25th day of April, 1861, as the first company of volunteers for the civil war, the "Jo Daviess Guards," was parading the streets of Galena just before starting for Springfield, Ill., there sat on a fence viewing the parade, a handsome, well-grown boy of 17 years of age, the eldest son of Dr. Thomas A. Livermore, a well-known dental surgeon of Galena. He was greatly impressed with what he saw, and resolved that he would enlist as a volunteer as soon as he had a chance. The following year he was sent to an academy in Massachusetts. He soon left his school and enlisted as a private, rapidly developed fine soldierly qualities and became a commissioned officer. He rose in rank, and at the close of the war was a Colonel commanding a regiment and was brevetted a Brigadier General for gallant and meritorious services. He is now in Boston at the head of a large manufacturing establishment, and is regarded as having rare business qualifications. Gen. T. L. Livermore, of superb physique, courteous, genial and attractive in manner, is one of the best types of the intelligent, aggressive and successful "Galena boy."

Henry Fricke, the veteran jeweler of Galena, widely known in the Northwest and now retired, is a man of great intelligence, clear-headed in business, urbane, honest, kind hearted and greatly esteemed by all his fellow citizens. His loyalty to his adopted country during the civil war was conspicuous.

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H. C. Gann, the editor and proprietor of the "Sentinel," of Warren, Ill., whose admirable management and clean cut ability as a writer has made his paper one of unusual attractiveness, and it is a welcome visitor to many homes beyond the limits of Jo Daviess county.

Dr. B. F. Fowler has been a resident of Galena in the practice of his profession for nearly forty years. Well educated and of recognized ability as a practitioner, he has always been an unselfish public spirited citizen of attractive personality, genial and kindly disposition and held in high esteem by the people of the city and county. He has long been a high and influential Mason and Odd Fellow. His son, Hon. B. F. Fowler, after having studied law with Gen. D. B. Henderson of Dubuque, Iowa, and been admitted to practice, located at Cheyenne, Wyo. He at once took a high position at the bar, was appointed prosecuting attorney for the county, soon after received the appointment of attorney general for the territory of Wyoming, and later that of attorney general for the new state of Wyoming. Throughout he has shown himself a capable, efficient and honest official. He has in him the elements of success, viz: intelligence, industry, a genial disposition and an attractive manner.

William A. Richards, another "Galena boy," after having graduated from the high school, went to Omaha, Nebraska, where he held a responsible position in the postoffice in that city for a number of years. Later on he was appointed Surveyor General of the territory of Wyoming, and subsequently was elected governor of the state of Wyoming. At the expiration of his term of office he was appointed by President McKinley Assistant Land Commissioner of the Department of the Interior at Washington, D. C.

William D. McHugh, a son of Prof. John McHugh, who was for forty years connected with the public schools

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of Galena, after having studied law and been admitted to practice, located at Omaha; Neb., where he soon developed exceptional ability in his profession. He was appointed by President Cleveland United States District Judge of Nebraska, but political complications arose and the appointment had to be recalled.

When I was the chairman of the Jo Daviess County Central Republican committee in 1860, in the course of my various tours through the county, I became well acquainted with many men who impressed me with their intelligence, intense loyalty to the Union and genuine honesty. I now recall an early settler, Abel Proctor of Scales Mound, a man of rare intelligence, energy and good judgment, and who had been an official in the county at an earlier period, and J. D. Platt of Warren, County Judge for one term, a banker and postmaster at Warren.

Captain G. W. Pepoon, of the Ninety-sixth Illinois Infantry, with a most excellent record in the civil war, afterwards County Supt. of Public Instruction for eight years, is broadly educated, of wide information and popular in the county.

J. W. White, a prominent citizen of Hanver, who for nearly fifty years has been an extensive manufacturer of woolen cloths, a man of much natural ability and culture, great energy good judgment, and unselfishly devoted to the advancement of the best interests of his town and its surrounding country. He is held in high esteem by the people of the entire county.

S. K. Miner was elected sheriff of the county in 1860, and at the breaking out of the war showed his loyalty to the Union by his untiring efforts in recruiting men for the army. His loyal fellow citizens recognized and appreciated the patriotic work he did during his two years of official life.

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Dr. W. A. Little of Elizabeth, fomerly a member of the Legislature, R. E. Odell and August Switzer of Dunleith (now East Dubuque), Josiah Conlee of Scales Mound, Frederic Rindesbacher, the extensive farmer and stock breeder, and Orange Gray of Stockton; William Passmore of Council Hill, E. T. Isbell, Samuel W. Hathaway and William Avery of Guilford, J. M. Hunter, lawyer, afterwards a State Senator from the Mount Carroll district, and James Parkinson of Berreman, were all stalwart Republicans of influence, who performed efficient work in the notable Lincoln campaign of 1860. During the civil war they were actively patriotic. Mr. James Parkinson furnished four sons as soldiers in the Union army. Three of them lost their lives in the service. The surviving son, I. W. Parkinson, is now the efficient postmaster at Stockton, in this county.

There are a few old soldiers of the civil war living in Jo Daviess county whom I know, aside from those I have already alluded to, such as Major George S. Avery, the popular postmaster at Galena; Captain William Rippin, the efficient clerk of the county court for many years; Captain William Vincent, one of Galena's prominent citizens and a successful merchants, and Captain Charles Meyer of East Dubuque, the last captain of the first company of volunteers raised in the Northwest in April, 1861. They were brave and patriotic soldiers, whose services in defense of the flag of the Union were most creditable to them, and for which they will ever receive the gratitude of their loyal fellow citizens. Also Dr. Henry T. Godfrey, a successful practitioner in Galena for many years, who was a surgeon of recognized skill in the civil war, where he served so long, so faithfully and so well. His son, Dr. Alfred Godfrey, in Colorado, as a practitioner has achieved much reputation for exceptional ability.

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I was gratified not long since to meet the five members of my old company of April, 1861, now living in Galena. All served as enlisted men, who, after their three months' service re-enlisted for three years. No one of them was seriously wounded or sick in hospital, and they all took active part in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth and Altoona. They are William Scheerer, a manufacturer; Charles H. Miller, former editor of the "Galena Volksfreund," Charles Limper, George Salzer and Anton Bahwell. All were brave and faithful soldiers and of the best types of the American soldier of foreign birth. There are many other soldiers in Galena and Jo Daviess county who served in the ranks in the civil war equally deserving of honor with the above named.

In the '40s and '50s three of the most extensive furnaces in the lead mines were owned and operated by Sam Hughlett, Thomas Leekley and the Spensley brothers, men of energy, good judgment and probity. All have passed away but they have sons in Galena who are their worthy representatives: Thomas Hughlett succeeded his father in a business he had carried on for thirty years and is a successful operator; James F. Leekley, recently elected County Treasurer, was a gallant soldier in the civil war; William Spensley, for many years County Judge and one of Galena's most able attorneys, and his brother, R. M. Spensley, Clerk of the Circuit Court; all prominent and highly esteemed citizens.

During the last forty years there have grown up in Galena a large number of men who can properly be called the "second growth of the forest." Most of these "sons of Galena" have, after reaching manhood moved into other states. Many have located in Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, and some have gone farther west.

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Chicago has over one hundred of them. As a general thing they have succeeded in life. Many have become prominent citizens, and a goodly number have become distinguished in business and in the professions.

The "second growth of the forest" now found in Galena are not numerous, but possess the elements of success. Among them, Jacob J. Jones, one of the oldest of the "boys," a lawyer who has made a reputation for ability, integrity and the successful management of the business intrusted to him, and Louis A. Rowley, the only son of the late distinguished Gen. W. R. Rowley, who has succeeded his father as a real estate and fire insurance agent. He has much of his father's vigorous mentality, industry, cordial manner and good nature. James M. Sheean, son of Thomas Sheean of the law firm of David and Thomas Sheean, has the reputation of being exceptionally able as a practitioner, and John Boevers, the prosecuting attorney; Martin J. Dillon, the city attorney; Hon. M. H. Cleary, member of the Legislature, Moses Rees, Paul Kerz, D. B. Blewett, C. S. Cook, John F. Jewell and Joseph Nack are young lawyers of excellent education, well versed in the practice of their profession and successful. The former mayor of Galena, Hon. T. J. Bermingham, a prominent lumberman and banker, is the son of an old-time Galenian, His successor, Hon. John G. Schmohl, a dealer in farming implements is the son of one of Galena's leading retail dry goods merchants in the '50s and '60s. The present mayor, the Hon. James B. Ginn, is the son of an early and prominent settler of the county.

Dr. Edward Kittoe, son of Dr. E. D. Kittoe, medical inspector on Gen. Grant's staff, and Dr. Alder Smith, son of Colonel Alfred Smith, U. S. A., and grandson of the late Gen. John E. Smith, are among the successful practitioners in Galena.

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Two young men, reared on a farm in Jo Daviess county, after having received a common school education, studied law and were admitted to the Galena bar. These brothers possessed much natural ability, were well educated in their profession, and by industry and close application to business soon gained the reputation of being able and successful lawyers. The younger brother, W. T. Hodson, a few years ago was elected Judge of the County Court, and is filling the position most creditably. He has several times been called to discharge the duties of County Judge in Chicago, where he gained, the reputation of being able, impartial and efficient. Thomas H. Hodson, the older brother, and former Prosecuting Attorney, aside from being a good lawyer, was a gallant soldier in the civil war, and was for some time a prisoner at Andersonville.

In the '40s there was in Galena a unique character in the person of D'Arcy A. French, a learned and scholarly man, who conducted a select school for boys. His rare intelligence and charm of manner made him a favorite in the community. One of his sons, John B, French, a highly educated man of a quiet and unassuming disposition, has been connected with the city government of Galena, for nearly a half century, during forty years of which he was the city clerk. One of Mr. D'Arcy A. French's daughters married Phil A. Hoyne of Chicago, a former Galenian, and another daughter married George R. Melville, who was one of Galena's prominent wholesale merchants in the '50s and '60s, and has recently died.

While writing of Mr. J. B. French's long service as city clerk, I was reminded of another instance of similar long service, that of Thomas L. McDermott, a "Galena boy," who has filled the position of station agent for the Illinois Central railroad at Galena thirty-eight continuous years with ability and fidelity.

I have just learned that this great railroad corporation has retired its oldest conductor, William Thayer, who was in its employ in 1854 and ran the first passenger train through from Chicago to Galena. I remember

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Mr. Thayer in 1861, when he punched the soldier boys' tickets when on their way to the front. He has been a conductor on this route ever since, and it is stated that no one of his trains has ever met with a serious accident.

Jo Brown, the faithful and popular mail carrier of Galena, began his service forty years ago transferring the United States mails to and from the depots.

Before the civil war J. H. Barry ('Squire Barry) was elected Justice of the Peace in Galena and has continued to "dispense justice" ever since with ability and impartiality. His two sons, bright and enterprising young men, have been for some time leading retail dry goods merchants in Galena.

Before closing I desire to acknowledge my great obligations to Miss Almira Fowler, the daughter of Dr. B. F. Fowler, a lady of culture, and many accomplishments, who is a prominent member of the Illinois Woman's Press Association, and the able local correspondent of several of the leading daily newspapers of Chicago and St. Louis, and to Mr. Edward Grimm, for many years the intelligent and capable foreman of the Galena Gazette company, for many valuable suggestions in regard to the publication of this, my first effort at bookmaking.

For some months past I have lived in Galena, the "City of the Hills," where I have been surrounded by scenes so familiar to me in the days of my early manhood. Then I knew almost every man and woman in it. To-day most of its people are comparative strangers to me. My friends and companions of the lung ago have nearly all passed away, and I often, in the language of the poet,

"Feel like one who treads alone
Some banquet hall deserted,
Whose lights are fled, whose garland dead,
And all but he departed."

To the dead, and they are many, I will say, requiscat in pace, — and to the living, the great and good Father of all, bless and prosper you.

nts

Notes.

1. The keelboats were much like a canal boat, only much smaller and of lighter construction, and propelled by rowing, poling or cordelling, and were in general use on the Mississippi before steamboats began running.

2. From S. W. McMaster's "Sixty Years on the Upper Mississippi," published in 1894.

3. See 1st Samuel, 9th chapter, 2d verse.

4. Has recently died.

5. Has recently died.