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Monthly Record of Current Events, October 1.

UNITED STATES.
OUR Record closes on the 1st of October. We have the details of Sherman's movements by which the capture of Atlanta was effected. These and Sheridan's brilliant operations in the Valley of the Shenandoah form the main topics of our military record for the month.

After the failure of M'Cook's and Stoneman's raids against the Macon Road, and the very limited success which attended Kilpatrick, Sherman's army seemed to many to have come to a dead-lock before Atlanta. Ever from the commencement of the campaign Sherman had held fast to the Chattanooga Railroad. After he had reached Atlanta it became more than ever necessary to preserve his hold upon that road, which was the sole artery through which his army was sustained with food and replenished with ammunition. So long as his cavalry remained to him in full force the military problem was a very simple one. Holding the Chattanooga Road he could extend his lines in an easterly direction to the Augusta Road; indeed, after crossing the Chattahoochee, he firmly held Decatur on that road with the army of the Tennessee under M'Pherson, and was able to destroy the eastern communications of Hood quite effectually; but it was hardly possible to maintain this hold for any length of time. Having so completely destroyed it as to make it useless to Hood for some weeks, Sherman, after having fought the battles of the 20th and 22d of July, threw his left around, and, maintaining his hold on the Chattanooga Road, extended his lines nearly to the West Point Road on the west side of Atlanta. Then was fought the battle of July 28, which, like those of the 20th and 22d, resulted favorably. Sherman now depended upon his cavalry to destroy the West Point and Macon roads. M'Cook's and Stoneman's expeditions not only failed, but resulted disastrously, for one-half of Sherman's cavalry horses and equipments fell into the hands of the rebels. Kilpatrick then tried his hand at raiding; but though promising much he accomplished little. It then appeared, as we said before, that Sherman had come to a dead-lock; and but for Hood's rashness, which might safely be calculated on, it would have so proved. Hood, thinking it would now be his best move to disturb Sherman's rear, sent General Wheeler with a cavalry force estimated at ten thousand toward Chattanooga. Hood's temerity was Sherman's opportunity. Sherman knew that the rebel army was supplied now almost entirely by the Macon Road, and that, while the great depots for provision were on that road, only one or two days rations at a time passed into Atlanta. He determined, therefore, to plant his entire army, with the exception of the Twentieth, Slocum's Corps, on the Macon Road, just below the junction of that road with the West Point Road. A single corps securely intrenched would, in the absence of the Confederate cavalry, be sufficient to guard the immense depots of supplies and the fords of the Chattahoochee. Sherman, therefore, with his army broke camp on the 25th of August and left Atlanta. Already three thousand wagons and one thousand ambulances had been selected for the use of the main column; the rest were sent across the Chattahoochee by three different crossings, viz.: Pace's Ferry, the Railroad Bridge, and Turner's Ferry. The Twentieth Corps followed on the 25th, supported by the Fourth. The next morning Slocum's command were securely intrenched on the bank of the Chattahoochee nearest Atlanta. The same day the Fourth Corps, appearing to follow toward the river, took the Newman Road and moved south-west. The army of the Tennessee, under Howard, followed toward Fairburn on the West Point Road, taking the extreme right of the moving column. Schofield's Corps remained behind to cover the left, but on the 28th also withdrew. On that day Jeff C. Davis, with the Fourteenth Corps, reached Red Oak on the West Point Road, thirteen miles from Atlanta, and began the destruction of the road, in which they were soon joined by the Fourth Corps. The Army of the Tennessee moved from Fairburn to Reupo Place, near Jonesborough; the Army of the Cumberland from Red Oak, via Shoal Creek Church, to Conch's; the Army of the Ohio, via Red Oak and Mims, to Maury's Hill. Thus the entire army, with the exception of Slocum's Corps, was now on the march.

The Confederates thought Sherman was in full retreat. The Army of the Tennessee approached Joneaborough; Thomas, with the Army of the Ohio, was further to the left, holding the centre of the moving column; while Schofield, with the Army of the Cumberland, held the extreme left. The Army of the Cumberland on the 1st of September held a strong position on the Macon Road, below Rough and Ready; Thomas another position on the road farther South; while Howard and Jeff C. Davis were fighting Hardee and Lee at Jonesborough. The Confederates at first assumed the offensive and wore repulsed. Davis at 5 P. M. struck the road above Jonesborough, and cut off Hardee and Lee at that place from Stewart's Corps, which Hood retained at Atlanta. Davis made an attack on Hardee, and flanked him on the left, the Fourth Corps at the same time flanking on the right. The Fourteenth Corps then charged, and the Confederates, overpowered by numbers, gave way, leaving their works and a thousand prisoners in the hands of the Federals. While mentioning Davis's fight at Jonesborough, Logan's of the day before should also be recorded. The Fifteenth Corps, holding the left of the Army of the Tennessee, was attacked by the Confederates. The affair did not last long — not more than an hour; but the enemy was driven back, leaving in Logan's hands 800 prisoners, including a major-general and a brigadier.

On the night of September 1 Hardee and Lee

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retreated toward Macon. The same night Hood evacuated Atlanta. Slocum's corps immediately took possession, and Sherman's army has been concentrated at Atlanta. This city is to be made a grand military post. All the inhabitants, loyal and disloyal, were ordered to leave, and a truce of ten days, commencing September 14, was established to carry out the order. On the 10th of September Governor Brown of Georgia withdrew from Hood's army the militia of that State, "in the hope that he should be able to return it, with greater numbers and equal efficiency, when the interest of the public service requires it."

In the week commencing Sunday, September 18, Sheridan defeated Early, and drove him to Staunton. On Sunday, the 18th, General Gordon's Division of the Confederate Army of the Shenandoah attacked Averill's corps at Martinsburg and was driven back to Darkesville. Sheridan's command had for some days held a strong position in the vicinity of the railroad from Harper's Ferry to Winchester; his right wing, under General Crook, and consisting of the Army of Western Virginia, posted at Summit Point, while the left rested on the Winchester and Berryville pike a few miles further south. When Gordon made his attack on Sunday, the great mass of Early's army was gathered together in the vicinity of Bunker Hill and Stephenson's Depot, and northwest of the position held by Sheridan. A rapid advance along the Winchester pike and across the Opequan River westward would place the Federal army directly in Early's rear. The opportunity as soon as offered was embraced. Sunday afternoon Sheridan had his troops under arms. His plan was to advance at three o'clock on the morning of the 19th, with the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps; Crook, following two hours afterward, was to join the main column at the crossing of the Opequan." In order to divert the enemy's attention, Torbert and Averill, with a large cavalry force, were to demonstrate on his left. Wilson's Cavalry Division crossed the Opequan, followed by the Sixth Corps. The Nineteenth Corps was delayed, and this gave Early time to draw in his left. The Federal advance was therefore stubbornly resisted. Indeed the first and second lines were thrown into some confusion. As soon, however, as Sheridan had placed his artillery order was restored, and then followed one of the most fiercely contested battles of the war. The opposing lines at some points were not more than 200 yards apart. At a critical point of the battle a cavalry charge was ordered on the right, which decided the fortunes of the day in Sheridan's favor. Early's army was driven from the field in confusion and retreated to Fisher's Hill, three miles south of Strasburg. He was closely pursued by Sheridan, who attacked him at Fisher's Hill on the 22d. The attack was made late in the afternoon. Crook's command advanced on Early's left and rear, while the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps attacked in front. The position held by the Confederates was thought to be impregnable, but it was taken with twenty guns and between one and two thousand prisoners. The pursuit was still continued toward Staunton. It is impossible accurately to report the losses on either side. In the battle of Winchester Sheridan lost quite heavily, but at Fisher's Hill his loss was very light. In both battles, and during the hot pursuit, over ten thousand of Early's forces were put out of combat before he reached Staunton. At Winchester Generals Rhodes and Godwin were killed; among the wounded were Fitz-Hugh Lee, son of the General-in-Chief. On the Federal side General David A. Russell was killed. After the battle of Winchester Torbert's command was sent around to push up the Luray Valley and intercept Early's retreat, but meeting a heavy force of Confederate Cavalry at Luray Court House he was detained from his main object, although he succeeded in defeating the force opposed to him.

The capture, by the Confederate General Hampton, of 2500 beeves at Harrison's Landing, September 16, was one of the most annoying occurrences of the war. Estimating each beef at 800 pounds, Hampton by this success obtained a month's supply for Lee's army, allowing each soldier one pound of meat per day.

John C. Fremont and John Cochrane, who were nominated at Cleveland for the Presidency and Vice-Presidency, have withdrawn. Mr. Fremont, in his letter of withdrawal, says that the canvass has been entered upon in such a way as to make the union of the Republican Party a paramount necessity. The Chicago platform is simply separation; M'Clellan's letter of acceptance re-establishment with slavery; the Republican candidate is pledged to the re-establishment of the Union without slavery. Between these issues he could have no doubt; and he therefore withdrew, not to aid the triumph of Lincoin, but to do his part toward preventing the election of the Democratic candidate. In respect to Mr. Lincoln he reiterated what he had said in his letter of acceptance. "I consider," he says, "that his administration has been politically, militarily, and financially a failure, and that its necessary continuance is a cause of regret for the country." The Cleveland Convention was to have been such an expression of opinion as would have rendered Mr. Lincoln's nomination impossible; but circumstances had given him the nomination, and "established for him a character among the people which leaves now no choice. United, the Republican party is reasonably sure of success; divided, the result of the Presidential election is at least doubtful." — Mr. Cochrane, in declining the nomination, says: "Peace and division, or war and the Union. Other alternative there is none. And as I am still of the mind that once led me to the field with the soldiers of the Republic, I can not now hold a position which, by dividing, hazards the success of those who, whatever their differences at other points, agree as upon the question of first consequence that the restoration of the Union can not be effected without the uninterrupted continuation of the war."

State elections have been held in Vermont and Maine. Both States went strongly Republican. In Vermont the vote showed an increase of bout 2600 over that of the last election, of which the Republicans gained 2000, the Democrats 600; the Republican majority for Governor being 18,000 in a vote of 42,000. — In Maine the total vote was about 8000 less than at the last election, the two parties losing almost exactly in proportion to their respective votes. The Republican majority for Governor was about 16,000 in a vote something more than 100,000. The Legislatures of both States are strongly Republican. In New York the Democrats have nominated for re-election as Governor Hon. Horatio Seymour. The Union candidate is Hon. Reuben E. Fenton, a prominent member of Congress, originally elected as a Democrat.