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Dedication.

TO ILLINOIS SOLDIERS,
FROM THE LIEUTENANT GENERAL
TO THE SMALLEST DRUMMER-BOY:
TO THE GALLANT LIVING AND HEROIC DEAD
WHO HAVE MADE THE STATE ILLUSTRIOUS
ON EVERY BATTLE-FIELD,
THESE VOLUMES
ARE GRATEFULLY INSCRIBED.

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Author's Note.

THE second volume is before the reader. If it has seemed tardy in coming, the delay has been that it might be made as complete as possible, and the author feels that it is published only too soon.

Every effort has been made to secure a condensed statement of each regiment and battery; advertisements, correspondence with officers and State officials, and personal solicitations have been employed, and yet a few remain unsketched. It will be a pleasure to add their record in the next, or in subsequent editions. The author respectfully asks that such material be sent to his address in this city, as soon as possible.

It was the desire of the Publishers and the wish of the author to give a list of the killed and wounded, complete, with regiment, battery and company. It was found impossible to secure such a list. The Adjutant-General of the State pronounced it impossible. It will be long ere such a record can be made, and when made will require several volumes. The dead, alone, would require an addition of more than 200 pages to this volume. It is with regret that it has been abandoned, at least for the present.

The author gratefully acknowledges the courtesy of Governor Oglesby, and Adjutant-General Haynie. The archives at Springfield were generously opened.

He also expresses his appreciation of the services of Henry R. Boss, Esq., who has acted as private Secretary and assistant in correspondence, and in gathering and arranging materials for regimental sketches. In most instances these are based upon notes from the officers.

The author returns general acknowledgment to the MANY whose courtesy he has received, and sends out the second volume, hoping that it may be long — very long — ere war shall come again.

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Pictures and Illustrations.

Governor Richard J. Oglesby. Governor of Illinois.

Hon. Allen C. Fuller.

Adjutant-General I. N. Haynie. State of Illinois.

Major-General John N. Palmer. U. S. Vols.

Lieutenant-General W. T. Sherman. U. S. A.

Major-General S. A. Hurlbut.

Brevet Major-General A. L. Chetlain.

Major-General B. H. Grierson. U. S. Vols.

Brevet Major-General M. Brayman.

Surgeon George Coatsworth. U. S. Vols.

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Chapter I. — Death and Burial of Abraham Lincoln.

THE OCCURENCE — PREVIOUS WARNINGS — THE 14TH OF APRIL — CONVERSATIONS — INTERVIEW WITH COLFAX — CABINET MEETING — FORD'S THEATER — THE BOX — BOOTHE — PREPARATIONS — THE SHOT — ASSASIN'S ESCAPE — THE THEATER — THE DYING PRESIDENT — RECORD OF DISSOLUTION — PRAYER — PAYNE AND SEWARD — SECRETARY STANTON'S ORDERS — GRIEF OF THE COUNTRY — CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE — FUNERAL SERVICES IN WASHINGTON — REMAINS BORNE TO THE CAPITOL — TO THE FUNERAL CAR — FUNERAL CORTEGE — BALTIMORE, NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA — BACK TO ILLINOIS — REACHES CHICAGO — THE CITY IN SABLE — THE LAST STAGE — SPRINGFIELD — EMBLEMS OF MOURNING — LINCOLN'S RESIDENCE — OAK HILL — THE SERVICES — BISHOP SIMPSON'S ORATION — DR. GURLEY'S ODE — LINCOLN'S CHARACTER — THE CONGESSIONAL MEMORIAL SERVICE — BANCROFT'S ORATION — DOOM OF THE ASSASSIN — TRIAL OF CONSPIRATORS — EXECUTION — CURTAIN FALLS.

IN advance of its chronological place, the second volume must open with the record of the nation's great grief, and the bereavment of Illinois in the death of her noblest son.

On the morning of April 15, 1865, in the midst of rejoicings for the capture of Richmond, and the surrender of Lee, the telegraph flashed the announcement of the President's assassination. Never did a foul murder so shock the nation, or so astound the world.

On the evening of the 14th in company with Mrs. Lincoln and some friends he visited Ford's Theater, where he had been announced to be present with General Grant.

As the play was progressing an assassin entered the State-box, and from a Derringer pistol sent a ball through the President's brain, and turning, despite the efforts of Major Rathborne to detain him, sprang from the box upon the stage, brandishing a dagger and shouting

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"Sic semper tyrannis, the South is avenged!" darted through a private passage into the alley, where a horse was in readiness, and escaped. As he crossed the stage he was recognized as J. Wilkes Boothe.

The President was unconscious from the moment the pistol was fired. He was conveyed to a house in the vicinity where he lay for several hours. About his bedside were the members of his Cabinet, with the exception of the Secretary of State, several senators, the Speaker of the House of Representatives and other intimate friends. The examination of the Surgeon General showed the wound to be fatal, and all that could be done was to wait in sadness the moment when one of the noblest of men should be no longer of earth.

The President had been warned that assassination was premeditated, and at last both himself and Secretary Seward were compelled to believe the evidence, yet he none the less freely exposed himself. He felt that if men were resolved upon it, the deed could scarcely be prevented.

The morning of the 14th, he talked with his wife of the four stormy years he had passed, and of the dawn of peaceful times, the coming of better days. He was free from forebodings; "with malice toward none" he could not credit the malignity which would resort to assassination, solely for revenge.

He conversed with his son, Captain Robert Lincoln, who was on General Grant's staff, as to the details of Lee's surrender. After breakfast he received various gentlemen, and among them Senator Hale and Speaker Colfax. The latter was preparing for an overland trip to the Pacific and to him the President said:

"Mr. Colfax, I want you to take a message from me to the miners whom you visit; I have very large ideas of the mineral wealth of our nation. I believe it to be practically inexhaustible. It abounds all over the Western country, from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, and its development has scarcely commenced. During the war, when we were adding a couple of millions of dollars every day to our national debt, I did not care about encouraging the volume of our precious metals. We had the country to save first. But now that the rebellion is overthrown, and we know pretty nearly the amount of our national debt, the more gold and silver we mine, we make the payment of that debt so much the easier. Now," said he, speaking with more emphasis, "I am going to encourage that in every possible way. We shall have hundreds of thousands of disbanded soldiers, and many have feared that their return home in such great numbers might paralyze industry

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by furnishing, suddenly, a greater supply of labor than there will be demand for. I am going to try to attract them to the hidden wealth of our mountain ranges, where there is room enough for all. Immigration, which even the war has not stopped, will land upon our shores hundreds of thousands more from over-crowded Europe. I intend to point them to the gold and silver that wait for them in the West. Tell the miners for me that I shall promote their interests to the best of my ability, because their prosperity is the prosperity of the nation, and we shall prove in a very few years, that we are indeed the treasury of the world."

As he uttered the last sentence his eyes kindled with enthusiasm. At eleven o'clock he met his cabinet. General Grant was present, having come direct from the field. The questions arising out of victory were fully discussed, and the leading propositions of the President received the hearty approval of the Secretaries and the victorious Chieftain, so that the Secretary of War declared the Government stronger than at any time since the beginning of the rebellion.

In the afternoon Mr. Lincoln saw a number of gentlemen from Illinois, and in the early evening conversed at some length with Messrs. Colfax and Ashmun. Before separation he wrote the following in pencil, his last note:

"Allow Mr. Ashmun and friend to come in at nine o'clock to-morrow.

"A. LINCOLN."

The President and General Grant had been invited to attend Ford's Theater that night, and the public prints had announced that they would do so, and occupy the State-box. The General left the City. Mr. Lincoln was disinclined to go, but fearing a popular disappointment if neither himself nor the General was present, decided to attend and invited Colfax and Ashmun to accompany him, who declined. The President and Mrs. Lincoln entered their carnage, drove to the house of Senator Harris where they were joined by Miss Harris and Major Rathborne, the Senator's step-son. They reached the theater at forty minutes past eight. They entered the reserved box and were greeted with prolonged and hearty applause in which was mingled love for the man, admiration for the President, gladness for the victory of the nation. The President bowed and was seated.

The box was a double one, on the second floor, above the stage. From the front, a narrow passage to the rear of the dress-circle

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reached the box, requiring three doors. The President occupied a high-backed rocking-chair, and the play went on.

Turn to another person. In the morning of that sad Good Friday, John Wilkes Boothe, a disloyal actor, a man whose sympathy was all with rebellion, learned of the arrangement for the theater. He engaged a rapid and well-trained mare for a saddleride in the afternoon. Visiting Kirkwood's Hotel he sent a card to Vice-President Johnson on which was written "I don't wish to disturb you; are you at home?" It was signed with his name. He was answered that the Vice-President was busy. At four he called at the stable and rode off on the mare, which he placed where it was to serve his purpose.

In the evening he proceeded to the theater, passed through the narrow hall, and showing a card to the President's messenger, entered the vestibule of the fated box. He secured himself against entrance from without by bracing the door with a piece of plank. All his arrangements were made with diabolical coolness. He took a careful survey of the interior of the box and saw that all was ready; his victim was seated as it was meant he should be and there was a way of escape across the stage. The President was leaning forward, holding the curtain of the box. The assassin cocked a small silver-mounted Derringer pistol, and taking in his left hand a keen, double-edged dagger, he stepped to the inner door. The back and side of the President's head were fully exposed. Boothe instantly fired, and the ball crashed through Mr. Lincoln's brain; his head dropped forward very slightly, and he was quiet. The report of the pistol was supposed by the audience to be a part of the programme. Major Rathborne sprang to his feet and seized the assassin, who dropped his pistol and struck the officer with his dagger, wounding him in the left arm near the shoulder. He sprang to the front of the box, drew aside the folds of the flag with which it was festooned, and leaped to the stage. As he did so, his spur caught the folds of the flag and he partly fell. Recovering his balance, he waved his dagger and repeated the motto of Virginia, "Sic semper Tyrannis!" and added "the South is avenged!" He started for the passage leading to the stage-door in the rear of the theater. He had calculated upon the audacity of the act as its security, and

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so it proved. The audience did not yet comprehend the terrible fact. The murderer dashed aside all in his way, rushed through the door opened in readiness for him, sprang into the saddle, and rode rapidly over the Anacosta bridge, and for the time being was safe. The shot, the scene upon the stage, the escape were the work of a moment.

Mrs. Lincoln screamed. Rathborne started for assistance to find the outer door barred, and the terrible fact of assassination burst upon the audience! Women shrieked and fainted. Men shouted impotently for vengeance and rushed to pursue the flying murderer. The uproar was terrific. The lights were turned off, and the grief-stricken multitude dispersed. Several surgeons came forward and examined the wound. The President was conveyed to the house of Mr. Peterson on Tenth street, where he was placed on a bed in a small room. Surgeon General Barnes examined the wound and in a sad undertone said "Mortal." Secretary Stanton burst into tears and sobbed out, "Oh no! General, no, no!" Secretaries Welles and McCulloch, Postmaster-General Dennison, Attorney-General Speed, General Meigs, Senator Stunner and other distinguished gentlemen were soon in attendance and remained until all was over. Charles Sumner held one of the hands of the dying man and wept as a child. The wife, to be widowed in a few hours, sat with her son and Mrs. Senator Dixon in an adjoining room.

The following minutes kept by Dr. Abbott show the progress of dissolution through that terrible night:

11 o'clock, pulse 44.
11.05 o'clock, pulse 48, and growing weaker.
11.10 o'clock, pulse 45.
11.15 o'clock, pulse 42.
11.20 o'clock, pulse 45, respiration 27 to 29.
11.25 o'clock, pulse 42.
11.32 o'clock, pulse 48, and full.
11.40 o'clock, pulse 45.
11.45 o'clock, pulse 45, respiration 22.
12.00 o'clock, pulse 48, respiration 22.
12.15 o'clock, pulse 48, respiration 21.
ecchymosis both eyes.
12.30 o'clock, pulse 45.
12.32 o'clock, pulse 60.
12.35 o'clock, pulse 66.

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12.40 o'clock, pulse 69, right eye much swollen and ecchymosis.
12.45 o'clock, pulse 70.
12.55 o'clock, pulse 80, struggling motion of arms.
1.00 o'clock, pulse 86, respiration 30.
1.30 o'clock, pulse 95, appearing easier.
1.45 o'clock, pulse 86, very quiet, respiration irregular, Mrs. Lincoln present.
2.10 o'clock, Mrs. Lincoln retired with Robert to an adjoining room.
2.30 o'clock, President very quiet, pulse 54, respiration 28.
2.52 o'clock, pulse 48, respiration 30.
3.00 o'clock, visited again by Mrs. Lincoln.
3.25 o'clock, respiration 24 and regular.
3.35 o'clock, prayer by Rev. Dr. Gurley.
4.00 o'clock, respiration 26 and regular.
4.16 o'clock, pulse 60, respiration 25.
5.50 o'clock, respiration 28 regular.
6.00 o'clock, pulse failing, respiration 28.
6.30 o'clock, still failing and labored breathing.
7.00 o'clock, symptoms of immediate dissolution.
7.22 o'clock, DEATH.

At the last moment there were in attendance the Vice-President, Secretaries Stanton, Wells, McCulloch, Usher; Attorney-General Speed, Postmaster-General Dennison, Generals Halleck, Meigs, Farnsworth, Augur and Todd; Senator Sumner, Rev. Dr. Gurley, Speaker Colfax, Ex-Governor Farwell, Judge Carter, Judge Otto, Surgeon-General Barnes; Doctors Crane, Stone, Abbott, and Hall; M. B. Field and R. F. Andrews.

At the moment death was announced Dr. Gurley kneeled and offered prayer, and then proceeding to the adjoining apartment prayed with those whose mourning was saddest as their grief was deepest.

In another quarter of the city the tragedy of assassination was going forward, but not to completion. At ten o'clock, within a few minutes of the time of the President's murder, a man, subsequently proven to be Lewis Payne Powell, one of the conspirators, ordinarily known as Payne, called at the residence of Secretary Seward, who was disabled from a recent accident, and said to the colored lad at the door that he came with medicines for Mr. Seward. He was refused admission but forcibly made his way to the third floor and was about entering Mr. Seward's room when Mr. Frederick Seward stopped him. The villain drew a pistol and snapped it, and then struck Frederick with it so violently as to fracture the

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skull and knock him to the floor, made his way to the Secretary's bedside, and stabbed at his throat, wounding him severely. A soldier named Robinson, Mr. Seward's nurse, himself an invalid, threw his arms around Payne and struggled with him until severely stabbed. During this struggle, Mr. Seward rolled himself from his bed. The villain alarmed by cries of murder sprang for the door, meeting Major Augustus Seward he struck him with his knife, and on the stairs stabbed Mr. Hansell, one of Mr. Seward's attendants, in the back. Thus he severely wounded five persons and made his escape!

The intelligence of this double blow at the organic life of the state produced a fearful excitement. Many clamored for vengeance. There was a general inquiry, How far does the conspiracy extend? If we have entered upon an era of assassination how many are written in its doom-book? In Washington the commotion was terrible. Mr. Stanton hearing of the assault at once upon his superior, and his colleague, saw that a formidable conspiracy was striking desperately, and promptly issued orders closing all drinking shops and places of public gatherings in the city, stationing guards at all avenues of assault or escape, for protecting the person of the Vice-President and government officials and for securing the public buildings.

Throughout the country strong men staggered under the intelligence. Bells tolled in every steeple, and mourning badges were on every house. In Illinois that grief was the deeper because Illinois best knew and loved the slain chieftain. He had grown with her growth, he was identified with her history, he had fought the battle of freedom on her prairies, she had given him to the nation, and had sent him with loving benedictions and earnest prayers to the post of responsibility, peril, death!

At Springfield and Chicago, the grief and indignation were most intense. Yet at its height, men and women as by instinct made their way to the principal churches, crowding them to the utmost, and calling for Christian pastors to lead them in prayer and steady them with exhortation.

So wore away that day. The next was the Sabbath, and almost every pulpit made fitting allusion to the sad blow which had fallen

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upon the country and drew such lessons as suggested faith in God, "the King of nations," "the Father in heaven."

Immediately after the decease, the body was removed to Executive Mansion and placed in the Green Room. Near the center of the apartment was a grand catafalque on which rested the mahogany coffin covered with flowers. On Monday, the seventeenth, a meeting of Congressmen and other leading gentlemen was held at the Capitol, over which presided Hon. Senator Lafayette S. Foster. A committee of arrangements was appointed for the funeral, of which Hon. Charles Sumner was chairman. This committee selected as pall-bearers Senators Foster, pro tem. President of the Senate, Morgan, Johnson, Yates, Wade and Conness, and from the House of Representatives, Mr. Speaker Colfax, Dawes, Coffroth, Smith Worthington and Washburne. A committee of one from each loyal State and Territory was chosen to accompany the body to its last earthly receptacle.

On Tuesday the Executive Mansion was opened and the body, which had been embalmed, was permitted to be seen by the people. It is estimated that twenty-five thousand passed by the catafalque. Dr. Holland says, "Hundreds of those who pressed around the sacred dust uttered some affectionate word, or phrase, or sentence. The rich and the poor, the white and the black, mingled their tokens of affectionate regard and dropped, side by side, their tears upon the coffin. It was humanity weeping over the dust of its benefactor."

Wednesday, the 19th, was such a day as the nation had never seen. Throughout all the land was mourning and lamentation. The funeral services were announced to commence in Washington at 12 P.M. and at that hour almost every Church, from Ocean to Ocean, was crowded with tearful worshipers, was draped in mourning, and resounded with sad dirge and doleful requiem. In many of the principal towns in Canada the observance was as general and impressive as in the States. All business was suspended. The Nation was a mourner.

In Washington the Departments were closed, flags were at halfmast and all the public buildings were draped in black. The remains were in the East Room. The guard of honor retained its place, and at the head of the coffin was the brave Major-General

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Hunter the friend of the slain President. Nearest the coffin sat the family — except the widow who was too ill to leave her room. There were illustrious men from many parts of the world, members of Congress, Governors Andrew of Massachusetts, battle-scarred Oglesby of Illinois, brave "John Brough" of Ohio, soon himself to go to the grave, the Judges of the Supreme Court, representatives from the Sanitary and Christian Commissions, clergymen, and others. At 12 o'clock ANDREW JOHNSON, now President of the United States, came forward, attended by his Cabinet with the exception of Secretary Seward. Rev. Dr. Hale, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, read the service for the dead; Rev. Matthew Simpson, D. D., one of the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, offered prayer; Rev. Dr. Gurley, of the Presbyterian Church, pastor of the Church attended by the President and his family, pronounced a brief but fitting address. He pertinently said of Mr. Lincoln: "He rose to the dignity and momentousness of the occasion; saw his duty as a chief-magistrate to a great and imperiled people; and he determined to do his duty and his whole duty, seeking the guidance and leaning upon the arm of Him of whom it is written — ‘He giveth power to the faint, and to them that have no might he increaseth strength.’ Yes, he leaned upon His arm. He recognized and received the truth that the kingdom is the Lord's." Prayer was again offered by Rev. Dr. Gray of the Baptist Church, Chaplain of the Senate.

Then in sad procession was made the march to the Capitol. Pennsylvania Avenue was cleared from the White House to the Capitol Hill. Every house was in mourning — windows, piazzas, roofs, the spacious side-walks were crowded, awaiting the funeral car. Says Mr. Raymond:

"Filling Pennsylvania Avenue, through its whole extent, this great procession — marshaled with military precision, and marching to the cadence of slow music from many bands — escorted with becoming pomp, the remains of the martyred President to the National Capitol, which rose in white grandeur, clad from basement to the summit of its lordly dome, with garments of woe, to receive the precious gift. The whole vast building was draped in black. All the pillars were entwined with crape — from all the windows hung emblems of mourning, and a black canopy surmounted the Eastern

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door, by which the great concourse was to enter. Minute guns from all the forts around the city, thundered forth their sad salutations — the bells from every tower and spire rang out, in muffled tones, their chronicle of the stately march. At a little after 3 P. M. the military cortege which led the procession, entered the open space in front of the Eastern entrance. Filing past in proper order, the infantry, wheeling, faced the Capitol, — the artillery took position on the hill, opposite the entrance, — the cavalry remained in the street, and a great throng of spectators gazed in silence on the grand display. As the funeral car approached, all the military bands burst forth into a solemn requiem — the artillery thundered out their solemn greeting — the vast crowd, as by a common impulse uncovered — and as Rev. Dr. Gurley, in deep and impressive tones recited the grand sentences in which the Church signalizes the departure of her dead, the body of President Lincoln was borne into the rotunda and placed upon the lofty catafalque. As the recitation closed President Johnson entered the hall followed by several senators. Captain Robert Lincoln and the family relatives came forward. The body-guard formed in double-column near the body. Dr. Gurley made a closing prayer and pronounced the benediction. All then left the rotunda. Guards were stationed at all the doors. General Augur and his staff took charge of the remains, and with drawn swords the officers detailed for the service mounted guard over them. As night came on, the jets of gas concealed in the height of the dome were lighted up and cast their softened glare upon the vigil that was kept below."

In the rotunda the body remained through that night and the next day until 9 P. M. Thousands came to see the face of the dead, among them many of the wounded and invalid soldiers of the Union. On the morning of the 21st the members of the Cabinet, distinguished officers of the army, and many members of Congress made their final visit

Illinois demanded that he whom she sent forth with her benediction and invocation to be the nation's leader, should be brought home to sleep in her own bosom, far from the scenes of the war which gave him so much anguish. It was meet that his last resting-place should be on the broad prairies where he made his home — and that, not at

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Washington, neither in Chicago, where sleeps the dust of Douglas, his great rival, and at the last his trusted friend, but at Springfield, his former home, from which he spoke his good-by to Illinois, and asked the prayers of fellow-citizens should his grave be made.

It was decided to make the journey with the remains as rapid as possible, but the demand of the country compelled a modification — the people demanded the privilege of looking upon the face of their honored, martyred President. It was not for ostentation, but because the love of the people would not be denied, that the funeral journey along a line of fifteen hundred miles was such as the world never saw before.

A car was provided, fitted with elegant simplicity, hung in heavy black, festooned about the windows in double rows. With appropriate religious service, the remains were removed from the rotunda and under escort of the Twelfth Veteran Reserve Corps, attended by the Lieutenant-General and many members of Congress, were conveyed to the Baltimore and Ohio Depot, where they were received by President Johnson and others, and placed in the car. Prayer was offered, and then the train of seven cars — all, with the locomotive, hung in deep mourning — left the depot. The War Department had prescribed the whole route, with a schedule of arrivals and departures at all principal points, and a pilot engine was invariably to precede the train. As the train moved away, all stood with uncovered heads, and that hour more than any previous, did Washington feel its loss.

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At Baltimore, where little more than four years before the angry, brutal mob clamored for the blood of Abraham Lincoln, now a vast mass of sorrowful people stood in tempestuous weather, and with uncovered heads did reverence to the remains of the Great Emancipator! At Harrisburgh the body lay in state in the Capitol of Pennsylvania. At Philadelphia the out-pouring of popular love and grief was overwhelming. In a new hearse, built for the occasion, the body of the President, followed by a procession of eleven divisions, was conveyed to old Independence Hall! Worthy was he to be brought where the founders of the Republic had declared the inalienable right of ALL MEN to life and liberty! For so holding and so teaching was he slain! The hall was dressed with exquisite flowers and draped in mourning. Until midnight the people were admitted, and then the Hall was closed; yet many remained about it through the night that they might be first in the morning. Before day-light lines had been formed reaching from the Delaware to the Schuylkill. The reception and funeral cortege in New York can not be described. The veteran General Dix was in command and the escort was the "New York Seventh." The body was conveyed with

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imposing circumstance and pomp to the City Hall and placed beneath the dome. It is estimated that not less than one hundred and fifty thousand persons looked into the dead man's face, while twice that number sought in vain to do so! At Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland, Columbus and Indianapolis the body lay in state, amid similar demonstrations of regard.

Illinois was waiting. He should first be brought to Chicago, and the people poured in by thousands from the country, crowding hotels and boarding-houses for days in advance. "He comes back to us" said one of our daily papers, "his work finished, the republic vindicated, its enemies overthrown and suing for peace. He left us, asking that the prayers of the people might be offered to Almighty God for wisdom and help to see the right path and pursue it. Those prayers were answered. He accomplished the work, and now the prayers of the people ascend for help to bear the great affliction which has fallen upon them. Slain as no other man has been slain — cut down while interposing his great charity and mercy between the wrath of the people and guilty traitors. The people of Chicago receive the sacred ashes with bowed heads and streaming eyes."

On the morning of May 1st, the funeral-train brought all that was mortal of ABRAHAM LINCOLN back to Illinois! As it came into the approaches of Chicago, it passed very near and in full sight of the grave of DOUGLAS! On the lake-shore, on Michigan avenue and in the cross-streets was such a mass of people as never were crowded before on the shore of Lake Michigan.

The train was halted at Park Place and the coffin removed, and the remains borne to the hearse beneath a most beautiful, emblematic, gothic arch. Then moved one of the most imposing processions ever seen upon the continent, military and civic, all trades and professions; the streets were hung with mourning; from roof, window, lintel, trembled the touching emblems of bereavement; flags at half-mast were edged with crape, and heavy with the sign of sorrow. In door-ways, in windows, on roofs, on temporary staging provided for the occasion, and along the side-walks of the streets assigned to the procession were thousands of people who came to look upon the coffin, if they might see no more. At length, amid the firing of minute guns and the sad tolling of bells the coffin was borne into

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the Court-House and placed upon a massive dais. In the evening it was opened and all through the afternoon, night, and the next day passed the line of citizens looking with sadness indescribable upon the dead man's face.

At 9.30 on the night of May 2d, the funeral train left the depot of the Chicago, Alton and St. Louis railway, on its last stage. It was to bear the pure chieftain through the prairies he had so much loved to his final resting-place. He was going back to his old home and his old friends. It was the beginning of the end. Said a Chicago paper:

"From the Capitol of the nation where he had so ably and faithfully guided the republic in its trial hours, through the great Eastern cities, their thronging thousands bowed clown in anguish, westward through the capitals of the great states of the Ohio valley, the mourning increasing in intensity and depth of feeling, at last to Chicago, the city that he loved and that loved him so well, received with a solemn magnificence of pageantry and funeral pomp unexcelled anywhere on the route. Arch and festoon, the black for sorrow and the white for hope, the old flag waving at half-mast that a week before was flying to the breeze in honor of victory; tolling of bell and booming of minute gun; solemn dirges wailing upon the air, and thousands of silent men and women and children standing upon the walks with bared heads and reverential mien as the great dead passed by, receiving in their hearts the powerful impressions and influences inspired by the presence of these sacred ashes."

"At 9 o'clock on the morning of the 4th the train arrived. Two hours it had been preceded by a special train bearing a committee of one hundred citizens of Chicago. When that party reached Springfield it found already the depot and grounds adjacent crowded with sad, decorous people. The 146th Illinois Volunteers, under Col. Dean, was stationed in close order up Jefferson street and kept that broad avenue clear.

"When the cortege arrived the procession was formed and moved to the State House, and after a preliminary survey by General Hooker, the coffin was removed to it. The general decorations of the Representatives' Hall and the description of the catafalque cannot be given in detail. The latter was designed by Colonel A. Schwartz,

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late of General McClernand's staff, Mr. Wright, an artist of Springfield, and Dr. French of the same city. In its general tone, harmony, and relief of colors it was very artistic and admirable in conception, although the dingy contracted chamber in which it was placed detracted greatly from its effect. The painful contrast of black and white was relieved both in the inner surface of the canopy and the background against which it was thrown. The former was covered with white crape, over a ground of blue, and spangled with silver stars, giving it the general effect of the sky immediately after twilight; the background was in the light tints of red, white and blue, radiating as from a sun and representing the national colors, in harmony with the tones of the picture of Washington resting against it and brightening up the gloom of the chamber. The decorations of the catafalque canopy and dais were all in good taste and harmony with the mournful occasion. The portrait of Washington was a copy of the well-known Stuart, and, by an odd conceit of the artist, was gaily trimmed with green and white intending to portray the joy of the Father of his Country at meeting in the other world the Savior of the Republic. Whatever may be thought of the idea intended to be conveyed, the contrast with the general tone of the catafalque and surroundings was very violent, and was the only defect visible in the arrangements for the reception of the remains. The materials of which the catafalque was composed were all of the richest description. The decorations of the gallery were neat and appropriate, and the crossed sprays of laurel in the panels in excellent taste. The mournful prophetic extract from the late President's speech at Philadelphia, ‘Rather than surrender these principles, I would prefer to be assassinated on the spot,’ inscribed around the gallery, had a terrible significance in that sacred spot and in the presence of the great dead. Those principles were not surrendered. Acted upon up to the very syllable, not one scintilla of right yielded, firmly, prudently but inflexibly keeping the Ship of State straight on in the course of freedom and humanity, following only the lights of the Constitution and the law, he was struck down at the helm while the old ship was entering the calm harbor of peace. Conspirators had skulked into the hold. Slavery had watched its opportunity, and

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struck the foul blow that to the latest syllable of recorded time shall crown the assassin with infamy.

"The mourning decorations of the exterior of the State-House were marked by an excellent taste. The building itself most certainly presents little architectural beauty, and can lay no more claims to stateliness or elegance of finish than an ordinary warehouse; but, draped in the symbols of mourning, it assumed an appearance of solemnity, and, contrasted with the remainder of the city, had a somewhat imposing effect. The natural appearance of the grounds heightened this. Vegetation is much further advanced here than in Chicago, and the verdure in the grounds was beautiful. The trees were in full leaf, the flowers in blossom, and the plats of grass seemed beds of pure emerald. The hemisphere of the dome was covered with black and white streamers, looped at the center with rosettes. The main portion of the lower section was completely encircled with black and white, and the outside pillars were connected with crossed bands. The main columns of the Capitol were completely swathed with evergreens, and at all the windows were heavy mourning curtains, looped at the sides with scalloped cornices, imparting to the building a very somber and funereal aspect."

The city wore signs of mourning throughout. The Old Home of Mr. Lincoln called about it thousands of visitors. Says the correspondent of one of the daily papers:

"With the appearance of the house which has now become historic, all are familiar. Plain, unpretending and substantial, it is the type of Mr. Lincoln's character. The shrubbery in front of the house, principally rose bushes, many of them planted by Mr. Lincoln's own hand, are in full leaf, and a beautiful rose-vine clambers up one of the door-posts and trails over the cornice. Lilies are sprinkled here and there, and closely shaven trim grass plats ran down to the neat picket fence surmounting the wall. The columns of the piazza at the rear of the house are also twined with vines and creepers, and the apple trees between the house and the barns showered the ground with the pink and white of the blossoms, and filled the air with fragrance. The house, which is now occupied by Lucien Tilton, Esq., was very heavily draped in mourning. The windows

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were curtained with black and white, the corner posts wreathed with evergreens, the cornice hidden by festoons of black and white looped up at intervals, and the space between the cornice of the door and the central window filled with the American flag gracefully trimmed. There is little of the furniture in the house which belonged to Mr. Lincoln. In the front parlor is a what-not and a small marble-topped table on which was lying a beautiful cross of white camelias. In the back parlor, which he was accustomed to use as his study, is his book-case. This was his favorite room, and here he toiled and wrote, unconsciously preparing himself for the great mission he was to fulfill. Idle the pen! closed the book! departed the writer! The mission is fulfilled. Dropped the curtain! out the lights! for the drama is over, but the great thoughts and the great deeds that pervaded it are immortal. A heavy oaken bedstead and a chamber-set conclude the relics."

For twenty-four hours the people passed in a ceaseless line by the coffin, only pausing when the hour came to close the lid. The arrangements of the funeral were held in abeyance and somewhat disturbed by a difference of opinion as to the place of the tomb, finally adjusted in favor of Oak Ridge. It was on the 4th, the day was oppressively hot, and the walk one of wearisome length, yet an immense throng preceded, accompanied and followed the procession. The commanding officer was Major-General Joseph Hooker.

The cemetery is naturally one of much beauty, though at that time comparatively unimproved. It is on two carving ridges, between which flows a winding brook. Entering, and passing about midway, was reached the vault, a simple lime-stone structure with Doric columns. The floor was covered with cedar boughs. In front were the escort and official delegations. Immediately before the entrance were General Hooker, General Townsend, Admiral Davis and other officers of note. The platform for the speakers was by some strange oversight left uncovered, exposed to the sun. Beside the coffin of the President was also that of "Willie." Among the mourners were his two surviving sons. After singing Rev. A. Hale offered prayer. The oration was delivered by Rev. Bishop Matthew Simpson, for whom, as a preacher, the deceased President had entertained the highest regard. It was delivered without manuscript

36

or notes of any kind, and was a noble, impassioned tribute to the worth of the departed. He said:

"How different the occasion which witnessed his departure from that which witnessed his return! Doubtless you expected to take him by the hand, and to feel the warm grasp which you had felt in other days, and to see the tall form walking among you which you had delighted to honor in years past. But he was never permitted to come until he came with lips mute and silent, the frame encoffined, and a weeping nation following as his mourners. Such a scene as his return to you was never witnessed. Among the events of history there have been great processions of mourners. There was one for the patriarch Jacob, which went up from Egypt, and the Egyptians wondered at the evidences of reverence and filial affection which came from the hearts of the Israelites. There was mourning when Moses fell upon the heights of Pisgah, and was hid from human view. There have been mournings in the kingdoms of the earth when kings and warriors have fallen. But never was there in the history of man such mourning as that which has accompanied this funeral procession, and has gathered around the mortal remains of him who was our loved one, and who now sleeps among us. If we glance at the procession which followed him, we see how the nation stood aghast. Tears filled the eyes of manly, sunburnt faces. Strong men, as they clasped the hands of their friends, were not able in words to find vent for their grief. Women and little children caught up the tidings as they ran through the land, and were melted into tears. The nation stood still. Men left their plows in the fields and asked what the end should be. The hum of manufactories ceased, and the sound of the hammer was not heard. Busy merchants closed their doors, and in the exchange gold passed no more from hand to hand. Though three weeks have elapsed, the nation has scarcely breathed easily yet. A mournful silence is abroad upon the land; nor is this mourning confined to any class or to any district of country. Men of all political parties, and of all religious creeds, have united in paying this mournful tribute. The Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church in New York and a Protestant minister walked side by side in the sad procession, and a Jewish Rabbi performed a part of the solemn services.

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"Here are gathered around his tomb the representatives of the army and navy, senators, judges, governors and officers of all the branches of the government. Here, too, are members of civic processions, with men and women, from the humblest as well as the highest occupations. Here and there, too, are tears as sincere and warm as any that drop, which come from the eyes of those whose kindred and whose race have been freed from their chains by him whom they mourn as their deliverer. More persons have gazed on the face of the deceased than ever looked upon the face of any other departed man. More have looked on the procession for sixteen hundred miles, by night and by day, by sunlight, dawn, twilight and by torchlight, than ever before watched the progress of a procession.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

"But the great act of the mighty chieftain, on which his fame shall rest long after his frame shall moulder away, is that of giving freedom to a race. We have all been taught to revere the sacred characters. Among them Moses stands pre-eminently high. He received the law from God, and his name is honored among the hosts of heaven. Was not his greatest act the delivering of three millions of his kindred out of bondage? Yet we may assert that Abraham Lincoln, by his proclamation, liberated more enslaved people than ever Moses set free, and those not of his kindred or his race. Such a power, or such an opportunity, God has seldom given to man. When other events shall have been forgotten; when this world shall have become a network of republics; when every throne shall be swept from the face of the earth; when literature shall enlighten all minds; when the claims of humanity shall be recognized every where, this act shall still be conspicuous on the pages of history. We are thankful that God gave to Abraham Lincoln the decision and wisdom and grace to issue that proclamation, which stands high above all other papers which have been penned by uninspired men.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

"The time will come when, in the beautiful words of him whose lips are now forever sealed, ‘The mystic cords of memory stretching from every battle-field and patriot grave to every living heart and hearth-stone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus

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of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.’

"Chieftain, farewell! The nation mourns thee. Mothers shall teach thy name to their lisping children. The youth of our land shall emulate thy virtues. Statesmen shall study thy record and learn lessons of wisdom. Mute though thy lips be, yet they still speak. Hushed is thy voice, but its echoes of liberty are ringing through the world, and the sons of bondage listen with joy. Prisoned thou art in death, and yet thou art marching abroad, and chains and manacles are bursting at thy touch. Thou didst fall not for thyself. The assassin had no hate for thee. Our hearts were aimed at, our national life was sought. We crown thee as our martyr, and humanity enthrones thee as her triumphant son. Hero, Martyr, Friend, FAREWELL!"

Rev. Dr. Gurley read the following ode, and offered a short prayer, and committed "ashes to ashes, dust to dust," and the bodies of father and son were placed within the vault and the massive door closed!

"Rest, noble Martyr! rest in peace:
Rest with the true and brave,
Who, like thee, fell in Freedom's cause,
The nation's life to save.

"Thy name shall live while time endures,
And men shall say of thee,
‘He saved his country from its foes,
And bade the slave be free.’

"These deeds shall be thy monument,
Better than brass or stone;
They leave thy fame in glory's light,
Unrivaled and alone.

"This consecrated spot shall be
To Freedom ever dear;
And Freedom's sons of every race
Shall weep and worship here.

"O God! before whom we, in tears,
Our fallen Chief deplore,
Grant that the cares for which he died
May live forevermore."

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There, in that quiet spot, in that beautiful cemetery, sleeps all that was mortal of the noblest man born to this country. The author will attempt no eulogy. Lincoln's monument is in the love of a saved nation, and it will lift its summit higher with each succeeding age. His work was finished. We may not comprehend the mystery which permitted his removal at such an hour and in such a way. God hideth himself wondrously, and sometimes seems to stand afar from his truth and his cause when most needed.

He came to his high position with his great qualities half hidden beneath rustic manners, but as emergencies revealed the man he was found to have mental breadth and clearness, incorruptible integrity, strength of will, tireless patience, humanity, preserved from weakness by conscientious reverence for law, ardent love of country, confidence in the American people, and an all-regulating sense of responsibility to God, the King of nations. He possessed the power to comprehend a subject at once in the aggregate and in its details. His eye swept a wide horizon and descried clearly all within its circumference. He was a keen logician, whose apt manner of "putting things" made him more than a match for practiced diplomatists and wily marplots. There were men of might about his council-board, scholars and statesmen, but none arose to his altitude, much less was either his master.

That very facetiousness sometimes criticised, kept him from becoming morbid, and gave healthfulness to his opinions, free alike from fever and paralysis. That his was incorruptible integrity, no man dare question. He was not merely above reproach, but eminently above suspicion. Purity is receptive. "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God," is as profound in philosophy as comprehensive in theology. Purity in the realm of moral decision and motive, is a skylight to the soul, through which truth comes direct. Abraham Lincoln was so pure in motive and purpose, looked so intensely after the right that he might pursue it, that he saw clearly where many walked in mist.

He made mistakes, for he was human. But it is evident he was the divinely chosen Moses of our deliverance, albeit he was to die at Pisgah and be "buried over against Bethpeor."

In the dawning hour of peace, amid the exultations of the Union,

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was he slain! As the ship which had been rocking in the waves and trembling before the storm was entering the harbor, a pirate who sailed with the passengers, basely shot the pilot at the wheel! Never assassination produced so terrible a shock. For —

"He had borne his faculties so meek, had been
So clear in his great office, that his virtues
Do plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against
The deep damnation of his taking off."

One more impressive pageant was to commemorate his virtues. By order of Congress, the 12th of February, 1866, was observed by the National authorities and both Houses as commemorative of Mr. Lincoln.

The hall was richly draped; mourning festoons had been arranged around the speaker's table and the "American flag" hung just above and encircled the old clock which has noted time there since the days of Clay and Webster.

An observer in the gallery thus wrote:

"Twelve o'clock, and Speaker Colfax called the House to order, and prayer was offered by Dr. Boynton, Chaplain of the House of Representatives, at the conclusion of which a letter was laid before the House by the Speaker, from Hon. W. H. Seward, Secretary of State, expressing his regrets that the state of his health forbade his participating in the ceremonies of the occasion.

"At ten minutes past 12 the Senate of the United States was announced, which entered in a body, preceded by the Sergeant-at-Arms, and headed by Hon. Lafayette S. Foster, Vice-President of the United States, pro tempore, and was received by the House standing.

"Five minutes later the President of the United States and Cabinet were announced. President Johnson entered arm-in-arm with Hon. Solomon Foote, Chairman of the Joint Committee of Arrangements on the part of the Senate, followed by Hon. George Bancroft, orator of the day, Senator Doolittle and the Cabinet. The President and Cabinet were seated immediately in front of the Speaker's table. Mr. Bancroft was conducted to his seat at the table of the Speaker of the House, and Hon. Solomon Foote seated at his right and Hon. E. B. Washburne at his left. Acting

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Vice-President Foote and Speaker Colfax also had seats at the Speaker's table.

"Chief Justice Chase with the associate justices of the Supreme Court of the United States entered in full official robes of black and were seated to the left of the President and Cabinet.

"Le Miserere from ‘Il Trovatore’ was executed by the Marine Band. Again we bowed our heads in prayer which was most fervently offered by Rev. Dr. Boynton.

"Vice-President Foster arose and after a few impressive introductory remarks, introduced the Hon. George Bancroft.

"His oration was a masterly production. He reviewed the history of our Republic from its earliest period, showing the influence which slavery has exerted in our national polity until it culminated in rebellion and the murder of our illustrious chief. He gave a scorching review of the Dred Scott decision, which will fasten upon it fresh opprobrium. His history of the early life and career of Mr. Lincoln was graphic and touching. He gave a just and discriminating analysis of his character and prominence to the leading events of his administration. Portions of his address were received with great applause. The names of Cobden and Bright were heartily cheered.

"The whole oration does justice not only to the lamented dead, but to the orator and the people for whom he has so nobly spoken."

Nemesis marked the murderers. Large rewards were offered for their capture. Payne, the wretch who attempted Mr. Seward's murder was first arrested. Boothe, and his associate Harrold were traced through the counties of Prince George, Charles and St. Mary in Maryland, across the Potomac into King George and Caroline in Virginia. They passed the Rappahannock at Port Conway, and advanced some distance toward Bowling Green. Some colored men and a paroled rebel prisoner gave information which put the pursuers directly on their path, and they were tracked and brought to bay on the morning of April 26th, in a barn on the place of Mr. Garrett. Harrold surrendered. Boothe was defiant and desperate, and Boston Corbett shot him. He lingered some hours in intense pain and died. It came out that as he leaped from the box of the theater, and fell upon the stage, he fractured a small bone. Thus, unable to

42

halt for treatment, he was driven to bay — smoked out like a wild beast and shot like a hyena where he stood! He was not permitted to put on heroic parade and play the orator on the scaffold, but by swift and terrible retribution was sent to his account.

Azterodt, O'Laughlin, Spangler, Dr. Mudd, Arnold and Mrs. Surratt were arrested. On the 8th of May a Military Commission was convened and these parties brought to trial. Harrold, Azterodt, Payne and Mrs. Surratt were sentenced to be hanged, and the Executive order carried the sentence into effect July 7th. O'Laughlin, Arnold and Dr. Mudd were sentenced to imprisonment at hard labor for life, and Spangler for six years.

So falls the curtain upon this terrible tragedy.

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Chapter II. — Battle of Chickamauga.

ACTION OF WASHINGTON AUTHORITIES — ROSECRAN'S ADVANCE — BRAGG OCCUPIES CHATTANOOGA — STANLEY'S ADVANCE — SUCCESSES — PLAN OF FEDERAL CAMPAIGN — BURNSIDE'S COLUMN REACHES KNOXVILLE — ORDERS — ROSECRANS REACHES CHATTANOOGA — BRAGG EVACUATES THE CITY — PURSUIT — ORDERS TO HURLBUT, GRANT, SHERMAN, POPE AND SCHOFIELD FOR REINFORCEMENTS — BRAGG AT LAFAYETTE — CAVALRY RAIDS — ADDED REBEL FORCES — ROSECRANS MISTAKEN — HIS LINE — CHICKAMAUGA CREEK — NEGLEY — POSITION — BRAG WAITS — THE 17TH — CHANGE OF FEDERAL LINES — 18TH, ORDER OF BATTLE — SATURDAY THE 19TH — MINTY AND WILDER — OUR LINE — BATTLE OPENS — NO DECISIVE RESULTS — NIGHT — CHANGED ORDER — REBEL ORDER — SABBATH THE 20TH — BATTLE OPENS — THE FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS — DESPERATE FIGHTING — ORDER TO WOOD — OUR ARMY BROKEN IN TWO — IS THE DAY LOST? "ROCK OF CHICKAMAUGA" — THOMAS' NEW POSITION — CARNIVAL OF DEATH — POSITION HELD — A GAP DISCOVERED — GRANGER IN TIME — HALLECK'S REPORT — DAY SAVED! — LOSSES — EFFECT ON THE TWO COMMANDERS — BURNSIDE — KNOXVILLE — SIEGE RAISED — ILLINOIS SOLDIERS.

THE record of the campaigns which succeeded Vicksburg and Gettysburg must be brief. In the West, Illinois was represented on every field. At Chickamauga a sanguinary battle was fought, and while the hero of Stone River lost his laurels, his wily competitor also came into disgrace — Rosecrans defeated, held the field; Bragg successful, was compelled to retreat.

In June, 1863, the authorities at Washington were convinced that Bragg's army was being weakened to strengthen Lee, and urged Rosecrans to bring on a contest with him, and destroy or drive him back into Georgia. The General, with his associates, hesitated on the grounds of a deficiency in cavalry, and the importance of fighting near his base — Murfreesboro. Nevertheless he commenced on the 25th a series of maneuvers, which, without a great battle,

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compelled Bragg to abandon Middle Tennessee, and retreat upon Chattanooga. General Stanley occupied Shelbyville, and, leaving it in command of General Granger, moved forward to Huntsville.

In these preliminary movements, the Federal success was marked; 1,634 rebel prisoners were captured, with six pieces of artillery and a large amount of stores. Bragg reached Chattanooga and strongly fortified his position on the south side of the Tennessee River, as far up as Blythe's Ferry.

A grand campaign was designed. Rosecrans with the main column was to move on Chattanooga from Tullahoma and Winchester, while the Army of the Ohio, under Burnside, should move from Lexington, Kentucky, via Knoxville. Rosecrans marching almost due east about eighty miles, Burnside south about two hundred. Burnside moved August 21st, and reached Knoxville on the 3d of September, which surrendered unconditionally on the 9th, with 2,000 prisoners, fourteen pieces of artillery, with military stores.

Burnside telegraphed that he held Cumberland Gap with all of East Tennessee above Loudon, with the gaps of the mountains of North Carolina, and was directed by General Halleck, to concentrate the principal portion of his victorious legions on the Tennessee, west from Loudon, to co-operate with Rosecrans, who was to "occupy Dalton or some point on the railroad, to close all access from Atlanta, and also the mountain passes in the West." — [Halleck's Order, September 11, 1863.

Rosecrans advanced on Chattanooga, and found it too strong to be carried by assault, and by a series of masterly maneuvers compelled Bragg to abandon his strong hold and retreat, and the federal left wing entered the city. Bragg retreated toward Clenland and Dalton, important points on the triangle of the Western and Atlantic Railway.

Rosecrans pushed on in pursuit, and the authorities at Washington fearing Bragg was being reinforced by the flower of Lee's army telegraphed on the 13th of September to General Hurlbut at Memphis, to leave Steel to defend himself and send all his available strength to Corinth and Tuscumbia, to aid Rosecrans, and in the event that Bragg should attempt to turn the Federal right and re-cross the river into Tennessee Hurlbut was to send to Sherman for

45

help. Generals Grant and Sherman were also telegraphed at Vicksburg with similar directions. On the 14th, Hurlbut and Burnside were directed to hurry forward reinforcements with all possible speed. And similar orders were given to General Pope, in command of the Northwest, and General Schofield, of Missouri.

On the 14th, the enemy was concentrated near Lafayette, Georgia. By repeated cavalry raids he had threatened the severance of Rosecrans from his supplies and to thrust the rebel wedge between him and Burnside, but was in fact awaiting reinforcements, which were reaching him. Johnston's troops from Mississippi, and the men captured at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, and with the usual rebel candor declared exchanged, were there, and Bragg only awaited the arrival of Longstreet with his veteran corps, when he meant to avenge, amid Georgian mountains, his army for its defeat at Stone River. General Rosecrans, deceived by the easy capture of Chattanooga, into the belief that Bragg was demoralized was pressing on to capture him with his whole army. His line stretched from Gordon's Mills to Alpine — forty miles — occupying the passes of Lookout Mountain. On Wednesday, the 16th, he concentrated on West Chickamauga Creek, about ten miles northwest from Lafayette, Georgia, with headquarters at Crawfish Spring.

The strength of the rebel force began to be felt when General Thomas directed Negley to debouch through a pass of Pigeon Mountain and at the moment met so staunch a resistance as to compel a hasty retreat. This caused the Federal leaders to consider whether Bragg meant to fight or to secure his retreat, and they decided that he meant battle. McCook was next day moving back on Lookout Mountain, with orders to close on the center, while Crittenden, at Gordon's Mills, placed his corps in good position for defense.

Rosecrans held the ground west of the creek, the left on Gordon's Mills, while Bragg was east of the stream, with a position favorable for masked movements. Had he hurled his legions on Rosecrans immediately after Negley's repulse he would have crushed him. McCook and Thomas were separated nearly three days' march; Crittenden could send no help to Thomas without exposing Chattanooga and Thomas could not go to Crittenden without leaving McCook at the mercy of the rebel force. But Bragg waited, and, on

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the 17th, McCook brought his dusty, travel-worn men to Thomas and they were placed in order of battle. Reconnoissances on the 18th convinced our leaders that Bragg was reinforced by the arrival of a portion, at least, of Longstreet's corps, and that he was massing his forces in front of our left center and left wing with the purpose of a movement which-would place them between the Federal army and Chattanooga. Rosecrans ordered a counter-movement by the left flank, wheeling his army and placing it down the creek. During the night of the 18th, the 14th Army Corps (Thomas') forming the center, with Johnson's division of McCook's corps, swung to the left, past Crittenden's (21st) corps, becoming the left and making the 21st the center of the army. Davis and Sheridan's division of McCook's corps were to move into the position occupied by the 14th corps, but had not fully occupied it before the bursting of the battle on the morning of Saturday, the 19th. On the afternoon of the 18th, Colonels Minty and Wilder, watching the Ring-gold road crossing, withstood gallantly a severe attack from the enemy's left, but were compelled to retreat.

On the morning of the 19th, the Federal battle-line extended along the Rossville and Lafayette roads, north and south, the right on Gordon's Mills, the left at Kelly's House. On the extreme left was Brannan, next Baird and Reynolds, with Johnson in the center as reserve; Palmer, with his iron men, was on the right of Reynolds, VanCleve was next him, and upon his right, reaching to the Mills, was the command of Wood. Negley, four miles south, held Owen's Gap. Davis and Sheridan were south of Negley, moving to the old position of the 14th Army Corps. General Granger held the reserve on Rossville road, covering the approach from Ringgold.

At 10 A. M. the battle opened on the Federal extreme left, and was continued until night-fall, being a struggle for position on the Chattanooga road. It was without decisive results.

That night changes were made in both armies, preparatory to the terrible contest of Sunday, the 20th. The Federal line was shortened about a mile, the right resting upon a strong position at Mission Ridge, Thomas still holding the left, Crittenden the center, McCook the right.

The rebel commander divided his army into two wings. Lieutenant-General Polk

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commanding the right, while the left was assigned to Lieutenant-General Longstreet, who arrived at 11 o'clock on the night of the 19th. From right to left the rebel army was under Breckenridge, Cleburn, Cheatham, Stewart, Hood, Hindman and Preston. Bragg's order was to begin the engagement on the right and bring in engagement after engagement until all were hurled upon the Federal troops, and Lieutenant-General Polk was ordered to open the engagement at day-break, but from a derangement of his plans, that officer could not do so until 9 A. M., when Breckenridge and Cleburn assailed General Thomas. His men holding a high point, the key of the position, had constructed a rude defense of rails and logs. Onward came the gray-clad legions and were dashed backward. Again and yet again the brigades advanced en echelon, maddened to desperation, but melted like frost-work before the Union fire. The rebel force was massed for a final charge. Thomas rode along his torn line and steadied it. With a force of heavy artillery the rebel army came on — the Union men stood firm — Palmer and Van Cleve were not to be easily crushed, and their brave men stood against that overwhelming assault until they looked their foemen in the very eyes. For more than two hours the key was held, but they were at length compelled to yield.

As Thomas stood like a lion at bay, General Longstreet had brought his veterans to the contest, and our out-numbered men were in sore peril. Rosecrans began moving troops rapidly from left to right. Thomas, compelled to fall back, had formed a new position, and was holding it and sent for help. Reynolds was sorely pressed, and General Rosecrans issued an order to Wood, concerning which there has been much dispute. The commanding General reports that it was to "close up on General Reynolds." General Wood supposed he was to march by the left flank, pass General Brannan and go to the relief of Reynolds, and that Davis and Sheridan would shift to the left and close up the line. Wood says Brannan's line was between him and Reynolds. The movement opened a wide gap in our line of battle, and Longstreet ordered Buckner with twelve pieces of artillery to press into it. The order was instantly obeyed; on came the rebels, striking Davis' division in flank and year, throwing it into confusion, and causing it severe loss of men.

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Van Cleve's and Palmer's divisions were struck with equal violence on the right, and thrown into disorder. The army was cut in twain, the right and center wore routed, and the day seemed hopelessly lost.

But now Thomas won that title, "The Rock of Chickamauga." The rout had carried the right and center, with Rosecrans, McCook and Crittenden, back to Chickamauga. Thomas learned the situation from General Garfield, Chief-of-Staff, who made his way, somehow, through the carnage. He had formed his line crescent shaped, on Missionary Ridge, the right at the Gap, the left on the Lafayette road, a southeast hill at the center forming the key. He formed his brave, bleeding men, with fragments from Sheridan's and other divisions, fronted the Ridge with artillery and waited the coming of Longstreet, who had been the resistless Achilles of the day, and had described a circle of victory, and stood facing his men as at day-break. Kershaw, of Law's division, was ordered to attack the Ridge and did so gallantly but was repulsed. The attack was renewed, and the attacking columns made repeated assaults, but were swept by the fire of our strong positions. At half-past three Longstreet ascertained there was a gap in the hills and through this poured his legions and the early disaster of the day was about to be repeated.

But Granger came with the reserve. The God of battles held that forlorn hope of the Union army in his hand. Steadman's Cavalry Brigade burst upon Longstreet's force. General Halleck thus tells the story: "In the words of General Rosecrans' report, ‘swift was the charge, and terrible was the conflict, but the enemy was broken.’ A thousand of our brave men killed and wounded paid for its possession, but we held the Gap. Two divisions of Longstreet's corps confronted the position. Determined to take it, they successively came to the assault. A battery of six guns, placed in the gorge poured death and slaughter into them. They charged within a few yards of the pieces, but our grape and canister, and the leaden hail of musketry, delivered in sparing but terrible volleys from cartridges taken in many instances from the boxes of their fallen companions, was too much even for Longstreet's men. About

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sunset they made their last charge, when our men, being out of ammunition, moved on them with the bayonet, and they gave way to return no more. In the meantime the enemy made repeated attempts to carry General Thomas' position on the left and front, but were as often thrown back with great loss. At night-fall the enemy fell back, leaving General Thomas victorious on his hard-fought field."

The defeat of the day was saved by the victory of the evening. Our army had been broken, but remained upon the field. The enemy vauntingly announced a great victory, and yet was not able to remain upon the ground.

But it is useless to deny that we had been severely smitten. Rosecrans had failed in his plans; the enemy had broken his battle array; he was pressed back into Chattanooga, but Thomas with his brave associates plucked victory out of the jaws of defeat. Thomas was from thence enrolled among the great generals of the army.

During the night Thomas fell back to Rossville, where on the 21st he offered battle, which was declined by the rebel foe, and on the night of that day, he withdrew into the defences of Chattanooga.

The Union loss was reported as follows:

THOMAS' FOURTEENTH CORPS.
  Officers. Men. Total.
Killed 36 635 671
Wounded 206 3,277 3,503
Missing 127 2,000 2,127
Total 369 5,932 6,301
MCCOOK'S SECOND CORPS.
  Officers. Men. Total.
Killed 40 363 403
Wounded 168 2,367 2,535
Missing 77 1,503 1,580
Total 285 4,233 4,518
CRITTENDEN'S TWENTY-FIRST CORPS.
  Officers. Men. Total.
Killed 39 296 235
Wounded 131 2,157 936
Missing 22 655 561
Total 129 1,603 1,732

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GRANGER'S RESERVE CORPS.
  Officers. Men. Total.
Killed 16 219 235
Wounded 59 877 936
Missing 280 507 561
Total 355 1,603 1,732
TOTAL.
  Officers. Men. Total.
Killed 131 1,531 1,644
Wounded 564 8,698 9,262
Missing 280 4,665 4,945
Total 975 14,866 15,851

It was a bloody battle. Rosecrans lost both fame and position, and Bragg, by failing to follow up the victory he claimed, completed the overthrow of his reputation, which had been tottering since the battle of Stone River. He lost at Chickamauga some 18,000. After our forces retired into Chattanooga, he took possession of the passes of Lookout Mountain.

Burnside failed to reach Rosecrans, and Bragg sent Longstreet to crush him. The Union General knew his antagonist, and evacuating Loudon, fell back to Lenoirs, and concentrating his forces, advanced on Loudon, and drew the rebel force two miles, but learning that the principal rebel army was advancing upon him, again fell back. He was overtaken at Campbell's Station and forced to give battle to a vastly superior force, which he held in check until night-fall, when he resumed his retreat, which was conducted in admirable order, and entered Knoxville November 17th, and was besieged by Longstreet, who coolly sat down to starve out the Federal force, and remained until Sherman was sent by General Grant to relieve Burnside, when he raised the siege and retreated to Virginia, Burnside in turn becoming pursuer, but not securing any general engagement.

The share of Illinois soldiers in the strife of Chickamauga was not small. There was a large number of regiments trained to the stern music of Belmont, Donelson, Shiloh and Murfreesboro, and they proved themselves worthy of their record. They bore their eagles gallantly, and braved peril and death. Both officers and men proved themselves worthy compeers of the best and bravest. They were very soon to aid in retrieving the disasters of that field, to break the power of the rebel army in the West, and to bear their tattered banners from the mountain to the sea.

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One of the most gallant feats of the battle was a headlong charge made by General Turchin at the head of his brigade. His impetuosity carried him far into the rebel lines, and he was almost instantly surrounded by the rebel hordes, but the stout old Russian had no thought of surrendering. He turned and cut his way through and reached our lines, actually bringing with him three hundred prisoners.

Major Wall, of the 25th Illinois, who was dangerously wounded, displayed the most signal bravery, and was subsequently promoted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy, for meritorious services in this battle.

Thirty-three graves of rebels were found near a stone fence, from behind which, the 19th and 24th Illinois poured upon the advancing rebels such terrible volleys.

The 51st Illinois captured the battle flag of the 24th Alabama, and the major of the regiment who was trying to rally it.

The following Illinois regiments were in the battle of Chickamauga: 10th, Colonel Chilson; 16th, Colonel R. F. Smith; 19th, Lieutenant-Colonel Raffin; 21st, Colonel Alexander; 22d, Lieutenant-Colonel Swanwick; 24th, Colonel Mihalotzy; 25th, Colonel Nodine; 27th, Colonel Miles; 34th, Lieutenant-Colonel VanTassel; 35th, Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler; 36th, Colonel Miller; 38th, Colonel Gilmer; 42d, Colonel Walworth; 44th, Colonel Barrett; 73d, Colonel Jacques; 74th, Colonel Marsh; 75th, Colonel Bennett; 78th, Lieutenant- Colonel VanBleek; 79th, Colonel Buckner; 80th, Lieutenant-Colonel Rogers; 84th, Colonel Waters; 85th, Colonel Dilworth; 86th Lieutenant-Colonel Magee; 88th, Colonel Sherman; 89th, Colonel Hotchkiss; 98th, Colonel Funkhauser; 100th, Colonel Bartleson; 104th, Lieutenant-Colonel Hopeman; 110th, Lieutenant-Colonel Topping; 123d, Colonel Monroe; 125th, Colonel Harmon; 129th, Colonel Case; 1st Artillery, Company C, Captain Prescott.

It is an illustrious group, some of which we have met under fire on other fields, and who were destined to other deeds of daring at Lookout, Mission Ridge, Franklin and Nashville, and march with Sherman from the rocky face of the Ridge to Atlanta and on to the sea.

And in this list of commanders are names of men whom Illinois can never forget. Soon were Chandler and Mihalotzy, and others, to strike their last blow and lie down in the soldier's grave.

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The state mourned her gallant dead. Her Sanitary and Christian Commissions pushed forward supplies, nurses and spiritual laborers, and from the north line to the south, from the Indiana line to the Mississippi, came the cry, "No concessions to rebellion, but new and vigorous measures for the maintenance of the Union, the Laws, and the Constitution."

General Rosecrans pronounced the battle a necessity, and so the people of Illinois accepted it. They had put their hand to the plow and would not look back until the furrow was cut clean through. They saw that new trials were before them, new burdens were to be borne, and were equal to the occasion. Their faith and courage rose to the morally sublime. They had their bereavements — Chickamauga was to many of them indeed the river of death — but with unfaltering purpose to save the country, they demanded that room be made for new levies and then turned their eye toward the hero of Vicksburg, as the leader for the crisis.

The government was dejected, and heavily pressed on the heart of our President the fearful loss of the brave men who fell, and the necessary prolongation of the contest, but the PEOPLE, incorruptible and unconquerable, from their homes, their family altars, their temples, spoke to the government and steadied its half desponding faith with the word, ONWARD!

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Chapter III. — Regimental Sketches.

THE TWENTY-SEVENTH — GENERAL N. B. BUFORD — THE THIRTY-EIGHTH — THE FORTY SECOND — HEAVY LOSS AT CHICKAMAUGA — THE SIXTY-SIXTH — BIRGE'S SHARPSHOOTERS — THE SEVENTY-EIGHTH — AT CHICKAMAUGA — THE EIGHTY-EIGHTH — COLONEL FRANCIS T. SHERMAN — THE NINETY-SIXTH — BREVET BRIGADIER-GENERAL THOMAS E. CHAMPION — LIEUTENANT-COLONEL ISAAC L. CLARK — MAJOR JOHN C. SMITH — THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH — THE ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIFTH — DEATH OF CHAPLAIN SANDERS — COLONEL O. F. HARMON

TWENTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

THE 27th regiment was raised in the counties of Adams, Scott, Pike, Madison, Jersey, Mason, Macoupin, Mercer, Jackson, Henry and Morgan. It was organized at Camp Butler, where it was mustered into the service on the 10th of August, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Napoleon B. Buford; Lieutenant-Colonel, Fazillo A. Harrington; Major, Hall Wilson; Adjutant, Henry A. Rust; Quartermaster, David B. Sears; Surgeon, Edward H. Bowman; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Henry C. Barrell; Chaplain, S. Young McMasters.

Co. A — Captain, William A. Schmitt; 1st Lieutenant, William Shipley; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph Voellinger.

Co. B — Captain, Henry W. Hitt; 1st Lieutenant, George A. Dunlap; 2d Lieutenant, James M. Buchanan.

Co. C — Captain, Lemuel Parke; 1st Lieutenant, Lyman G. Allen; 2d Lieutenant, Laommi F. Williams.

Co. D — Captain, William M. Hart; 1st Lieutenant, Robert R. Murphy; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Brock.

Co. E — Captain, Robert S. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Stout; 2d Lieutenant, Royal W. Porter.

Co. F — Captain, Jonathan R. Miles; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas C. Meatyard; 2d Lieutenant, Orson Hewitt.

Co. G — Captain, Henry B. Southward; 1st Lieutenant, Simeon Sheldon; 2d Lieutenant, Robert P. Lytle.

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Co. H — Captain, McHenry Brooks; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick C. Bierer; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel Worthen.

Co. I — Captain, Joseph W. Merrill; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas Sumner; 2d Lieutenant, John A. Russell.

Co. K — Captain, Abraham T. Bozarth; 1st Lieutenant, Horace Chapin; 2d Lieutenant, Erastus S. Jones.

The 27th left for the field on the 26th of August, and arrived at Cairo on the 30th. On the 7th of November it was engaged in the battle of Belmont, [vide Vol. I., p. 182,] where it was assigned the post of honor, and opened the engagement. After two hours' skirmishing, it was ordered back for rest, and the balance of the column passed through its lines. After waiting half an hour, and receiving no orders, Colonel Buford led the regiment by a circuitous route to the rear of the enemy's camp, upon which it made three distinct charges over fallen timber, routing the enemy and burning their camp. On the retreat from Belmont, the 27th was the last to leave, whereby it was cut off from the main body of the Union forces. It then marched through a railroad cutting from the river, which it again reached seven miles above Belmont, and after a five miles' march up the bank hailed the gunboat Tyler, and was taken on board. On the 4th of March, 1862, it took possession of Columbus, Ky., and on the 14th proceeded to and occupied Hickman. On the 31st it took part in the splendid dash made upon Union City, which resulted in an important, though bloodless victory. [Vol. I., p. 200.] It took part in the siege and capture of Island No. 10, and was the first regiment of Union troops on the Island. On the 13th of April it arrived off Fort Pillow, which place it left four days later for Hamburg, Tenn. In May it took part in the battle of Farmington and the siege of Corinth, and after the evacuation of the latter town by the rebels, joined in the pursuit of them, having a skirmish with the enemy at Booneville. During the summer of 1862 it was encamped at Camp Big Springs and at Iuka. When Bragg began his march for Kentucky and the Ohio river, the 27th was one of the regiments which ran the race with him. On the 12th of September it arrived at Nashville, Tenn., where for two months it subsisted on half rations. On the 3d of October it marched with a detachment to Lavergne, where a rebel camp was completely destroyed, many prisoners captured and the enemy routed. Late in

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November, Rosecrans' army arrived at Nashville, releasing the troops from their confinement there and re-opening communication with the North. The battle of Stone River was one of the best illustrations of the tenacity, zeal and courage with which our boys fought, and here the 27th bore a conspicuous part, losing, among others, its Colonel, Fazillo A. Harrington. It next participated in the Tullahoma campaign, and in September, 1863, distinguished itself at the battle of Chickamauga, where it suffered severely. In this battle, Colonel Miles, commanding the regiment, had the entire hilt of his sword and the glasses of his field glass shot away by musket balls. The 27th was next engaged in the storming of Mission Ridge, after which it marched to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, and was in the East Tennessee campaign which followed. It returned to Loudon, Tenn., January 25, 1864, where it remained till April 18th, when it was ordered to Cleveland, Tenn., to join in the Atlanta campaign. It was engaged at Rocky Faced Ridge, May 9th; Resaca, May 14th; near Calhoun, May 16th; Adairsville, May 17th; near Dallas, from May 26th to June 4th; near Pine Top Mountain, June 10th to June 14th; Mud Creek, June 18th; Kenesaw Mountain, June 27th; Peach Tree Creek, July 20th, and in the skirmishes around Atlanta. On the 25th of August, 1865, it was relieved from duty at the front by order of General Thomas, and ordered to Springfield, Ill., for muster-out. On its arrival at Springfield, it showed the following record of casualties: Killed or died of wounds, 102; died of disease, 80; number of wounded, 328; discharged and resigned, 209.

Among the many incidents related of the 27th, is the following: Soon after Colonel Buford's promotion to Brigadier-General, he presented the regiment a magnificent stand of colors, which the men said should never fall into the hands of the enemy. At the battle of Chickamauga, the regiment made a charge upon a body of rebels protected by a stone wall. Two color bearers were shot down, when a third sprang on the wall, grasping the colors, when he, too, was killed, falling on the rebel side of the wall, where his body was seized by the enemy, and borne off with the colors, which the rebels retained as a trophy.

General Napoleon B. Buford was born in Woodford county, Ky.,

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January 13, 1807. In 1823 he was appointed a cadet at West Point, through the influence of Richard M. Johnson. In 1827 he graduated with honor, and was commissioned Lieutenant of artillery. He was for a time stationed at the School of Practice at Fortress Monroe, where he employed his leisure time in the study of the law. He was next detailed to make a survey of the Kentucky river, and afterward of the Rock Island and Des Moines rapids, on the Mississippi river, both of which commissions he executed with credit to himself and the service. In 1830 he joined his regiment at Eastport, Me., and there resumed his legal studies, and in the following year was granted a leave of absence, by General Scott, that he might enter the Law School of Harvard University, which was then under the direction of Chief Justice Story. In 1833 he was appointed an Assistant Professor at West Point, where he remained until 1835, when he resigned his commission and engaged in the service of his native State, Kentucky, as a civil engineer. In 1843 he removed to Rock Island, Ill., where he was successively a merchant, iron founder and banker. He took an active part in the building of the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad, of which company he was long one of the Directors, and was subsequently President of the Rock Island and Peoria Railroad. The breaking out of the rebellion ruined his banking business, as he had a large amount of money invested in Southern State bonds. He gave up all his property to satisfy his obligations, and then offered his services to his country. On the 10th of August, 1861, he was commissioned by Governor Yates Colonel of the 27th Illinois Volunteers, which he thoroughly disciplined and prepared for service. At Belmont and Island No. 10 he gave ample evidence of his good qualities as a soldier, and for his gallant conduct at Union City he was commissioned Brigadier General by the President. After the surrender of Island No. 10 he was attached to the Army of the Mississippi, and moved upon Fort Pillow; but the overflow rendered operations impracticable, and he was ordered to join General Halleck at Corinth, where he commanded a brigade during the entire siege, taking a gallant and conspicuous part. During the pursuit of the enemy, after the second battle of Corinth, he was disabled by a sun-stroke, and borne back to Corinth, nearly insensible. To recover his health, so greatly impaired

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by the summer campaign, he was granted a leave of absence, and detailed upon court-martial duty at Washington, for a period of two months. At the termination of his duties there he was commissioned Major-General, and the commission was handed to him by the Secretary of War, in person, accompanied by words of high praise and commendation. The Secretary also repeated the words of President Lincoln, that he desired to express his appreciation of his distinguished and faithful services, and sent him the commission in token thereof, which commission he still holds and values, although allowed to expire by constitutional limitation. Reporting to General Grant then before Vicksburg, he was by him ordered to the command of Cairo, where he remained during the siege of Vicksburg. From this command he was ordered to the district of East Arkansas, headquarters at Helena, where he commanded for eighteen months, reducing the great expenses of that command, and bringing order out of confusion. He also held with a strong hand the horde of speculators and smugglers who infested that region, and who tried in vain to escape his strict and impartial investigation. During his long command in this district he devoted himself with great zeal to the best welfare of the freedmen and refugees; established the only self-supporting colony of freedmen, at that time, on the river; protected and encouraged the schools, and founded the first orphan asylum and industrial school for freed people in that Department. The result of his labors is still apparent in the prosperity of the asylum now established on a permanent foundation, and in the increasing usefulness of the industrial school. Both of these institutions were placed by him under the care of the Quakers of Indiana, who have most faithfully carried out his benevolent intentions. He was relieved by General Alex. McD. McCook, in March, 1865, and honorably mustered out of the service in September. He is now employed as General Superintendent of the Federal Union Mining Company, in Colorado.

THIRTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 38th regiment was organized at Camp Butler, and mustered into the service August 15, 1861. Its original roster was as follows:

Colonel, William P. Carlin; Lieutenant-Colonel, Mortimer O'Kean; Major, Daniel

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H. Gilmer; Adjutant, Arthur Lee Bailhache; Surgeon, John L. Teed; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Dudiey W. Stewart; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Edward J. Tichener; Chaplain, Jacob E. Reed.

Co. A — Captain, Henry N. Alden; 1st Lieutenant, George H. Alcoke; 2d Lieutenant, Walter E. Carlin.

Co. B — Captain, David Young; 1st Lieutenant, Robert M. Rankin; 2d Lieutenant, Harrison Tyner.

Co. C — Captain, Theodore C. Roding; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas Cole ; 2d Lieutenant, James Mullen.

Co. D — Captain, Alexander G. Sutherland; 1st Lieutenant, James A. Moore; 2d Lieutenant, Robert Plunkett.

Co. E — Captain, James M. True; 1st Lieutenant, John McKinstry; 2d Lieutenant, John L. Dillon.

Co. F — Captain, James P. Mead; 1st Lieutenant, William P. Hunt; 2d Lieutenant, Willis G. Whitehurst.

Co. G — Captain, Andrew M. Pollard; 1st Lieutenant, William F. Chapman; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew J. Rankin.

Co. H — Captain, Charles Yelton; 1st Lieutenant, Abraham E. Goble; 2d Lieutenant, Charles H. Miller.

Co. I — Captain, Charles Churchill; 1st Lieutenant, William Ferriman; 2d Lieutenant, Edward Colyer.

Co. K — Captain, William C. Harris; 1st Lieutenant, Bushwood W. Harris; 2d Lieutenant, Isaiah Foote.

On the 20th of September, the regiment left for Pilot Knob, Mo. On the 20th of October it marched for Fredericktown, and on the 21st engaged in battle at that place with the rebels under Jeff. Thompson. It then returned to Pilot Knob, and remained there during the winter. From March 3d to May 10, 1862, it was campaigning in Missouri and Arkansas, and was then transferred to the Department of the Mississippi, and went to Hamburg Landing, Tenn., moving to the front at Corinth, and participating in the last days of the siege. It then engaged in the various marches of the brigade in that section, till August 14th, when it set out to join the Army of the Ohio, under Buell, reaching Louisville September 26th, "ragged and exhausted." It left Louisville October 1st, and was engaged at the battle of Perryville [Vol. I., p. 341], and behaved with such gallantry as to receive honorable mention from General Mitchell in his report. It then joined in the pursuit of Bragg as far as Crab Orchard, from whence it marched to Edgefield Junction, near Nashville, arriving November 9th. It was soon sent out on a scout to Harpeth Shoals, and destroyed a large amount of

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rebel property, and capturing supplies of various kinds. It left Nashville December 26th, and with the brigade charged a rebel battery at Knob Gap, near Nolensville, capturing two guns. It was engaged in the battle of Stone River, December 30th to January 4th [Vol. I., p. 350], and lost heavily. It encamped at Murfreesboro till the following June, making, in the meantime, several scouts into the adjoining country. It was in the fights at Liberty Gap, June 24th, 25th and 26th, 1863, on the second day making a charge upon a hill occupied by the rebels, driving them from it, and capturing the flag of the 2d Arkansas. At the battle of Chickamauga, it fought with great gallantry, losing more than half the number of men it took upon the field. September 22d, it moved into Chattanooga, and remained there till the last of October, throwing up fortifications and doing guard duty. On the 25th it left Chattanooga for Bridgeport, Ala., and went into winter quarters. January 26, 1864, it broke camp and went to Ooltawah, Tenn. On the night of February 17th, it marched out with a detachment of the 4th Michigan Cavalry, and at daylight surprised and captured a rebel outpost at Burke's Mill, near Dalton. February 29th, it re-enlisted in the veteran service, was remustered March 16th, and started for home on the 28th, arriving at Springfield April 8th, when the men received veteran furloughs. On the 11th of May, the regiment rendezvoused at Mattoon, Illinois, and on the 14th left for Louisville and Chattanooga. On the 22d, a train containing a part of the regiment was thrown from the track, near Tullahoma, and several of the men slightly injured. On the 8th of June it joined General Sherman's army at Acworth, Georgia, and participated in the movement upon Atlanta. It was also engaged at Jonesboro and Lovejoy's Station, and on the 8th of September camped at Atlanta. On the 3d of October it broke camp and marched through Marietta, Acworth, Rome, &c., arriving at Chattanooga on the 30th. The next day it started on escort duty for Huntsville, and rejoined the corps at Pulaski, Tenn., on the 12th of November. On the 23d of November, Lieutenant-Colonel Chapman died, and Captain A. M. Pollard assumed command of the regiment. On the same day it left Pulaski, reaching Columbia on the 24th. For two days it was engaged in throwing up fortifications, the rebels skirmishing with the pickets.

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At the battle of Franklin it bore a creditable part, and in the battle of Nashville took part in a charge upon the enemy, who were driven back. It next joined in the pursuit of Hood across the Tennessee river, and then marched to Huntsville, Alabama, reaching there January 5, 1865, and remaining till March 13th. Till April 22d, it was engaged in campaigning through Tennessee, when it camped at Nashville. On the 7th of June, the non-veterans of the regiment were mustered out. It broke camp on the 17th, and on the 25th arrived at New Orleans. It reached Indianola, Texas, July 15th, and was stationed in that state until its muster out at Victoria, March 20, 1866. It then proceeded to Springfield, where it was paid off and discharged.

Colonel Carlin, by bravery and ability, won the successive stages of promotion until he wore the stars of a Major-General. He was born in Greene county, Illinois, November 24, 1829, entered the Military Academy at West Point in 1846 and graduated in 1850. He served at various posts in the regular service, and participated in Harney's Indian campaigns. In 1855 he was promoted to 1st Lieutenant. In 1857 he was attached to General Sumner's expedition against the Cheyennes, and participated in the engagement at Solomon's Peak on the Kansas river. He shared in the hardships of General A. S. Johnston's celebrated Utah expedition. After various severe marches he was assigned to the command of Fort Bragg, in Mendocino county on the Pacific coast. In May, 1860, he was detailed for general recruiting service, and arriving at New York in June, was assigned duty at Buffalo. He was unanimously requested by the officers to accept the position of Lieutenant-Colonel of the 74th New York. He subsequently was authorized to raise a regiment of cavalry in Western New York. These positions he declined, determined, if he entered the volunteer service, to be associated with the men and the history of his native state. Governor Kirkwood, of Iowa, tendered him a Lieutenant-Colonelcy, which was declined. Governor Yates commissioned him Colonel of the 38th, and he soon distinguished himself. He commanded in several important expeditions; was commander for some time of the District of Southeast Missouri, and participated in Steele's march on Arkansas. Subsequently he served with distinction in various

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departments, in victory and defeat. Brave, full of energy and dash, yet duly attempered by discipline and military knowledge, General Carlin has won his distinction. He has been a soldier, an earnest, capable soldier. From choice he has been identified with the fortunes of Illinois troops, and richly merits a portion of the glory they have won.

Of far lower rank, a few paragraphs may fitly be claimed for the Adjutant of the 38th, Arthur L. Bailhache, son of Hon. John Bailhache, and a type of thousands of the young men who rushed to arms at a personal sacrifice, yet who were branded as "mercenary recruits!"

He shared in the campaign of East Missouri, and in the battle of Fredericktown, October, 1861, though suffering from sickness. An experienced officer writes, "Lieutenant B. displayed those fine soldierly qualities, courage, quickness of perception and judgment in execution which gave pledge of future distinction."

The same friend says: "Among the many noble young men who gave their lives to their country, Lieutenant Arthur Lee Bailhache is worthy to be remembered. His father, Hon. John Bailhache, a native of the Island of Jersey, subsequently prominent as an Editor and leading politician in Ohio, and for nearly a quarter of a century a resident of Alton, Ill., a portion of the time Editor of the Telegraph, was one of the noblest and purest of men.

"Lieutenant Bailhache was born at Alton, April 12, 1839, was educated principally at Jubilee College. Anxious to enter upon the business of life, he withdrew from college in 1857, became an attache of the Journal newspaper, Springfield, where he remained until the breaking out of the war, performing valuable service during the memorable campaign of 1860.

"He entered the public service in connection with the Commissary department at Camp Yates, was transferred to Big Muddy as State Commissary Agent, thence to Cairo, aiding, with much energy and ability, in supplying our volunteers, and pushing them to the field.

"On the organization of the 38th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, under the gallant and distinguished Colonel (now Brigadier-General) W. P. Carlin, he was appointed by that officer, his

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Adjutant, and commissioned by Governor Yates, with the rank of Lieutenant. The regiment went into active service in Southeast Missouri. Colonel Carlin being placed in the command of the District, the complicated and weighty duties of Acting A. A. General fell upon Lieutenant Bailhache, who, though pursued by disease, continued with faithfulness at his post. But his health gave way, and on the 9th of January, 1862, he died at Pilot Knob, Missouri. His remains were brought to Springfield, the residence of his two remaining brothers and there buried with the sad honors and loving remembrances which attend the last resting place of, alas! how many of the noblest and best of our young men who have died that their country might live. A fitting tribute to the memory of this patriotic and estimable young man, whom the cries of a bleeding country drew from the walks of peaceful life, to be refined and ennobled by duty and sacrifice, may be found in the following order, issued by his commanding officer:

"‘HEAD-QUARTERS 38TH REGIMENT ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS,
"PILOT KNOB, Mo., January 9, 1862.’

"‘[Orders, No. 24.]’

"‘It has become the painful duty of the undersigned to announce to the regiment the death of Lieutenant and Adjutant Arthur L. Bailhache. To the officers and men of this regiment, any eulogium on the character of the deceased would be superfluous. As a man, he was noble, generous and true; as an officer, he was faithful and energetic in the performance of his duties; as a soldier he was "without fear and without reproach." If he had a fault, none could see it. His virtues were visible in every personal and official relation. Long will we mourn the loss of this young officer. His example may be followed with advantage by all young men. To the relatives and friends of the deceased, let us extend our heartfelt sympathies.’

"‘(Signed) W. P. CARLIN, Colonel Commanding.’"

FORTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 42d regiment was organized at Chicago, and mustered into the service on the 17th of September, 1861, 1,051 strong. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, William A. Webb; Lieutenant-Colonel, David Stuart; Major, George W. Roberts; Adjutant, Edward H. Brown; Quartermaster, Edward D. Swartout;

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Surgeon, Edwin Powell; 1st Assistant Surgeon, E. O. F. Roler; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Octave P. F. Ravenot; Chaplain, G. L. S. Stuff.

Co. A — Captain, Charles Northrop; 1st Lieutenant, Hamilton M. Way; 2d Lieutenant, Elijah S. Church.

Co. B — Captain, George Vardan; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander F. Stevenson; 2d Lieutenant, Julius Lettman.

Co. C — Captain, Nathan H. Walworth; 1st Lieutenant, James Leighton; 2d Lieutenant, Nicholas P. Ferguson.

Co. D — Captain, Bela P. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Ranny; 2d Lieutenant, Jared W. Richards.

Co. E — Captain, David W. Norton; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Townsend; 2d Lieutenant, Nathaniel H. DuFoe.

Co. F — Captain, Charles C. Phillips; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Williams; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew H. Granger.

Co. G — Captain, William H. Boomer; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph N. Gettman; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Scott.

Co. H — Captain, John H. Henstein; 1st Lieutenant, George D. Curtis; 2d Lieutenant, Alexander J. H. Brewer.

Co. I — Captain, Edgar D. Swain; 1st Lieutenant, Wesley P. Andrews; 2d Lieutenant, Ogden Lovell.

Co. K — Captain, Jesse D. Butts; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph W. Foster; 2d Lieutenant, Gilbert L. Barnes.

The 42d left Chicago for St. Louis, where it arrived on the 21st of September. By order of General Fremont, it joined General Hunter at Tipton, Mo., October 18th. On the 13th of December it went into winter quarters at Smithton, Mo., and left that place February 3d, 1862, arriving at Fort Holt, Ky., February 20th. On the 4th of March it occupied Fort Holt, and on the 15th proceeded to Island No. 10, where it remained till the capture of that point. [Vide Vol. L, p. 219 et seq.] On the 17th of April it left Fort Pillow and proceeded to Hamburg, Tenn. It was engaged in the battle of Farmington on the 9th of May, and entered upon the siege of Corinth. On the 30th it led the advance in pursuit of the enemy as far as Booneville, Miss., and returned to Corinth, going into camp at Big Springs, Miss., June 14th. July 21st it broke camp and went to Courtland, Ala., where it remained till September 3d, when it left for Nashville. On the 9th, at Columbia, it met the enemy in a brisk engagement, and on the 11th arriving at Nashville. It remained at Nashville during the siege, engaging the enemy, November 5th, without loss. On the 26th of December it set out on the Murfreesboro campaign, and on the 30th skirmished with the enemy.

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On the following day it engaged in the battle of Stone River, where it lost 138 in killed and wounded and 85 taken prisoners. On the 5th of March, 1863, it started in pursuit of Van Dorn, and went as far as Columbia, returning to Murfreesboro on the 14th. June 24th it entered upon the Tullahoma campaign, camping at Bridgeport Ala., July 31st. September 2d it entered upon the Chattanooga campaign, and on the 19th and 20th fought bravely at the battle of Chickamauga, losing 156 in killed and wounded and 28 prisoners. On the 25th of November it was at the battle of Mission Ridge, being on the skirmish line during the whole engagement. It then pursued the retreating enemy as far as Chickamauga Creek, and returned to Chattanooga on the 26th. On the 28th it set out on the East Tennessee campaign, and established camp at Stone's Mills, Tenn., December 27th. On the 1st of January, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as veterans. January 15th it entered on the Dandridge campaign, and on the 16th, at Dandridge, had a skirmish with the enemy, without loss. February 2d it arrived at Chattanooga, and on the 21st started for Chicago, arriving on the 27th and receiving veteran furloughs. On the 2d of April the regiment re-organized and returned to Nashville, arriving on the 11th. It arrived at Chattanooga on the 27th, and entered on the Atlanta campaign, engaging the enemy at Rocky Faced Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, New Hope Church, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station, encamping at Atlanta September 8th. On the 25th it left Atlanta for Bridgeport, Ala., and thence, October 19th, to Chattanooga, thence to Alpine, Ga., back again to Chattanooga, and thence to Pulaski, Tenn. November 22d it began the retreat to Nashville, engaging heavily with the enemy at Spring Hill and Franklin, and on the 1st of December arrived at Nashville. On the 15th and 16th it was in the battles at Nashville, and joined in the pursuit of Hood's retreating army. January 1, 1865, it marched to Huntsville, Ala., and thence to Decatur, where it remained till April 1st, when it marched through several points, arriving at Nashville on the 25th. June 15th it left for New Orleans, arriving on the 23d. On the 18th of July it embarked for Lavaca, Texas. It was on post duty at Lavaca and at Camp Irwin until December 16th, when it was mustered out and ordered

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home. On the 5th of January, 1866, it arrived at Springfield, and on the 10th was paid off and discharged.

SIXTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 66th regiment was organized at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, in the fall of 1861, under the special patronage of Gen. Fremont, and was originally known as "Birge's Sharpshooters," and was composed of three companies from Illinois, two from Ohio, one from Michigan, and three from squads of recruits sent to Benton Barracks from the various Western states. When Gen. Fremont was superseded, his pet scheme of a complete sharpshooting regiment was partly suppressed by General Halleck, who stopped all recruiting for it and hurried it into the field, before it was thoroughly equipped and organized, leaving it with but nine companies, and in numbers below the minimum required for a regimental organization. Its arm was the American deer and target rifle. The accoutrements were not of the kind prescribed by army regulations, but consisted of a bullet-pouch of bear skin covering, and a powder horn, or in some cases a flask. In the bullet-pouch was a compartment where the soldier, or rebel hunter, carried his little et caeteras, such as screwdrivers, bullet-molds and patch-cutter — singular implements for a soldier, but Birge's boys molded their own bullets, greased them and patched them with as much care as an old hunter would, and used them as effectively. It was the design to give them a complete hunter's dress, but this too was vetoed by Halleck; and the only thing peculiar about the dress was the hat, which was a gray sugarloaf shaped affair, with three squirrel tails running from both back and front and meeting at the apex of the crown in an indescribable knot.

Lieutenant-Colonel John M. Birge, of St. Louis, commanded the regiment, and on the 12th of December, 1861, marched it from Benton Barracks to take the field in North Missouri. Arriving at Centralia, on the North Missouri Railroad, the Colonel found plenty of work for his little command, which he scattered in detachments over the country in search of rebels, several small bodies of whom were met and defeated, besides being badly frightened at the squirrel tail hats and long range rifles.

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On the 28th of December, General Prentiss, commanding the District of North Missouri, led four companies of Sharpshooters and four companies of Curtis' Horse against the command of the rebel Colonel Dorsey, consisting of nearly a thousand mounted and dismounted infantry. General Prentiss' command numbered about four hundred men, but so impetuously did they attack and so stubbornly did they fight that in less than two hours the rebels were routed, "foot, horse and dragoons." This battle was at Mount Zion Church, twenty miles from Sturgeon, and has been known as the battle of Mount Zion. Our loss was about forty killed and wounded, but that of the rebels much larger. After this battle no fighting of any moment occurred during their stay in North Missouri, which terminated on the 4th of February, 1862, on which day the command was shipped by railroad to St. Louis, where it embarked on a steamer to Fort Henry, arriving on the 9th, just too late to take a part in the capture of the Fort. Here the regiment was attached to Colonel Lauman's brigade of General Charles F. Smith's division, and marched with it on the 12th to our position in front of Donelson. Here the General was a little perplexed to know what to do with soldiers with deer rifles and no bayonets, but finally concluded to let them fight in their own way. And thus it was that during that memorable siege the Squirrel Tails scattered themselves out along the entire front of Smith's division, and crawling stealthily up, would sometimes get position behind a log within fifty yards of the rebel works. Every man had his hiding place, and keeping a sharp lookout and aiming with a steady hand, they kept the guns in front of the division silent the entire three days of the siege. Although the regiment performed good service here, the loss was very light.

Remaining at Fort Donelson after its capture till March 5th, the command marched back again to the Tennessee river and embarked for Pittsburg Landing, where it landed on the 18th of the same month. On the 6th and 7th of April, it participated in the battles of Shiloh, but being used only as a skirmishing regiment its loss was small compared with that of some other regiments. From the 10th of May to the 30th, in the siege of Corinth, it was used for skirmishing almost constantly, and during that time lost a large number of men. Upon returning to Corinth from the pursuit of the rebels,

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Colonel E. P. Burke took command, having been commissioned for it, Colonel Dirge having been mustered out, and it was assigned to the city command as provost guard, where it remained till the battle of Corinth on the 3d and 4th of October, participating in the battle on the second day, and losing heavily in men and officers. From Corinth, in pursuit of the fleeing rebels, and back to Rienzi, Mississippi, consumed some weeks, and the 26th of November found it again encamped six miles from Corinth, where it established a fine stockaded camp, called after an old commander, General Davies. While here, the regiment, which had heretofore belonged to Missouri, was transferred, by order of the Secretary of War, to Illinois.

The name, Birge's Sharpshooters, was discarded, and henceforth the regiment was the 66th Illinois Volunteers, or Western Sharpshooters, with the following roster:

Colonel, Patrick E. Burke; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles W. Smith; Major, George Pipe; Adjutant, William Wilson; Quartermaster, Nicholas Brown; Surgeon, Joseph Pogue; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Edward Vogel; 2d Assistant Surgeon, David O. McCord; Chaplain, James M. Alexander.

Co. A — Captain, William S. Boyd; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick Ullrich; 2d Lieutenant, Austin S. Davidson.

Co. B — Captain, Henry Eads; 1st Lieutenant, Frank M. Bingham; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel B. Brightman.

Co. C — Captain, Ensign Conklin; 1st Lieutenant, Robert J. Adams; 2d Lieutenant, Francis A. Hartzell.

Co. D — Captain, John Piper; 1st Lieutenant, — 2d Lieutenant, George W. Lusk.

Co. E — Captain, Andrew K. Campbell; 1st Lieutenant, William H. H. Simpkins; 2d Lieutenant, John V. Bovell.

Co. F — Captain, Michael Piggott; 1st Lieutenant, Cyrus A. Lemon; 2d Lieutenant, — .

Co. G — Captain, Benjamin D. Longstreth; 1st Lieutenant, Perry P. Ellis; 2d Lieutenant, Philip C. Diedrich.

Co. H — Captain, Thomas B. Mitchell; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Lidack; 2d Lieutenant, Nicholas R. Park.

Co. I — Captain, Jerry N. Hill; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Hays; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel J. Smith.

Co. K — Captain, George A. Taylor; 1st Lieutenant, Alvin H. Davis; 2d Lieutenant, William C. Jones.

Here, too, about two hundred men of the regiment purchased with their own funds, at a cost of $43.00 each, the

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Henry Repeating Rifle, which repeats sixteen times at a loading. This arm has done much to make the regiment effective, and the men who purchased them with their own means deserve great credit. The regiment remained at this camp till the 12th of November, when the division — then the 2d Division, 16th Army Corps — moved to Pulaski, Tennessee. Here, in December, 470 men re-enlisted, and in January, 1864, were sent North to be furloughed. After being re-organized as a veteran regiment, it returned to Pulaski, and on the 29th of April started for Chattanooga, 600 strong, to enter with the grand army upon the Atlanta campaign. Leaving Chattanooga on the 6th of May, the 66th had the honor, on the 9th of the same month, to open the fighting of the Army of the Tennessee in this campaign, at Snake Creek Gap and Resaca, and unaided and almost unsupported captured and held till night the heights in front of that stronghold. From here through the whole of that memorable campaign the regiment was always in front, and participated in not less than ten pitched battles, and skirmishes innumerable, losing 224 officers and men killed and wounded, among the former its commander Colonel Burke, and of the severely wounded its Major A. K. Campbell. Never did a regiment perform harder and better service than did this hardy little band of veterans.

During this campaign the rifles of the original "Birge's Sharpshooters" became unserviceable by constant use and exposure, and were discarded, the command being at the close of the campaign armed with the Springfield musket and Henry repeating rifle. The division to which the regiment belonged being now attached to the 15th Corps, it marched with it on the ever-to-be-remembered campaigns of Georgia and South Carolina. On the Ogeechee river, near Savannah, the regiment, being thrown in front on the 9th of December, captured the enemy's works protecting the Gulf railroad, with a fine Blakely gun. At Savannah it was awarded the post of honor, being quartered in the old United States Barracks, and used for special guard duty. At Bentonville, North Carolina, in the engagement of the 21st of March, it lost eight men, after which it met no rebels to fight, and marched to Washington and there participated in the grand review before the President. It was then sent to Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out in June, 1865.

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During its three years and ten months service the 66th regiment marched about 3,000 miles, fought in sixteen pitched battles, and has lost as many men in killed and wounded as it contained at the time of its muster out. The following is a list of the battles in which it was engaged: Mount Zion; Fort Donelson; Shiloh; Iuka; Siege and Battle of Corinth; Snake Gap; Resaca; Tanner's Ferry, Ostenala River; Rome; Cross Roads; Dallas; Kenesaw; 22d of July, 1864, before Atlanta; Ruff's Mills; Atlanta, and Jonesboro; Nickojack Creek; Savannah, Georgia; Columbia, South Carolina, and Bentonville, North Carolina.

SEVENTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 78th infantry was organized at Quincy, in August, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, William H. Bennison; Lieutenant-Colonel, Carter Van Vleck; Major, William L. Broddus; Adjutant, George Greene; Quartermaster, Abner V. Humphrey; Surgeon, Thomas M. Jordan; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Elisha S. McIntire; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Samuel C. Moss; Chaplain, Robert F. Taylor.

Co. A — Captain, Robert S. Blackburn; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Chipman; 2d Lieutenant, Archibald H. Graham.

Co. B — Captain, John C. Anderson; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Ruddell; 2d Lieutenant, David M. Taylor.

Co. C — Captain, Charles R. Hume; 1st Lieutenant, Oliver P. Cartwright; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Blandin.

Co. D — Captain, Robert M. Black; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Warroll; 2d Lieutenant, Isaac N. Kincheloe.

Co. E — Captain, George Pollock; 1st Lieutenant, Matthew Henry; 2d Lieutenant, John J. Mercer.

Co. F — Captain, Henry E. Hawkins; 1st Lieutenant, Clinton B. Cannon; 2d Lieutenant, Seldon G. Earl.

Co. G — Captain, Jacob F. Joseph; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas L. Howden; 2d Lieutenant, Pleasant M. Herndon.

Co. H — Captain, John K. Allen; 1st Lieutenant, George T. Beers; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel Simmons.

Co. I — Captain, Granville H. Reynolds; 1st Lieutenant, Hardin Hovey; 2d Lieutenant, James H. McCandless.

Co. K — Captain, Maris R. Vernon; 1st Lieutenant, Jeremiah Parsons; 2d Lieutenant, William B. Akins.

The 78th left Quincy on the 20th of September, 934 strong, and reported at Louisville. From Louisville the regiment was sent to Rolling Forks, and remained doing duty till the latter part of

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January, when, under General Gilbert, it went up the Cumberland river to Nashville, and there re-organized and was assigned to the 10th Division of the Army of Kentucky, and then moved to Franklin; marched from Franklin on the 6th of June and participated in the advance movement of Rosecrans' army from Murfreesboro to Shelbyville, where it remained till the 6th of September. During this time it was assigned to the Corps of General Gordon Granger. On the 6th of September moved on Chattanooga, reaching Rossville on the 14th. On the 17th a portion of the Corps marched out to Ringgold, Ga., where it had a skirmish. On the 20th the 78th participated in the battle of Chickamauga, losing 156 killed, wounded and missing, fifty-eight in killed and wounded, and fifty-six taken prisoners. After the battle it fell back to Chattanooga, and there remained till the advance of the army under General Grant. It took part in the battles of Chattanooga and Mission Ridge, losing lightly. Next marched to the relief of Knoxville. Returning from Knoxville, it went into camp at Rossville, and remained till the 2d of May, 1864, when the army of General Sherman commenced its march on Atlanta. During this march the regiment was engaged at Resaca, Rome and Peach Tree Creek. It skirmished along till the army abandoned its position in front of Atlanta, and moved to the flank and rear of that stronghold. On the 18th of August Colonel Van Vleck was mortally wounded while the regiment was skirmishing on the right of Atlanta. At Jonesboro the 78th was engaged next, and bore a loss of eighty-three men in killed and wounded. This great loss was occasioned by charging a battery of six guns, which it captured. Next moved back to Atlanta, where it remained until the 28th of September, when it moved in conjunction with the 2d division into Northern Alabama in pursuit of General Forrest's guerrillas, rejoining the army at Gaysville, Alabama, and next helped to burn Atlanta. From Atlanta to Savannah the 78th left its mark all along the way. It next participated in the campaign through the Carolinas, burning and destroying as it went along. At Averysboro and Bentonville the 78th was engaged, losing heavily at the last place, sustaining a loss of forty-four men in killed and wounded. Rejoicing that "this cruel war is over," it joined in the grand review at Washington, and at once proceeded to Chicago,

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where it arrived June 10, 1865, and was mustered out of service. It brought back 373 men and 20 officers.

EIGHTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 88th regiment, commonly known as the "Second Board of Trade Regiment," was mustered into the service at Chicago on the 27th of August, 1862, with an aggregate of 840 men. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Francis T. Sherman; Lieutenant-Colonel, Alexander S. Chadburn, Major, George W. Chandler; Adjutant, Joshua S. Bullard; Quartermaster, Nathaniel S. Bouton; Surgeon, George Coatsworth; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Arthur C. Rankin; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Frank N. Burdick; Chaplain, Joseph C. Thomas.

Co. A — Captain, John A. Bross; 1st Lieutenant, John P. D. Gipson; 2d Lieutenant, Lewis B. Cole.

Co. B — Captain, George W. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, George Chandler; 2d Lieutenant, Gilbert F. Bigelew.

Co. C — Captain, Webster A. Whiting; 1st Lieutenant, Henry H. Cushing; 2d Lieutenant, Charlus H. Lane.

Co. D — Captain, George A. Sheridan; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas F. W. Gullich; 2d Lieutenant, Alex. C. McMurtry.

Co. E — Captain, Levi P. Holden; 1st Lieutenant, Sylvester Titsworth; 2d Lieutenant, Lorenzo Brown.

Co. F — Captain, John W. Chiekering; 1st Lieutenant, James A. S. Hanford; 2d Lieutenant, James Watts.

Co. G — Captain, Gurdon S. Hubbard, jr.; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick C. Goodwin; 2d Lieutenant, Dean R. Chester.

Co. H — Captain, Alex. C. McClurg; 1st Lieutenant, Charles T. Boal; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel B. Rice.

Co. I — Captain, Joel J. Spalding; 1st Lieutenant, Orson C. Miller; 2d Lieutenant, Jesse Ball.

Co. K — Captain, Daniel E. Barnard; 1st Lieutenant, Homer C. McDonald; 2d Lieutenant, Edmund E. Tucker.

On the 4th of September, 1862, the 88th left Chicago for Louisville, and four weeks later we find it at the battle of Perryville [Vol. I., p. 345], after which, under gallant Phil. Sheridan, it went to the battle of Stone River. Then it went through the Tullahoma campaign to the battle of Chickamauga, where the regiment was driven back, but not without some loss and gallant fighting.

Captain Holden wrote: "Our regiment lost heavily — think it will exceed one hundred and twenty-five in killed and wounded."

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Another writer said:

"It was taken into the fight on a hard run; was flanked right and left before it had time to form order of battle, and although subjected to most murderous oblique and direct fire while going through their maneuvers pushed on into the thickest of the fight until it became a hand-to-hand contest. Borne back by overwhelming numbers they pressed forward again only to recoil before new and overwhelming reinforcements, and only retreated when to stay would have been annihilation. Lieutenant-Colonel Chadburn, although suffering from the pain of a contused thigh, resolutely kept his command. Major Chandler, as brave as a lion in the very hail and sleet of battle, cried out: ‘Come on, my brave boys, I won't ask you to go where I am afraid to lead.’ Captain Smith, acting as field officer, was among the bravest of the brave. The lamented Captain J. A. Bross, who was on picket, not only dextrously extricated himself and men, but gallantly fought his way back to his regiment disputing every inch of ground."

At Mission Ridge, it was among the first to plant its colors on the heights. Then follows the campaign through East Tennessee, where, as Colonel Smith remarked, the 88th was "without rations, without tents and without clothing." Under General Sherman, in Howard's (4th) Corps, it participated in every battle and skirmish of the Atlanta campaign. It was then sent to watch Hood. After the skirmish at Spring Hill, it fought in the battle of Franklin, which made the victory at Nashville, in which the 88th bore a part, only the more easy. From that place it followed Hood to the Tennessee river. It then went into camp, where it quietly remained, with the exception of a brief expedition to East Tennessee, until June, 1865. On the 12th of June it arrived in Chicago, mustering 229 men of the more than 900 who went out in 1862. It met with a cordial welcome from the citizens generally, and especially from the Board of Trade, under whose auspices it was organized.

Colonel Francis T. Sherman was born at Newtown, Fairfield county, Conn., December 31, 1825. His father, Hon. F. C. Sherman, Ex-Mayor, settled at Chicago in 1834, where his education was such as could be received in a newly-settled town. His summers were spent in laboring in his father's brick-yard, and his winters at school. At the age of eighteen he entered a wholesale grocery

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store, where he remained for two years. During Folk's administration he was for a time a clerk in the Chicago Post-Office under General Hart L. Stewart, P. M. He was afterward Secretary to the Board of Appraisers of Canal Lands, but was obliged to resign, on account of ill health. In the spring of 1849 he went to California, in pursuit of both health and wealth. He remained in California until November, 1850, undergoing the usual proportion of the perils and privations of a miner's life. On the 8th of October, 1851, he was married, and from that time till the war broke out was engaged in business in Chicago. On the 4th of October, 1861, he was mustered in as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 56th Illinois infantry, better known as the "Mechanics' Fusileers." On account of some alleged fraud in its enlistment, this regiment soon mutinied, and on the 5th of February, 1862, was mustered out of service, with all its officers. On the 8th of March following, Colonel Sherman was mustered into service as Senior Major of the 12th Illinois cavalry, with which regiment he remained till August, 1862. On the 27th of that month he was mustered into the service as Colonel of the 88th infantry. With this regiment he was identified till the close of the war. On the 7th of July, 1864, while acting as Chief-of-Staff to General Howard, at the Chattahoochee river, he was captured by the rebels. For three months he was kept in close captivity, save on one occasion, when, with a number of other Union officers, he jumped from a railroad train and attempted to escape. The most of his companions were captured immediately, but Colonel Sherman and a few others eluded their pursuers, but on the second midnight were captured by blood-hounds. On the 7th of October he was exchanged, when he immediately returned to Chicago, and soon after rejoined his regiment.

For gallant and meritorious conduct he was promoted first by brevet and subsequently, by regular appointment, Brigadier General, a promotion well earned, amply merited.

NINETY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 96th regiment was composed of six companies from Jo Daviess county and four from Lake. It was organized at Rockford, on

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the 5th of September, 1862, numbering 950 men. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Thomas E. Champion; Lieutenant-Colonel, Isaac L. Clark; Major, John C. Smith; Adjutant, Edward A. Blodgett; Quartermaster, Stephen Jeffers; Surgeon, Charlis Martin; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Moses Evans; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Daniel A. Sheffield; Chaplain, Jonathan M. Clendenning.

Co. A — Captain, George Hicks; 1st Lieutenant, William Vincent; 2d Lieutenant, Robert Pool.

Co. B — Captain, David Salisbury; 1st Lieutenant, Rollin H. Trumbull; 2d Lieutenant, Allen B. Whitney.

Co. C — Captain, John R. Pollock; 1st Lieutenant, Addison B. Partridge; 2d Lieutenant, William M. Laughlin.

Co. D — Captain, Asiel Z. Blodgett; 1st Lieutenant, Caleb A. Montgomery; 2d Lieutenant, Walter Hastings.

Co. E — Captain, Joseph P. Black; 1st Lieutenant, William F. Taylor; 2d Lieutenant, Halsey H. Richardson.

Co. F — Captain, Thomas A. Green; 1st Lieutenant, Charles E. Rowan; 2d Lieutenant, Nelson R. Simms.

Co. G — Captain, James H. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, David James; 2d Lieutenant, Benjamin G. Blouney.

Co. H — Captain, Alexander Burnette; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel H. Bayne; 2d Lieutenant, Reuben L. Root.

Co. I — Captain, John Barker; 1st Lieutenant, John P. Tarpley; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Moore.

Co. K — Captain, Timothy D. Rose; 1st Lieutenant, Edward E. Townsend; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Pepoon.

On the 8th of October, 1862, the 96th left for Kentucky, where it was stationed until the January following. While at Harrodsburg, Ky., in November, the boys took possession of a rebel printing office, and for a time issued a neat little sheet entitled the Soldier's Letter, under the superintendence of Maj. Hicks, who was formerly associate editor of the Galena Advertiser. In January, 1863, the regiment was sent to Nashville, Tenn. It was soon after sent to Franklin, and participated in Rosecrans' campaign against Tullahoma. In September, 1863, it went to Rossville, Ga., with the Reserve Corps. At the battle of Chickamauga it bore a conspicuous part, losing heavily in killed and wounded, Lieut. Col. Isaac L. Clark being among the former. The 96th was next found at Lookout Mountain, on the 26th of September. From the 2d of December, 1863, till the 26th of January, 1864, it lay in camp at Nice-jack Creek, Ga. It was with

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Palmer in the demonstration on Buzzard Roost, in February, and then went through the Atlanta campaign, meeting the enemy at Rocky Faced Ridge, Resaca, New Hope, and Kenesaw Mountain, and losing 117 men in that campaign. It was detached from the 4th Corps on the march through Georgia, and returned to Pulaski. It was in the battle of Franklin, from whence it marched to Nashville, and participated in the glories and dangers of the battle at that place, where it captured the enemy's works and three twelve-pounder batteries. From that date it remained in Alabama and East Tennessee until June, 1865, when it returned to Chicago, where it arrived on the 14th, and was mustered out and paid off. It returned with 420 men, having left a few recruits behind, while a number of others had been transferred to other regiments, seven sergeants having received commissions in colored regiments.

Brevet Brigadier-General Thomas E. Champion was born in Palmyra, Wayne County, New York, August 3d, 1825. At twelve years of age his parents removed to the West, settling in Michigan. He commenced life a printer, employing his leisure hours in study. He afterwards pursued a thorough course of medical studies, and was admitted to the practice of medicine in 1847. In 1850 he removed to Freeport, Illinois, and in the following year to Warren, Jo Daviess county. Here he practised medicine successfully; but having a taste for the law, he studied the usual text books, and was admitted to the bar in 1850. From that time until the summer of 1862 he entirely devoted himself to that profession, taking an active and prominent part, however, in discussing the exciting political topics of the day. When the new call for troops was made, he devoted himself with unusual energy to the raising of volunteers, and succeeded so well that two companies were raised from his own town, of the first of which he was chosen Captain; and when the regiment was organized, he was elected as its Colonel; he filled that position not only to the satisfaction, but the admiration of his command.

Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac L. Clark was born in Orange county, Vt., in 1824; he graduated at Dartmouth College, July, 1848, and in the following September settled in Waukegan, Lake county, Ill., as Principal of the Academy of that city. He was distinguished for

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his successful labors in that position for several years. In May, 1853, he was admitted to the bar, and soon commanded a lucrative practice. When the "three hundred thousand more" were called for, he left his extensive business to serve his country; by his enthusiastic exertions he soon raised a company of volunteers, of which he was made Captain, from which position he was promoted, by the voice of the regiment, to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy. He accompanied the regiment on all its toilsome marches, and was with it in its many skirmishes and battles until his death, on the 20th of September, 1863, at the battle of Chickamauga.

Major John C. Smith was born in Philadelphia, and spent the earlier part of his life at Norristown, in that vicinity. Here he served his apprenticeship to the carpenter's trade, and was afterward engaged on government buildings at Cape May and in New York city. In 1854 he went to Galena, where he made it his home until the breaking out of the war. In 1860-'61 he assisted in superintending the erection of the Custom House at Dubuque, Iowa. In August, 1862, he raised a company of volunteers, was chosen Captain, and afterwards unanimously elected Major of the regiment. Major Smith was an Odd Fellow, and held the highest position as such in the State. Soon after entering the service he was presented with a fine gold watch by the Grand Encampment I. O. O. F. of Illinois. While in the army he served as Provost Marshal of Shelbyville, Murfreesboro, North Chattanooga and several other points. The men and officers of the regiment ever found in him a true patriot and a brave soldier.

ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 104th infantry is emphatically a La Salle county regiment, nearly or quite all its members being enlisted in that county. It was organized at Ottawa, and mustered into the service on the 23d of August, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Absalom B. Moore; Lieutenant-Colonel, Douglas Hapeman; Major, J. H. Widmer; Adjutant, Rufus C. Stevens; Quartermaster, Edward L. Herrick; Surgeon, Reuben F. Dyer; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Julius A Freeman; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Thomas B. Hamilton.

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Co. A — Captain, James H. Leighton; 1st Lieutenant, Moses Osman; 2d Lieutenant, Alphonso Prescott.

Co. B — Captain, George W. Howe; 1st Lieutenant, Moses M. Randolph; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel A. Porter.

Co. C — Captain, Samuel M. Heslet; 1st Lieutenant, Malcomb W. Tewksbury; 2d Lieutenant, David C. Rynearson.

Co. D — Captain, William H. Collins; 1st Lieutenant, William E. Brush; 2d Lieutenant, James Snedaker.

Co. E — Captain, John S. H. Doty; 1st Lieutenant, Milton Straun; 2d Lieutenant, Ransom P. Dewey.

Co. F — Captain, James I. McKernan; 1st Lieutenant, William Strawn; 2d Lieutenant, John C. Lindsley.

Co. G — Captain, Johnson Misner; 1st Lieutenant, Robert V. Simpson; 2d Lieutenant, John N. Wood.

Co. H — Captain, Lewis Ludington; 1st Lieutenant, Orrin S. Davidson; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel J. Haney.

Co. I — Captain, John Wadleigh; 1st Lieutenant, Willard Proctor; 2d Lieutenant, Charles E. Webber.

Co. K — Captain, Justus W. Palmer; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Fitzsimmons; 2d Lieutenant, Otis S. Favor.

On the 6th of September, the regiment, numbering 39 officers and 925 men, broke camp, and started for Louisville, where it remained till the 2d of October, and then moved to Frankfort, and was garrisoned there till the 25th, when it marched to Bowling Green, arriving on the 6th of November, when it started for Tompkinsville, about five miles from the State line, and upon the day of arrival had a bout with Hamilton's guerrillas. On the 25th of November, the 104th moved from Tompkinsville, and reached Hartville, Tenn., on the 28th, and remained till the 7th of December when it was attacked by John Morgan with a largely superior force and forced to surrender after fighting heroically for one hour and three quarters, losing forty-four men killed and one hundred and fifty wounded. Morgan marched them to Murfreesboro, and there paroled the whole regiment, and it was then sent to Chicago and remained guarding prisoners until exchanged, which was accomplished on the 12th of April, 1863. On the 12th the regiment started for Nashville, and there remained till June 7th, when it was sent to Murfreesboro, and assigned to the 1st brigade of the 2d division of the 14th Corps. The regiment participated in what is known as the Tullahoma campaign, losing one man killed and four wounded in a fight on Elk

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river on the 1st of July. On the 1st of September the 104th embarked on the Chattanooga campaign; crossed Sand and Lookout mountains and came out at McLemore's Cove, on the 9th of September, and on the 11th skirmished at Bailey's Cross Roads, with a loss of one man. On the 19th of the same month the regiment fought in a battle at Crawfish Springs, losing one man killed and seven wounded. On the 20th the battle of Chickamauga was fought, and the 104th came out with a loss of sixty-three men killed, wounded and missing. Fell back on Chattanooga and remained during the whole siege. On the 24th of November was engaged at Lookout Mountain; on the 25th took part in the assault on Mission Ridge, the colors of the 104th being the first of the 14th Corps raised over the abandoned works. In the assault this regiment lost twenty-three men in killed and wounded. On the 7th of May skirmished in the vicinity of Buzzard's Roost, and on the 12th passed through Snake Creek Gap. Previous to starting on this campaign, the 104th was transferred to the 1st brigade, 1st division of the 14th Corps, then commanded by General Palmer. On the 13th and 14th the battles before Resaca were fought, the 104th participating with a loss of one man killed and fifteen wounded. On the 15th the regiment marched into Resaca, and on the 16th continued its march, gaining Kingston on the 20th, where it remained until the 23d, when it moved to Dallas and skirmished from that time till about the 1st of June, losing one man killed and four wounded. Kenesaw Mountain was the next fight, where the loss to the 104th was ten men, mostly all killed. On the 17th of July the regiment crossed the Chattahoochee river, and the next day was engaged in the battle of Peach Tree Creek, losing two officers and fifteen men killed, and thirty-two wounded. On the 21st had another engagement, losing one man killed and four wounded. On the 3d of August moved on Atlanta, and on the 7th, 8th and 9th skirmished, losing one officer and twenty-one men killed. On the 8th moved to the right of Atlanta to Jonesboro, and on the 7th of September reached Atlanta. On the 3d of October marched north in pursuit of Hood; returning, started on the grand march to the sea, reaching Savannah on the 23d of December, 1864. Quitted Savannah on the 19th of January, and on the 19th of March was engaged in the battle of Bentonville, S. C.,

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losing two men killed, fourteen wounded and twelve captured. At Averysville it was engaged, and then marched north, passing through Goldsboro, Raleigh and Richmond, taking part in the grand parade at Washington, arriving in Chicago on the 10th of June, 1865, where it was mustered out.

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 125th regiment was composed of seven companies from Vermillion county and three from Champaign. It was mustered into the service at Danville on the 3d of September, 1862, with the following roster:

Colonel, Oscar F. Harmon; Lieutenant-Colonel, James W. Langley; Major, John B. Lee; Adjutant, William Mann; Quartermaster, Alexander M. Ayers; Surgeon, John J. McElroy; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Charles H. Mills; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Joel F. Erving; Chaplain, Levi W. Sanders.

Co. A — Captain, Clark Ralston; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Jackson; 2d Lieutenant, Harrison Low.

Co. B — Captain, Robert Stewart; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Wilson; 2d Lieutenant, Stephen D. Conover.

Co. C — Captain, William W. Fellows; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander Pollock; 2d Lieutenant, James D. New.

Co. D — Captain, George W. Galloway; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Stevens; 2d Lieutenant, John L. Jones.

Co. E — Captain, Nathan M. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, William G. Isom; 2d Lieutenant, John Urquhart.

Co. F — Captain, Frederick B. Sale; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Lester; 2d Lieutenant, Alfred Johnson.

Co. H — Captain, Pleasant M. Parks; 1st Lieutenant, David A. Benton; 2d Lieutenant, John C. Harbor.

Co. G — Captain, John H. Gass; 1st Lieutenant, Ephraim S. Howell; 2d Lieutenant, Josiah Lee.

Co. I — Captain, Levin Vinson; 1st Lieutenant, John E. Vinson; 2d Lieutenant, Stephen Brothers.

Co. K — Captain, George W. Cook; 1st Lieutenant, Oliver P. Hunt; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph F. Crosby.

On the 13th of September, 1862, the 125th left Danville for the field, reporting at Cincinnati, and occupying a position in the works around Covington, Ky., which was then threatened by the enemy. On the 25th it marched to Louisville, and from there took up the line of march under General Buell in pursuit of Bragg, coming up

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with him at Perryville, where the 125th was actively engaged [Vol. I., p. 341]. Upon the enemy retreating, the regiment marched to Nashville, and there remained in garrison for the nice months following its arrival in that city. Upon being relieved, by a circuitous march, the 125th reached Chattanooga in season to participate in the dreadful battle of Chickamauga, being one of the regiments thrown into Rossville Gap for the purpose of preventing the enemy's advance on our retreating army, and lost upward of thirty men in killed and wounded. Afterward the 125th was stationed at Caldwell's Ford, on the Tennessee river, about nine miles north of Chattanooga, and suffered severely from exposure to the elements and short supplies. Upon the arrival of Sherman's forces from the West, the regiment crossed the ford with him, and took an important part in the assault on Mission Ridge; and upon Bragg's retreat from that stronghold, the division to which the 125th belonged marched to the relief of Knoxville, then besieged by the forces of Longstreet, and after defeating him the regiment took up the line of march for Chattanooga, a distance of two hundred miles, through snow, sleet, hail and torrents of rain, the men enduring the most terrible hardships, some of them without shoes, and the blood from their cut and lacerated feet marking the whole distance. From the 25th of December, 1863, till May 1, 1864, the 125th was stationed at McAfee's Church, Ga., and on the 3d started on the grand Atlanta campaign under the indomitable Sherman. The first engagement it participated in was at Buzzard's Roost, next at Resaca, and then following in close succession the battles of Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, and the various skirmishes before Atlanta, ending with the battle of Jonesboro, which was the cause of Hood evacuating his strong works at Atlanta, The 125th lost at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain one hundred and fifty men killed and wounded, being more than one-half the number which went in at the beginning of the battle. Seventy of these men were killed on the field, and forty afterward died from wounds received that day.

The 125th started with Sherman's grand army on its march to the Atlantic ocean on the 16th of November, being in the 3d brigade, 2d division of Jeff. C. Davis' 14th Corps. On this march the 125th had its full share of the resources of Georgia, doing its full duty as

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foragers. The regiment remained in Savannah till the 20th of January, and then left on the campaign through the Carolinas, leaving its mark wherever it went.

On the 19th of March happened the almost disastrous battle of Bentonville, which was retrieved by the 2d division of the 14th Corps, bringing victory out of defeat. The whole of Johnson's army was on that day thrown upon the two divisions of the 14th Corps, and upon the first division giving way before the overwhelming forces of the enemy, the 2d division gallantly came to the rescue, and succeeded, after a desperate fight, in driving the foe from the field.

The 125th marched from Bentonville to Goldsboro, and thence to Raleigh, where it witnessed the surrender of Johnston. Then on to Richmond and Washington, where it took part in the grand review. It arrived in Chicago, June 14, 1865, with 371 men of the 854 with whom it started for the field.

A noticeable incident occurred during the stay of the 125th at Caldwell's Ford, on the 17th of November, 1863. On that day a rebel battery opened upon the camp from the opposite side of the river, killing the Chaplain, Rev. L. W. Sanders, but doing no other damage whatever, though over a hundred shots were fired from the battery.

Colonel O. F. Harmon was born in Wheatland, Monroe County, New York, May 31, 1827. He lived with his parents until about twenty-one years of age, working on his father's farm during the summer season, and going to district school in the winter. After spending two years in academic studies, he engaged in the study of law in the fall of 1849, entering the law office of Messrs. Smith and Griffin, Rochester, New York. Was admitted to the bar in Albany, December, 1850, having attended lectures for six months in the Law School of Professor Fowler at Ballston Spa, New York. Upon being admitted to the bar he returned to Rochester, and continued with Smith and Griffin most of the time for the next two years. In November, 1852, he started west, with the intention of settling in Flint, Mich., but not being pleased with the town, went to Detroit, remaining there five weeks, and then started south, reaching Lafayette, Ind., in a few days. Falling in with Gen. H. L. Ellsworth at

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this place, he was induced by the General's glowing descriptions of Illinois prairie, to return home for funds to purchase at government price a few hundred acres in the Danville Land district. Listening to his stories of the wonderful West, his father gave him fifteen hundred dollars, and on the 24th of March, 1853, he again left home, arriving at Danville, Ill., on the 31st of the same month. The land office was then closed. Meeting with Abram Stansberry of Cheney's Grove, he went home with him, and while there, selected 1000 acres of choice land for entry, and returned to Danville. The land was entered in the early part of May. He soon opened a law office, and commenced the practice of law, determining to abandon speculation, as detrimental to his success as a lawyer. He was married February 22, 1854, to Mrs. Elizabeth C. Hill, daughter of Alexander McDonald, Vermillion county, Ill., by whom he had four children. He was elected to the State Legislature in 1858, and served one session. In 1860 he was nominated for re-election by the Republican party, but declined the nomination. In June, 1856, formed a co-partnership with Hon. O. L. Davis. The firm had an extensive practice in Eastern Illinois. While attending Court at Urbana, Illinois, in August, 1862, Col. Harmon was solicited by numerous citizens and personal friends to attempt the organization of a regiment of infantry. After some hesitation he consented, left the Court, returned home, and immediately commenced the work. The organization was perfected within two weeks, and the regiment mustered into the service. The command being unanimously tendered to him, it was accepted, and he left home and friends for the field, at great pecuniary sacrifice. He continued in command of his regiment until the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, when he fell, pierced by a rebel bullet while leading an assault. He was one of the bravest soldiers and most honorable gentlemen that ever drew sword in defense of his country.

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Chapter IV. — Regimental and Personal.

THE SEVENTH INFANTRY — MUSTER ROLL OF THE FIRST COMPANY ENLISTED IN THE STATE — GENERAL JOHN COOK — THE EIGHTH — COLONEL LLOYD WHEATON — THE NINTH — ITS CAMPAIGNS — THE TENTH — THE MARCH TO KNOXVILLE — THE ELEVENTH — ITS ORIGINAL AND FINAL ROSTERS — COLONEL GARRETT NEVIUS — THE TWELFTH — WHAT IT DID — CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE BATTERY — HEROISM AND DEVOTION OF THE MEN — BRIDGES' BATTERY.

SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

THE 7th Regiment was organized and mustered into the service at Camp Yates, Springfield, April 25, 1861, with the following roster:

Colonel, John Cook; Lieutenant-Colonel, Wilford D. Wyatt; Major, Nicholas Greusel.

Co. A — Captain, Edward S. Joslyn; 1st Lieutenant, Reuben H. Adams; 2d Lieutenant, James Davidson.

Co. B — Captain, James Monroe; 1st Lieutenant, Edmund W. True; 2d Lieutenant, Robert H. McFadden.

Co. C — Captain, Samuel E. Lawyer; 1st Lieutenant, Silas Miller; 2d Lieutenant, Rufus P. Pattison.

Co. D — Captain, Benjamin M. Munn; 1st Lieutenant, Elizur Southworth; 2d Lieutenant, Mark P. Miller.

Co. E — Captain, George H. Estabrook; 1st Lieutenant, Otto Buzard; 2d Lieutenant, H. C. Worthington.

Co. F — Captain, J. F. Cummings; 1st Lieutenant, William O. Jenks; 2d Lieutenant, C. F. Adams.

Co. G — Captain, William Sands; 1st Lieutenant, David L. Canfield; 2d Lieutenant, W. G. Kerchival.

Co. H — Captain, Clifford W. Holden; 1st Lieutenant, Chris. C. Mason; 2d Lieutenant, L. Wash. Myers.

Co. I — Captain, Andrew J. Babcock; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas G. Moffitt; 2d Lieutenant, Noah E. Mendell.

Co. K — Captain, Richard Rowett; 1st Lieutenant, Manning Mayfield; 2d Lieutenant, George Hunter.

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The 7th left Camp Yates for Alton and Mound City, at which latter place, on the 25th of July, it was mustered into the three years' service. Its roster was then as follows:

Colonel, John Cook; Lieutenant-Colonel, A. J. Babcock; Major, Nicholas Greusel; Adjutant, Leroy R. Waller; Quartermaster, Win. Brown, Jr.; Surgeon, Richard L. Metcalf; 1st Assistant Surgeon, James Hamilton; 2d Assistant Surgeon, George C. McFarland; Chaplain, Jesse P. Davis.

Co. A — Captain, Samuel G. Ward; 1st Lieutenant, Jonathan Kimball; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. Renwick.

Co. B — Captain, James Monroe; 1st Lieutenant, Hector Perrin; 2d Lieutenant, Orlando D. Ellis.

Co. C — Captain, Samuel E. Lawyer; 1st Lieutenant, Leroy Walker; 2d Lieutenant, Ed. R. Roberts.

Co. D — Captain, Benjamin M. Munn; 1st Lieutenant, Ira A. Church; 2d Lieutenant, James M. Munn.

Co. E — Captain, George H. Estabrook; 1st Lieutenant, John A. Smith; 2d Lieutenant, H. N. Estabrook.

Co. F — Captain, James T. Cummings; 1st Lieutenant, William Mathie; 2d Lieutenant, A. D. Knowlton.

Co. G — Captain, Henry W. Allen; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Tipton; 2d Lieutenant, Adam E. Vrooman.

Co. H — Captain, — 1st Lieutenant, Leo W. Myers; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob L. Ring.

Co. I — Captain, Noah E. Mendell; 1st Lieutenant, Ed. S. Johnson; 2d Lieutenant, Newton Francis.

Co. K — Captain, Richard Rowett; 1st Lieutenant, George Hunter; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas B. Rood.

It was then sent to Ironton, Mo., where it joined the command of General Prentiss. From Ironton it marched through Missouri to Cape Girardeau. From here it was sent to Fort Holt, Kentucky, General U. S. Grant being district commander. Here Colonel Cook was made commander of the post. During the battle of Belmont, it was sent to Elliott Mills, just above Columbus, returning the same night. On the 3d of February, 1862, the 7th was sent to Fort Henry, where it remained till February 12th, when it went to Fort Donelson, and participated in the capture of that place, being engaged in the last charge on the right of the enemy's works. On the 21st of February, it was sent to Clarksville, Tennessee. From here it made an expedition up the Tennessee river, and in April took part in the battle of Shiloh. Then followed the movement on Corinth, after the evacuation of which place it marched to

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Farmington. At the battle of Corinth, on the 3d and 4th of October, the regiment fought almost continually. On the 18th of December, it was sent to Lexington, Kentucky, in pursuit of guerrillas. From the 15th of April, 1803, till May 3d, it was engaged in raids through the country to the Alabama line, when it returned to Corinth. From this date it was continually engaged in scouting and skirmishing until the re-enlistment of the men as veterans, on the 22d of December. It was mounted on the 18th of June, and remained a mounted infantry regiment until its re-enlistment. On the 11th of January, 1864, it arrived at Springfield, where, on the 19th, it received thirty days' furlough, at the expiration of which it returned to Pulaski. Here it was again mounted, and placed on scouting service in Northern Alabama. While thus engaged it had a skirmish with the enemy at Tilton, Georgia, where the rebels had torn up the railroad track and destroyed a supply train. On the 16th of June it was dismounted and ordered to Rome, arriving on the 10th of July. On the 5th of October it was engaged at the battle of Allatoona Pass, where it lost 143 officers and men. It remained at Rome, on guard duty, during the Atlanta campaign. On the 9th of November, Rome was evacuated, and the 7th joined Sherman's grand army in the march to the sea, and in the Carolina campaign. It took part in the review before the President in Washington, after which it proceeded to Louisville, where it was mustered out of the service on the 9th of July, 1865. On the 14th it was paid and finally discharged at Springfield.

The following is the original roll of the first company mustered into the service from Illinois, with the promotions afterward received by some of its members:

Captain John Cook, Major-General U. S. A; Captain Andrew J. Babcock, Colonel 7th Illinois Infantry.

1st Lieutenant Thomas G. Moffett, Adjutant 7th Illinois Infantry.

2d Lieutenant Noah E. Mendell, Captain Co. I, 7th Illinois Infantry.

1st Sergeant Edward S. Johnson, Major 7th Illinois Infantry.

Sergeant — John C. Reynolds; William A. Dubois, Lieutenant-Colonel 80th Illinois Infantry; Henry Van Hoff, Adjutant 14th Illinois Infantry.

Corporals — Edward R. Roberts, Captain 7th Illinois Infantry; John S. Caulfield, 1st Lieutenant 114th Illinois Infantry; Thomas Bishop, Sergeant-Major 114th Illinois Infantry; John M. Pearson, Captain 4th New Jersey Infantry.

Privates — Armstrong John W., Captain; Kain Albert W., (Musician); Adams

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Alexander, (Musician), Lieutenant 7th Illinois Infantry; Alden William, Alsop Henry, Arnold Alfred, Lieutenant 133d Illinois Infantry; Butler Thomas H., Butts Thomas, Lieutenant, — Regiment; Boring William, Clark William H., Cook Thomas H., Caufield John C., Decker John C., Dickerson Samuel, Earley Charles, Lieutenant 50th Illinois Infantry; Fessenden George T., Leader 11th Missouri Band; Frances Thomas N., Adjutant 7th Illinois Infantry; Ferguson Robert J., Fisher Joseph S., Lieutenant 7th Illinois Infantry; Flint Solomon F., Lieutenant 7th Illinois Infantry; Fox James, Gregory Peter, Gourley Charles S., Green Francis M., Captain 41st Illinois Infantry; Gibson John, Captain 114th Illinois Infantry; Hickox Silas W., Lieutenant 10th Illinois Cavalry; Higgins Edwin S., Captain 33d Illinois Infantry; Heskett Benjamin S., Ide Albert L., Johns Chester, Lieutenant 10th Illinois Cavalry; Klipple Jacob, Kerlin George W., Captain 26th Illinois Infantry; Keefner George, Lawhead Charles, Manning George G., Morris Thomas A., McClease John, Captain 30th Illinois Infantry; McIntire Marshall M., 1st Lieutenant 29th Illinois Infantry; Nixon William A., Captain 33d Illinois Infantry; Norton Luke, Newman William, Naral Joseph D., Opdyke Thomas G., Post Truman S., Captain 29th Illinois Infantry; Polusky David R., Reed Lawson, Ruth J. Diller, Ruby Andrew M., Russell Samuel H., Captain 29th Illinois Infantry; Riley Asher, Lieutenant 114th Illinois Infantry; Richmond John S., Captain 26th Illinois Infantry; Strickland Edward P., Captain 114th Illinois Infantry; Sullivan John E., Captain 7th Illinois Infantry; Springs Fredrick R., Lieutenant 10th Illinois Cavalry; Saunders Henry A., Shunkland John H., Steele Reuben, Swearinger Thomas A., Captain 28th Illinois Infantry; Stockdale William G., Thorpe William G., Truman Oliver, Taylor Charles A., Uhler Martin J., Wells Charles H., Captain 38th Illinois Infantry; Wilson William H, Wyatt Frank, Williams Louis M., Jayne Henry, Lieutenant 7th Illinois Cavalry, A. D. C.

Major-General John Cook was born in Belleville, Illinois, June 12, 1826. In 1855, he was Mayor of Springfield. He was made Major-General of Illinois Militia, by Governor Bissell, in 1856. In the same year he was elected Sheriff of Sangamon County.

He was Captain of the Springfield Zouave Grays, Company "A," 20th Regiment Illinois State Militia. It was an admirably drilled company, and was to go to Washington as escort to Mr. Lincoln, when he went from Springfield, but was forbidden by General Scott. This was the first company tendered to the United States by the Governor of Illinois.

Upon the organization of the 7th, he was elected Colonel, April 25, 1861. He was in the battle of Fort Donelson, in command of a brigade in General Smith's division, where his gallantry and efficient services won the approbation of his superiors, and he was recommended for promotion. He received a commission as Brigadier-General. He served faithfully wherever assigned to duty, whether

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on the field or in the state, and at the close of the war was mustered out as Major-General.

General Cook had the honor to lead the gallant 7th, a heroic regiment, and was worthy of the command. Cool and yet confident, he proved himself worthy of position as a general officer.

EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 8th regiment was mustered into the service at Camp Yates, Springfield, April 25, 1861, with the following roster:

Colonel, Richard J. Oglesby; Lieutenant-Colonel, Frank L. Rhodes; Major, John P. Post.

Co. A — Captain, Isaac C. Pugh; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac Martin; 2d Lieutenant, George M. Bruce.

Co. B — Captain, Henry P. Westerfield; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Lowry; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Goodman.

Co. C — Captain, James M. Ashmore; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Hill; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel Sayer.

Co. D — Captain, John Lynch; 1st Lieutenant, L. M. Startsman; 2d Lieutenant, John H. Roberts.

Co. E — Captain, Charles E. Dennison; 1st Lieutenant, John Wetzel; 2d Lieutenant, Charles Proebesting.

Co. F — Captain, Joseph M. Hanna; 1st Lieutenant, Christ, C. Glass; 2d Lieutenant, Josiah A. Sheetz.

Co. G — Captain, John McWilliams; 1st Lieutenant, James S. Bernard; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Butler.

Co. H — Captain, A. J. McCraner; 1st Lieutenant, R. H. Sturgess; 2d Lieutenant, John R. Mabry.

Co. I — Captain, Daniel Grass; 1st Lieutenant, William C. Clark; 2d Lieutenant, Charles Fairbanks.

Co. K — Captain, William H. Harvey; 1st Lieutenant, Price Keith; 2d Lieutenant, Ab'm Vandenburg.

After serving three months at Cairo, the regiment re-organized for the three years' service, with a nearly new roster, as follows:

Colonel, Richard J. Oglesby; Lieutenant-Colonel, Frank L. Rhodes; Major, John P. Post; Adjutant, William C. Clark; Quartermaster, Samuel Rhodes; Surgeon, Silas T. Trowbridge; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John M. Phipps; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Charles N. Denison; Chaplain, Samuel Day.

Co. A — Captain, G. M. Bruce; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Leeper; 2d Lieutenant, Walter J. Taylor.

Co. B — Captain, Herman Lieb; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Schlosser; 2d Lieutenant, Henry J. Marsh.

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Co. C — Captain, James M. Ashmore; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel Sayers; 2d Lieutenant, James S. Brown.

Co. D — Captain, L. M. Startsman; 1st Lieutenant, Jos. W. Robards; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph B. Jones.

Co. E — Captain, John Wetzel; 1st Lieutenant, Lloyd Wheaton; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel Caldwell.

Co. F — Captain, Joseph M. Hanna; 1st Lieutenant, Josiah A. Sheetz; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel Rhodes.

Co. G — Captain, James S. Barnard; 1st Lieutenant, Elihu Jones; 2d Lieutenant, William P. Sitton.

Co. H — Captain, Robert H. Sturgess; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Shaw; 2d Lieutenant, Alva C. Bishop.

Co. I — Captain, Robert Wilson; 1st Lieutenant, William Zeidler; 2d Lieutenant, Deitrich Smith.

Co. K — Captain, William H. Harvey; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph G. Howell; 2d Lieutenant, Noah W. Dennison.

In September, 1861, the regiment was stationed at Bird's Point, Mo., where it remained till January, 1862, when it joined in the movement on Columbus. On the 2d of February it left Cairo with General Grant, to "hew a way to the Gulf," and actively participated in the battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. It afterward took part in the battle of Shiloh and in the siege of Corinth. After the evacuation of this place, the regiment remained for a brief time at Bethel, Tenn., and then went to Jackson, where it remained till November 17th. In this month it joined the army of Grant in the movement southward on the line of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad to Mississippi. On the 19th of January, 1863, it reached Memphis, where it remained till February 22d, when it embarked for Lake Providence. It was engaged in various minor movements till the grand advance upon Vicksburg was made. It took part in the battles of Thompson's Hill, Raymond, Jackson and Champion Hills, and in the siege of Vicksburg. It afterward went upon several expeditions, and in February, 1864, marched with General Sherman to Meridian, Miss. On its return to Vicksburg, three fourths of its number having re-enlisted as veterans, it was furloughed for thirty days. On the 17th of May it returned to Vicksburg, where it remained on post duty, varying this with an occasional brief expedition. On the 21st of June it was strengthened by the consolidation with it of the veterans of the 17th regiment. On the 21st of

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July it left Vicksburg on an expedition under General Dennis to Jackson, Miss., skirmishing with the enemy on its return. On the 25th of July the regiment left Vicksburg for Morganzia, La., where it remained till August 23d. While stationed at Morganzia, it made an expedition to Port Hudson and Clinton, La., in which it met the rebels in two or three slight skirmishes. On the 23d of August, it went upon an expedition to the mouth of White River. It remained at the latter place till October 18th, when it proceeded to Memphis, afterward to the mouth of White River, and thence to Duvall's Bluff. Here it remained but a few days, when it returned to Memphis. While here it made a scout in the direction of Lagrange, returning to Memphis on the 1st of January, 1865, when it left Memphis for New Orleans, in the vicinity of which it remained till February, when it was sent to Dauphin Island, where it was in camp till March 17th, when it started on the campaign against Mobile, and took part in the siege of Spanish Fort. It was also in the charge made upon Fort Blakely, where it did gallant service and was the first to plant its colors on the enemy's works. From this date until May 27th, it was stationed at Mobile, doing guard duty. It then went to New Orleans, and from thence up the Red River to Shreveport, where it remained till June 15th, when it marched to Marshall, Texas. Here and at Shreveport it remained till its muster out in May, 1866.

Colonel Lloyd Wheaton was born in Calhoun County, Michigan, July 15, 1838. He came to Illinois at the age of fifteen, and settled at Peoria. He learned civil engineering from his father, and followed his profession until the breaking out of the war, when he joined the first company of volunteers raised in Peoria. The company was mustered into the 8th infantry on its original organization at Springfield. When the regiment was mustered for three years' service he was made First Lieutenant. At the battle of Shiloh, where he was seriously wounded, he won his promotion to the captaincy, and from that passed step by step to the colonelcy of the regiment; gaining his promotion through every grade by gallant and meritorious conduct. He was one of the first men to enter the rebel works at Fort Blakely, and was always in the front when danger was near.

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NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 9th regiment was organized at Springfield, and mustered into the service on the 28th of April, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Eleazer A. Paine; Lieutenant-Colonel, Augustus Mersey; Major, Jesse J. Phillips.

Co. A — Captain, Aug. Mersey; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob Koercha; 2d Lieutenant, Hugo Westerman.

Co. B — Captain, Rudolph Beckier; 1st Lieutenant, F'd. T. Ledergerber; 2d Lieutenant, Henry C. Hay.

Co. C — Captain, D. F. Tiedman; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Conrad; 2d Lieutenant, Hamilton Leiber.

Co. D — Captain, Alex. G. Hawes; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph A. Cox; 2d Lieutenant, Cassius F. Roman.

Co. E — Captain, Otto Kochlein; 1st Lieutenant, William Scheittein; 2d Lieutenant, S. Scheinminger.

Co. F — Captain, Collins Van Cleve; 1st Lieutenant, Loren Webb; 2d Lieutenant, George Adams.

Co. G — Captain, Benj. W. Tucker; 1st Lieutenant, Gary H. H. Davis; 2d Lieutenant, Jared P. Ash.

Co. H — Captain, Jesse J. Phillips; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Kitchell; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. F. Armstrong.

Co. I — Captain, Jos. G. Robinson; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas J. Newsham; 2d Lieutenant, Gerhard Gerride.

On the day of its muster into the service, the 9th was ordered to Cairo, where it joined General Prentiss' command. It was engaged in scouting service through Missouri, and on the expiration of its term of service, July 26, 1861, was mustered out of service. Under orders from the War Department, however, it was re-organized and mustered into the three years' service on the day of its muster out. The following is the second roster:

Colonel, Eleazer A. Paine; Lieutenant-Colonel, Augustus Mersey; Major, Jesse J. Phillips; Adjutant, Thomas J. Newsham; Quartermaster, Wm. C. Pinckard; Surgeon, Samuel M. Hamilton; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Emil Guilick; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Wm. A. Allen; Chaplain, James J. Ferree.

Co. A — Captain, John H. Kuhn; 1st Lieutenant, Emil Adam; 2d Lieutenant, Ernest J. Weiyrick.

Co. B — Captain, Wm. C. Kueffner; 1st Lieutenant, Hamilton Leiber; 2d Lieutenant, Frederick E. Vogeler.

Co. C — Captain, Dederick F. Tedeman; 1st Lieutenant, Oscar Rollman; 2d Lieutenant, Charles Scheve.

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Co. D — Captain, Rudolphus Beckier; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Krebs; 2d Lieutenant, William Bollen.

Co. E — Captain, Alexander G. Hawes; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Craig; 2d Lieutenant, R. B. Patterson.

Co. F — Captain, Loren Webb; 1st Lieutenant, William Britt; 2d Lieutenant, G. W. Williford.

Co. G — Captain, Eager M. Lowe; 1st Lieutenant, John S. Tutten; 2d Lieutenant, Isaac Clements.

Co. H — Captain, Wm. F. Armstrong; 1st Lieutenant, Cyrus H. Gillmore; 2d Lieutenant, Alfred Cowgill.

Co. I — Captain, Jos. G. Robinson; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. H. Purviance; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel J. Hughes.

Co. K — Captain, George B. Poor; 1st Lieutenant, Jas. C. McCleary; 2d Lieutenant, Gilbert G. Low.

On the 1st of September, 1861, the aggregate strength of the regiment was 1,040 men. On the 5th it left Cairo for Paducah, Ky., where it remained until Februarys, 1862. While there, the regiment made numerous marches and reconnoissances through that portion of Kentucky. It next participated in the battles of Forts Henry and Donelson, in which it did excellent service. On the 22d of February it took possession of Clarksville, Tenn., where a large amount of commissary stores and supplies were captured. It was engaged in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th and 7th of April, 1862, and in the advance on Corinth. After the evacuation of that place it was sent as far as Booneville, in pursuit of the retreating rebels. From June 13th to August 15th, it was in camp within two miles of Corinth. From there it went to Rienzi, and remained till October 1st. It was engaged in the battle of Corinth, October 3d and 4th. It was soon afterward ordered out on a reconnoissance to Guntown, Saltillo, Tupelo and Marietta. It was engaged in the battles of Buzzard Roost, Decatur, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas, Rome Cross Roads, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Jonesboro, and a number of others. It was also in the grand "march to the sea," actively and honorably participating in the Carolina campaign. It was present at the grand review at Washington, in 1865, after which it returned home for muster and discharge, having participated in not less than one hundred and ten battles and skirmishes.

TENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 10th regiment was originally formed in 1861, from independent

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companies, put together for three months, and afterwards reorganized as a three years' regiment. The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, Benj. M. Prentiss; Lieutenant-Colonel, James D. Morgan; Major, Charles H. Adams; Assistant Surgeon, Daniel Stahl.

Co. A — Captain, John Tillson; 1st Lieutenant, Jos. G. Rowland; 2d Lieutenant, John Wood, jr.

Co. B — Captain, Chas. H. Adams; 1st Lieutenant, John W. King; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas W. Smith.

Co. C — Captain, Lindsey H. Carr; 1st Lieutenant, Israel Jones.

Co. D — Captain, Francis A. Dallam; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin Edson; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel J. Wilson.

Co. E — Captain, Chas. S. Sheeley; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Minter; 2d Lieutenant, James Short.

Co. F (Artillery) — Captain, Chas. Houghtaling; 1st Lieutenant, Chas. C. Campbell; 2d Lieutenant, A. M. Wright; 3d Lieutenant, John W. Simmons.

Co. G — Captain, McLain F. Wood; 1st Lieutenant, James Mitchell; 2d Lieutenant, James F. Longley.

Co. H — Captain, Daniel H. Gilmer; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Olney; 2d Lieutenant, James W. Harris.

Co. I (Artillery) — Captain, Caleb Hopkins; 1st Lieutenant, James A. Lott; 2d Lieutenant, James P. Flood.

Co. K (Artillery) — Captain, Edward McAlister; 1st Lieutenant, George J. Wood; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. C. Chapman.

Colonel Prentiss was made a Brigadier-General on the 10th of May, 1861, and afterward commissioned as Major-General. His successor, Colonel Morgan, was appointed Brigadier-General on the 17th of July, '61. The third commanding officer, Colonel John Tillson, wore the star of a Brevet-Brigadier-General on his muster out, in 1865. On the re-organization of the regiment for three years' service, in July, 1861, the roster was as follows:

Colonel, James D. Morgan; Lieutenant-Colonel, John Tillson; Major, Francis A. Dallam; Adjutant, Joseph G. Rowland; Quartermaster, Oliver I. Pyatt; Surgeon, Henry R. Payne; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Daniel Stahl; 2d Assistant Surgeon, John W. Craig; Chaplain, William H. Collins.

Co. A — Captain, McLain F. Wood; 1st Lieutenant, James F. Langley; 2d Lieutenant, Otho D. Critzer.

Co. B — Captain, Thomas W. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Green; 2d Lieutenant, Chas. P. McEnally.

Co. C — Captain, Charles S. Sheley; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew Wood; 2d Lieutenant, William Morgan.

Co. D — Captain, Samuel T. Mason; 1st Lieutenant, Harry M. Scarritt; 2d Lieutenant, William G. Galion.

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Co. E — Captain, Charles S. Cowan; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel I. Wilson; 2d Lieutenant, Colin McKinney.

Co. F — Captain, George A. Race; 1st Lieutenant, Richm'd Wolcott; 2d Lieutenant, A. Neighmeyer.

Co. G — Captain, John D. Mitchell; 1st Lieutenant, David R. Waters; 2d Lieutenant, Guy W. Blanchard.

Co. H — Captain, Lindsay H. Carr; 1st Lieutenant, Edward H. Sylla; 2d Lieutenant, J. B. Carpenter.

Co. I — Captain, Morton S. McAtee; 1st Lieutenant, David Gillespie; 2d Lieutenant, Robert H. Mann.

Co. K — Captain, George C. Lusk; 1st Lieutenant, Godhold Girnth; 3d Lieutenant, Edward L. Friday.

On the 10th of October, 1861, the 10th left Cairo, and on the 10th of January, 1862, started on a raid through that portion of Kentucky adjacent to Cairo, in which it accomplished the destruction of a large amount of rebel property. On the 10th of March it left Bird's Point and joined General Pope at New Madrid, and took part in the heading off of the rebels who were endeavoring to escape from Island No. 10. On the 10th of April, three days later, it returned to New Madrid, and thence went to Osceola, near Fort Pillow, which place it soon left for Pittsburg Landing, on hearing of the battle of Shiloh. It then took part in the siege of Corinth until that place fell, and was foremost in pursuit of the flying rebels. From the 13th of July till the 28th of August it lay at Tuscumbia, Ala., and was then sent to Nashville, which place it guarded until relieved by General Rosecrans' army. During this time it was fighting almost constantly, for a part of the time being on half rations, then one fourth, until it was almost without rations at all. Yet the boys found time to build Fort Negley. Under General Thomas the regiment went through the Alabama and Mississippi campaigns, and on the 3d of October, 1864, joined Rosecrans' grand army, participating in the battles of Mission Ridge, Lookout Mountain and the campaign on Knoxville. Then followed the famous march to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, made in mid-winter, without shoes, blankets or tents. On the 1st of January, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted for another three years. At the expiration of its "veteran furlough," it joined in the advance on Atlanta. Then came Sherman's "march to the sea," in which the 10th took a part, as also in the grand review at Washington. On the 4th of July, 1865, the regiment was mustered out at

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Louisville, and two days later arrived at Chicago for final muster and discharge. At this date it numbered, all told, only 686 men of the 1,350 which it mustered at one time in 1861.

The following is a list of the larger battles in which the 10th was engaged: New Madrid, Island No. 10, Tiptonville, Farmington, Corinth (May 8th and 28th, 1862), Tuscumbia, Columbia, Mission Ridge, Chickamauga, Tunnel Hill, Buzzard Roost and Rocky Face, Resaca (May 14th and 15th and October 14, 1864), Rome, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Nickojack, Chattahoochie River, Peach Tree Creek, Before Atlanta (thirty days), Jonesboro, Snake Creek Gap, Oliver Station, Pooler, Savannah, Rivers' Bridges, Bennaker's Bridge, Cheraw, Fayetteville, Bentonville.

ELEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 11th regiment was organized at Springfield, and was mustered into the three months' service on the 30th of April, 1861 — two weeks after the President's first proclamation calling for volunteers. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, W. H. L. Wallace; Lieutenant-Colonel, J. Warren Fillers; Major, Thomas E. G. Ransom.

Co. A — Captain, Smith D. Atkins; 1st Lieutenant, M. E. Newcomer; 2d Lieutenant, Silas W. Fields.

Co. B —Captain, Fred. W. Shaw; 1st Lieutenant, Greenbury L. Foot; 2d Lieutenant, J. M. McClanahan.

Co. C — Captain, A. L. Rockwood; 1st Lieutenant, S. P. Jones; 2d Lieutenant, J. C. Jewell.

Co. D — Captain, Garrett Nevius; 1st Lieutenant, R. A. Bird; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. D. E. Andrews.

Co. E — Captain, T. E. G. Ransom; 1st Lieutenant, Lloyd B. Waddell; 2d Lieutenant, Alvin H. Morey.

Co. F — Captain, Wm. T. Hopkins; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Elton; 2d Lieutenant, George S. Doane.

Co. G — Captain, J. Warren Filler; 1st Lieutenant, John H. J. Lacy; 2d Lieutenant, Geo. W. Parks.

Co. H — Captain, Theodore C. Gibson; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin F. Hotchkiss; 2d Lieutenant, Douglas Hapeman.

Co. I — Captain, Wm. L. Gibson; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph E. Skinner; 2d Lieutenant, E. A. Mullett.

Co. K — Captain, Henry H. Carter; 1st Lieutenant, John Dick; 2d Lieutenant, James Ireland.

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For three months the regiment was stationed at Villa Ridge, Ill., and Bird's Point, Mo., doing garrison duty. During this term the lowest aggregate was 882 and the highest 933. On the 30th of July it was re-mustered for the three years' service, with the following roster:

Colonel, W. H. L. Wallace; Lieutenant-Colonel, J. Warren Fillers; Major, T. E. G. Ransom; Adjutant, Cyrus E. Dickey; Quartermaster, Guyan J. Davis; Surgeon, Owen M. Long; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Oliver G. Hunt; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Geo. H. Dewey; Chaplain, Benjamin H. Pierson.

Co. A — Captain, Smith D. Atkins; 1st Lieutenant, Guyan J. Davis; 2d Lieutenant, James O. Churchill.

Co. B — Captain, Fred W. Shaw; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred R. Wilcox; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel B. Dean.

Co. C — Captain, George C. McKee; 1st Lieutenant, Geo. S. Doane; 2d Lieutenant, H. F. McWilliams.

Co. D — Captain, Wm. D. E. Andrews; 1st Lieutenant, Henry H. Doane; 2d Lieutenant, Orrin C. Towne.

Co. E — Captain, Lloyd D. Waddell; 1st Lieutenant, Harrison C. Vore; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel C. Moore.

Co. F — (Formerly Co. K, 109th) Captain, Samuel O. Lewis; 1st Lieutenant, Robert B. Bartleson; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew Colvin.

Co. G — Captain, Lucius Rose; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. J. Boyce; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. M. Murray.

Co. H — Captain, James H. Coates; 1st Lieutenant, William Duncan; 2d Lieutenant, Douglas Hapeman.

Co. I — Captain, Greenbury L. Fort; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Widmer; 2d Lieutenant, Benjamin F. Blackstone.

Co. K — Captain Henry H. Carter; 1st Lieutenant, Nathan C. Kenyon; 2d Lieutenant, Theo. H. Walrod.

At the time of re-muster the regiment numbered 288. During the four months succeeding it was recruited to an aggregate of 801, in the meantime doing garrison and field duty, and it participated in various expeditions to New Madrid, Charleston, Bloomfield, Columbus and Sikeston. February 2, 1862, it embarked for Fort Henry and took part in the campaign against that place. On the 11th of the same month it moved toward Fort Donelson, and bore a gallant and bloody part in the siege and capture of that place, losing 329 killed, wounded and missing, out of about 500 engaged. On the 6th of March it embarked for Savannah, Tenn., and on the 6th and 7th of April took part in the battle of Shiloh, where it lost twenty-seven killed out of one hundred and fifty engaged. It next participated

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in the siege of Corinth, and thence marched to Jackson, Tennessee, camping there till August 2d, taking part, in July, in expeditions to Trenton and Lexington, Tennessee. On the 2d of August, it was sent to Cairo to recruit. It remained here and at Paducah until November 20th, in the meantime engaging in various expeditions to Clarksville, Tennessee, and Hopkinsville, Kentucky. At the latter date it started for Lagrange, Tennessee. From this time till January 12, 1863, it participated in the campaign in Northern Mississippi, having a sharp skirmish with the enemy at Tallahatchie. Halting at Memphis, on the 17th it embarked for Young's Point, where it remained till February 11th, when it moved to Lake Providence. It made headquarters here till April 20th. On the 23d, the 389 "faithful men" of the 109th Illinois Infantry [Vide history of the latter regiment] were transferred to the 11th. April 26th the 11th marched to the rear of Vicksburg, arriving May 18th. On the 19th and 22d, it participated in assaults upon the enemy's works, and then in the advance siege works till the rebel surrender. During the assaults and siege it lost one field officer (Colonel Garrett Nevius) killed and three line officers and forty men killed and wounded. On the 17th of July it moved with an expedition to Natchez, participating in another to Woodville, Mississippi, returning to Vicksburg, October 12th, making headquarters there till July 29, 1864. In the meantime it took part in various expeditions, skirmishing at Liverpool Heights, February 5th, Yazoo City, March 5th, and at several other places. July 29th, it moved to Morganzia, and remained there till September 3d, thence by water, to the mouth of White River, Arkansas. On the 18th of October, it moved to Memphis, Tennessee, returning to White River on the 27th. From this time it was engaged in "general campaigning," till February 4, 1865, when it moved to Dauphin Island, and from the 17th of March till April 12th, was engaged in operations against Mobile, on the latter date marching into and taking possession of the city. It had a part in the investment and siege of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, and in the assault on the latter. On the 27th of May it left Mobile for New Orleans, from thence to Alexandria, La., where it remained till June 22d, when it was sent to Baton Rouge, where it was mustered out of service on the 14th day of July, 1865, and was sent thence to Springfield, where it was paid off and finally discharged.

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Killed on the field and died of wounds received 149
Aggregate in three months' service 933
Aggregate in three years' service 1,879
Field and Staff three years' service 53
Total 2875

The following general officers have been in the regiment: General W. H. L. Wallace, General T. E. G. Ransom, General Smith D. Atkins.

The following field officers of other regiments were members of the 11th: Colonel Hotchkiss, Colonel Hapeman, Major Widmer, Colonel H. H. Dean, Major S. B. Dean, Lieutenant-Colonel McCaleb, Colonel G. L. Fort. Line officers made from this regiment to other regiments, thirty-three. The following is the roster at muster out:

Colonel, Jas. H. Coates; Lieutenant-Colonel, N. C. Kenyan; Major S. O. Lewis; Adjutant, A. A. Thompson; Quartermaster, J. W. Brewster; Surgeon, O. G. Hunt; Assistant Surgeons, Myron Hopkins, W. D. Briggs.

Co. A — Captain, O. Ingersoll; 1st Lieutenant, Jerome H. Liveland; 2d Lieutenant, R. J. Hurlbut.

Co. B — Captain, I. D. Vore; 1st Lieutenant, John Spire; 2d Lieutenant, Geo. D. Carrington.

Co. C — Captain, Geo. S. Doane; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Reading; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. J. McIntyre.

Co. D — Captain, Ira Beddo; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. H. Stalker; 2d Lieutenant, Aaron Bayless.

Co. E — Captain, S. Bostwick; 1st Lieutenant, — 2d Lieutenant, John Stevenson.

Co. F — Captain, Robert Bartleson; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew Calvin; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Carnes.

Co. G — Captain, Wm. S. Johnston; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. C. Ginter; 2d Lieutenant, Richard Hughes.

Co. H — 2d Lieutenant, M. D. Ayres.

Co. I — Captain, C. A. Peirronet.

Co. K — Captain, Henry C. Mansfield; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Ricken; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Williamson.

Colonel Nevius entered the service as Captain of "Co. D," in the 11th, when it enlisted in the three months' service, his commission bearing date May 14, 1861. When the regiment enlisted for three years he was chosen Major and commissioned July 30, 1861. In the changes following the promotions of Colonel W. H. L. Wallace and T. E. G. Ransom, he became Lieutenant-Colonel, his commission

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bearing date February 15, 1862. Upon the promotion of Colonel Ransom to Brigadier-General, November 29, 1863, he became Colonel of the regiment.

He was a brave, competent commander, and maintained the morale the 11th had acquired under Wallace and Ransom.

In the fearful assault of May 22d, when Ransom led his brigade, the 116th, 11th, 95th and 72d Illinois against the defences of Vicksburg [see Vol. I., p. 468-9], where that brigade won deathless fame, when Humphrey went down stunned, where Wright was mortally wounded, Colonel Nevius was killed, and no truer patriot or braver soldier went down in that terrific charge.

His remains were borne to Rockford and buried, June 4, 1863. The last letter he is known to have written to a Rockford friend, said: "I am not afraid of death — I may fall at any moment on the field of battle. I think I am ready to meet my fate if such it should be."

TWELFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 12th regiment was mustered into the three months' service at Springfield, May 2, 1861, and was one of the six regiments organized under the call for 75,000 troops. Its original roster was as follows:

Colonel, John McArthur; Lieutenant-Colonel, Aug. L. Chetlain; Major, Wm. D. Williams.

Co. A — Captain, Joseph Kellogg; 1st Lieutenant, John Noyes, jr.; 2d Lieutenant, Arthur C. Ducat.

Co. B — Captain Phineas B. Rust; 1st Lieutenant, Tyler Hale; 2d Lieutenant, Henry Stephenson.

Co. C — Captain, Samuel Frazier; 1st Lieutenant, William Maum; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph Kirkland.

Co. D — Captain, Wm. D. Williams; 1st Lieutenant, David Benson; 2d Lieutenant, Quincy McNeill.

Co. E — Captain, Vincent Ridgely; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Fisher; 2d Lieutenant, Nathaniel Sanford.

Co. F — Captain, Lucies M. Rose; 1st Lieutenant, Wallace Campbell; 2d Lieutenant, J. Bates Dickson.

Co. G — Captain, Chas. H. Brookins; 1st Lieutenant, S. B. Whetmore; 2d Lieutenant, Guy C. Ward.

Co. H — Captain, Wm. T. Swain; 1st Lieutenant, Thompson Gordon; 2d Lieutenant, John M. Mills.

Co. I — Captain, Frank B. Ferris; 1st Lieutenant, Geo. L. Paddock; 2d Lieutenant, G. Gilbert Gibon.

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Co. K — Captain, Jas. R. Hugunin; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. E. Waite; 2d Lieutenant, Eben Bacon.

When re-mustered into the three years' service, the roster was as follows:

Colonel, John McArthur; Lieutenant-Colonel, A. L. Chetlain; Major, Wm. D. Williams; Adjutant, J. Bates Dickson; Quartermaster, S. R. Wetmore; Surgeon, Horace Wardner; 1st Assistant Surgeon, James H. Ferris; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Wm. M. Newell; Chaplain, Joel Grant.

Co. A — Captain, Arthur C. Ducat; 1st Lieutenant, William Fisher; 2d Lieutenant, Duncan McLean.

Co. B — Captain, John Tyler Hale; 1st Lieutenant, Henry S. Stephenson; 2d Lieutenant, Justin D. Towner.

Co. C — Captain, Wm. J. Allen; 1st Lieutenant, Rob't V. Chesley; 2d Lieutenant, David Jones.

Co. D — Captain, Robert H. Lackey; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Koehlor; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. F. Jobe.

Co. E — Captain, Vincent Ridgely; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Fisher; 2d Lieutenant, Henry V. Sellar.

Co. F — Captain, Wallace Campbell; 1st Lieutenant, J. Bates Dickson; 2d Lieutenant, Nicholas Roth.

Co. G — Captain, Guy C. Ward; 1st Lieutenant, J. M. McArthur; 2d Lieutenant, John F. Watkins.

Co. H — Captain, Wm. T. Swain; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Mills; 2d Lieutenant, W. S. Merriman.

Co. I — Captain, Frank B. Ferris; 1st Lieutenant, Geo. L. Paddock; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. D. Mills.

Co. K — Captain, Jas. R. Hugunin; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. E. Waite; 2d Lieutenant, Eben Bacon.

On the 10th of May, 1861, the regiment left for Cairo, from whence it was sent to Cape Girardeau, to reinforce the troops at that point. It was afterward sent on an expedition through the country surrounding Belmont, Missouri, but failed to discover any armed rebels. It afterward went down the river to Columbus, where could be distinctly heard the firing of the guns at the battle of Belmont. It was intended to advance on Belmont the next morning, but the retreat of our army prevented it. It was next engaged in a "reconnoissance in force" to Fort Henry, and afterward took part in the battles at that place and at Fort Donelson. From the latter place the regiment was sent to Clarksville, Tennessee, and from thence to Nashville, being among the first Union troops to occupy the latter city. It bore an honorable and active part in the battle of Shiloh, where it lost

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109 killed and wounded and seven missing. Then came the siege of Corinth, in which the 12th was engaged. After Corinth had been evacuated, the 12th and other regiments pursued the rebels to Booneville, Mississippi. It was present at the battle of Iuka, but took no part in it, being held in reserve. It next engaged in the battle of Corinth, where it suffered severely. It then lay at Corinth, on guard duty, until June 6, 1863, when it was sent to Pocahontas to guard important bridges. On the 29th of October, the left wing of the 16th army corps was transferred to the 15th corps, under General Sherman. This regiment was engaged in a raid to Lauderdale, Alabama, where our troops destroyed a large cotton factory and several hundred bales of cotton. The 12th arrived at Pulaski, Tennessee, November 12th, and remained there until the 25th, when it again engaged in guarding railroad bridges. On the 14th of January, 1864, 311 men and 24 officers of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans and were mustered into the service, and ordered home on furlough. The regiment rendezvoused at camp Fry, Chicago, and remained there, recruiting, until March 28th, when it was sent to Pulaski, Tennessee. It was engaged in the engagements at Lay's Ferry and Rome Cross Roads, Georgia, and assisted in repulsing a heavy night attack of the rebels at Dallas. It was slightly engaged at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain. It was also engaged at Nicojack Creek and Decatur. On the 28th of July it was engaged at Ezra Church. It took part in the siege of Atlanta, losing nearly forty men killed and wounded. At the battle of Allatoona, October 5th, it lost more than one third of the men it took into action. On the 11th of November it started on the march to the sea, and took a part in the Carolina campaign which followed it. It arrived at Raleigh, North Carolina, April 14, 1865, and at Washington on the 24th, where it passed in the grand review before the President. It was then sent to Louisville, and from there, July 10th, to Springfield, when it was mustered out and paid off.

CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE BATTERY.

The Chicago Board of Trade Battery was raised in July, 1862, by the organization whose name it bears. From the opening of its rolls until the company was full was only thirty-six hours. On the

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31st of July it was mustered into the service, with the following roster:

Captain, James H. Stokes; Sen. 1st Lieutenant, George I. Robinson; Jun. 1st Lieutenant, Albert F. Baxter; Sen. 2d Lieutenant, Trumbull D. Griffin; Jun. 2d Lieutenant, Henry Bennett.

On the 9th of September, 1862, the battery left Chicago for Louisville, whence it participated in the expedition which resulted in driving Bragg from Kentucky. It went as far as Crab Orchard, and then returned to Bowling Green. At its own solicitation it was Bent to Nashville, arriving there about the 1st of December. During the next campaign it participated in the battle of Stone River, firing, during the first day of the battle, nearly two thousand rounds of ammunition. In June, 1863, it moved with the army in the campaign in which Bragg was driven from Tennessee, at Elk river, taking part in its principal skirmish on that campaign. At Chickamauga the battery occupied the extreme right of the line. On Saturday morning it was forty-five miles from the scene of action, and arrived there on Sunday afternoon, having to drive the enemy ten miles to get into position. In the Cumberland Mountains, after the battle of Chickamauga, it passed through one of those scenes of suffering with which many of our Illinois organizations became so familiar. For four weeks the men were without rations, except corn obtained from the enemy. This was made into meal by rubbing over a grater extemporized by punching holes through the bottom of a tin pan. And this was borne, too, while they were suffering from lack of clothing and shelter; and it was borne cheerfully and even gaily, for the salvation of the country the brave boys loved so well. At McMinnville and Farmington the battery was particularly distinguished for gallantry. In the spring of 1864, it moved from its winter quarters, at Huntsville, to Nashville, to refit and re-organize, after which it took part in the Atlanta campaign. When General Sherman cut loose from Atlanta, the battery returned to Nashville, joining Thomas' command, participating in the battle of Nashville, and afterward went into camp at Eastport, Miss. In the spring of 1865 it took part in the successes at Selma, Montgomery, Columbus and Macon. It arrived in Chicago on the 26th of June, for final discharge.

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BRIDGES' BATTERY.

In Vol. I. [p. 420 et seq.], we have given the record of Battery B (Bridges' Battery), 1st Illinois Light Artillery, to January 1, 1865. From that date it had but little active service, and arrived in Chicago on the 27th of June for final muster and discharge, having shared in the greater part of the important campaigns and battles in the West and won for its officers and members imperishable renown. Captain Bridges was promoted to Major, and subsequently was brevetted Lieutenant-Colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct.

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Chapter V. — Chattanooga — Lookout Mountain — Mission Rigge — Knoxville.

DISASTERS RETRIEVED — SITUATION OF THE ARMIES — ROSECRANS REINFORCED BY HOOKER — GRANT IN COMMAND — THOMAS SUPERSEDES ROSECRANS — BURNSIDE TAKES KNOXVILLE — IS BESIEGED BY LONGSTREET — UNION PERIL — SHERMAN SENDS OSTERHAUS — ORDERED TO TAKE HIS WHOLE ARMY — ITS MARCH — SHERMAN PLACED IN COMMAND OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TENNESSEE — MCPHERSON AND HURLBUT — SHERMAN ORDERED ON — GOES — HOOKER'S ASSAULT ON LOOKOUT — CAPTURE — KNOXVILLE — PLAN FOR BATTLE — PONTOONS — OUR ARMY — ORCHARD KNOB — SHERMAN'S POSITION — CORSE OPENS THE BATTLE — LOOMIS — SHERMAN'S FORCES HARD PRESSED — GRANGER'S ADVANCE — GRANT AND THOMAS — UP THE RIDGE — VICTORY — THE DEAD — WOUNDED — LINCOLN'S LETTER — ILLINOIS MEN — GRANT'S ORDER OF CONGRATULATION — PURSUIT — RINGGOLD — BURNSIDE RELIEVED — CAMPAIGN ENDED.

THE indecisive results of Chickamauga were to be redeemed; its disasters retrieved, its reproach rolled away. The soldiers of the West, with the leader of Shiloh, and the conqueror of Vicksburg again at their head, were to achieve such a triumph as should ring around the world. In the armies of Sherman and Thomas, were the gallant "Illini" by thousands. Sun-burnt, hard-handed veterans, familiar with battle thunder, they were there on that mountain ridge, this time, to break the backbone of the rebellion.

Briefly, the situation was the following: Rosecrans was at Chattanooga receiving reinforcements, the flanks of his army resting on the Tennessee above and below the place. The rebel sharp-shooters cut off communication by way of Bridgeport on the south bank, compelling the hauling of supplies sixty miles over almost impassable roads. A bold rebel raid damaged the railway between Stevenson and Nashville, and captured the train of the 14th Corps. It became a question whether starvation would not compel the evacuation of Chattanooga, which would be virtually abandoning all that had been won in the valley of the Mississippi.

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Bragg remained strangely quiet. If he had won the brilliant victory claimed in his dispatches, why did he fail to improve it; to hurl his force upon the shattered columns of the Union army, capture Chattanooga, and again hold the key of East Tennessee? Two days after the battle, a war-council of the Confederate chieftains agreed that there should be a grand movement toward Knoxville. The generals under Bragg were making preparations accordingly, when he announced another plan and sat down three weeks before the tripple lines of Chattanooga.

Rosecrans worked with energy, strengthening defences, and accumulating supplies. On the 23d of September the 11th and 12th Corps of the Army of the Potomac advanced. Hooker was sent to his relief increasing the fighting force and multiplying the number to be fed.

In the meantime Major-General Grant was placed in command; Thomas superseded Rosecrans who took leave of his army on the 19th of October. On the 18th Grant issued the following:

"HEAD-QUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, "LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY, October 18, 1863.

"[General Orders, No. 1.]

"In compliance with General Orders, No. 337, of date Washington, D. C., October 16, 1863, the undersigned hereby assumes command of the Military Division of the Mississippi, embracing the Departments of the Ohio, of the Cumberland, and of the Tennessee.

"The Head-quarters of the Military Division of the Mississippi will be in the field, where all reports and returns required by army regulations and existing orders will be made.

"U. S. GRANT, Major-General."

He telegraphed Thomas to hold Chattanooga if he starved, and the grim veteran answered that he would and he did, with starvation perilously near. General W. T. Sherman was placed in command of the Department of the Tennessee.

During the summer General Burnside planned an attack upon Knoxville. In August he began his advance, and moved with such caution and celerity as to throw the rebel forces into a panic and thus entered the town, September 1st, amid the joyful tears, and jubilant shoutings of the Union citizens. The rebel garrison at Cumberland Gap, 2000 strong, surrendered on the 9th of September and Burnside thus occupied the East Tennessee Railroad as far as Morristown. A

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strong force moved toward Chattanooga, and a junction with Rosecrans was expected, when that General was ordered in his defenses, and it was evident that his own position was fraught with peril for Bragg detached Longstreet to besiege him, and thus it was confidentially expected by the rebels that from Chattanooga and Knoxville, our brave men would be driven back to the Ohio. It was a dark day.

Grant's appointment restored heart and hope. Before he had been placed in command he ordered Sherman to send from Big Black a division to the aid of Rosecrans. The order reached Sherman on the 22d of September. At four P. M. Osterhaus was on the war path towards Vicksburg twenty miles away, and the next day with his division was steaming toward Memphis. On the 23d Sherman was ordered to follow with his entire command. Four days later he was on the river but the ascent was tedious. Fuel was gone, and his soldiers were compelled to procure rails and haul wood from the interior to keep the engine in motion. He reached Memphis early in October. Here he received orders from Halleck to go to Athens, Alabama, repairing the railway as he marched and to secure his own supplies. He began and worked details day and night, until he found it necessary to move upon the highways and clear his way, which he did. Blair drove the enemy from the front and entered Tuscumbia October 27th.

On the 25th Sherman received the order placing him in command of the Department of the Tennessee, and from Iuka issued an order placing the brave McPherson in command with full authority at Vicksburg, and the heroic Hurlbut in West Tennessee.

On the 27th a messenger from Grant, who had floated down the Tennessee over the Muscle Shoals, came to Sherman's head-quarters with this sententious order.

"Drop all work on the railroad east of Bear Creek. Put your command toward Bridgeport till you meet orders."

The order of march was reversed, and headed for Eastport, the only practicable crossing of the Tennessee. On gunboats and a coal-barge he commenced the crossing, expedited, by the arrival on the 31st, of a ferry-boat. Onward, through thickening difficulties, that indomitable will pressed his brave men. On the night of the 13th he reached Bridgeport and reported by telegraph to Grant, was

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summoned by him to his head-quarters; took boat, and on the morning of November 15th was at Chattanooga, his men coming forward.

Others were active. When Grant arrived at Chattanooga, matters were gloomy enough. General Thomas had studied the situation and these able chieftains saw where advantage could be gained. Hooker, who held the right at Bridgeport, was ordered to cross the Tennessee and assail the rebel left-flank. A force under General Hazen crossed at Brown's Ferry, below, where pontoons had been laid by General W. F. Smith, and commenced the ascent of Lookout Mountain. By this movement the rebel retreat was cut off, and his forces compelled to march up the valley toward Trenton, Georgia, about twenty miles, before joining Bragg's main army. Hooker crossed at Bridgeport and the forces united at Brown's Ferry. In a drizzly, foggy atmosphere the march was made. The rugged sides frowned defiance, but in spite a storm of leaden hail, upward and still upward pressed the resistless column, until it passed into and above the low clouds. Below, our leaders, Grant and Thomas watched and waited the result, but at length the clouds rifted and it was seen that Hooker was carrying the rebel works, and that in his victory, so gloriously won, the first success of the campaign was achieved. Communication was opened with Chattanooga, and the river cleared between Thomas and the Nashville railroad. Steamers brought up supplies and full rations succeeded scanty food.

Burnside was holding Knoxville, and had a succession of sharp contests with the enemy under Longstreet, aided by some of the ablest of the Confederate generals, and by falling back, and again renewing the contest with desperation, drew Longstreet away from Bragg and held him pounding fruitlessly at the defenses of Knoxville, as Grant desired him. Meanwhile preparations proceeded to repay Chickamauga.

Sherman's army came to the Tennessee, by Fayetteville to Bridgeport. He was to cross, effect a lodgment on the end of Missionary Ridge, and with a part of his force act against Lookout Mountain, near Trenton. Ewing's division was to make the demonstration upon Lookout, but was to be ready to march rapidly on Chattanooga. Sherman rowed in a small open boat from Kelly's to Bridgeport, and put his force in motion, and at Hooker's head-quarters on the 20th,

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received Grant's orders for an attack the next day. But only General John E. Smith's division, the 3d, was in position; the 1st, under Osterhaus, and the 2d, under Morgan L. Smith, were slowly, and footsore, coming over a wretched road from Shell-Mound to Chattanooga, and Ewing's, the 4th, had not left Trenton.

Morgan L. Smith's crossed the bridge at Brown's Ferry on the 21st, Ewing reached it the same day, but it was so broken he could not complete his crossing until the 23d. Again it broke, and Osterhaus was not over, but Sherman proposed to go into action with the three divisions with him, supported by Jeff. C. Davis' division of the 14th Army Corps, leaving Osterhaus to co-operate with Hooker against Lookout. Pontoon boats were silently carried, under the shelter of hills and woods, to the North Chickamauga, manned, and at midnight silently floated below the mouth, our men capturing the pickets along the banks, and taking a position on the left bank of the Tennessee, sending the boats across for reinforcements. M. L. Smith's division was rapidly ferried over, and by daybreak of the 24th the two divisions of Morgan L. and John E. Smith, numbering 8,000 men, were across the Tennessee, and had thrown up a line of rifle-pits to protect the crossing. A substantial pontoon bridge was laid, and soon three divisions were on the left bank, and Jeff. C. Davis declared his command ready to take Missionary Ridge.

Grant now had his forces well in hand. Above was Sherman with his Western boys, below Hooker with his battle-tested veterans, and Thomas, eager to avenge Chickamauga was in front of Chattanooga.

Bragg had requested Grant to remove all non-combatants, as he was about to bombard Chattanooga. He was astounded on the morning of the 25th to find Sherman's army on his right. Hooker made his successful demonstration on Lookout Mountain, and the army had shouted his victory. On the 23d an unusual movement was observed in the rebel camps, and orders were given for a division of the Fourth Corps to make a reconnoissance in the direction of Orchard Knob. Wood's division was selected, to be supported by Sheridan's. Forming his men on the slope, outside of the fortifications, Wood advanced rapidly, made his reconnoissance a storming party, carried the Knob and the adjacent works at the point of

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the bayonet, and made the interior line of rebel works untenable. So rapid and sweeping was the advance, that only about two-hundred were killed and wounded. An important position was gained and the 28th Alabama, with its colors, captured. General Wood was ordered to hold the position. The night of the 23d was a busy one. Before the dawn of the 24th, the intrenchments were reversed, strengthened and made impregnable. Bragg, awaking from his dream of easy victory, was startled to find Sherman on his right, Hooker on his left, and before him the "Rock of Chickamauga." But he still had faith in the impregnable sides and inaccessible heights of Missionary Ridge.

Between Sherman and the hill was a deep valley, how deep he did not know, but the steep hill beyond was covered with trees, and across the top a breast-work of logs and earth, thick with rebel soldiers. The narrow path leading to it was enfiladed by two guns. Behind, a still higher hill bristled with guns, placed to throw a plunging fire on the first, if taken.

Colonel Bowman says: "The brigades of Colonel Cocherill of Ewing's division, Colonel Alexander of John E. Smith's and General Lightburn of Morgan L. Smith's were to hold their hill as the key point; General Corse, with as much of his brigade of Ewing's division as could operate along the narrow ridge was to attack from the right center; General Lightburn was to dispatch a regiment from his division to co-operate with General Corse, and General Morgan L. Smith was to move along the eastern base of Missionary Ridge, connecting with General Corse and Colonel Loomis of Ewing's division, in like manner to move along the west base, supported by Mathias and Baum's brigades of John E. Smith's division in reserve."

The sun arose red and lurid, and Corse ordered the advance. The Fortieth Illinois, with two Ohio regiments moved down into the valley and steadily up the hill-side held by the foe. It moved onward within eighty yards of the entrenchment, where Corse found a crest on which he halted, called his reserve and asked reinforcements, which came. His crowded ground was swept by musketry and artillery, and the approach to the entrenchment was through a sea of fire, and for an hour, the battle for that crest was fearful. Fortune was varying,

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but the position taken by Corse was never yielded. Morgan L. Smith gained on the left spur of the Ridge, while Loomis pushed with unfaltering courage, his way until opposite the tunnel and railway embankment, and by concentrating upon his command a portion of the enemy's fire, relieved in part the assaulting column.

Bragg hurled his forces against our column, but Corse held his ground until about 10 A. M., when he was severely wounded and borne from the field, the command devolving upon Colonel Wolcott of Ohio, who gallantly held the position and continued to advance. On the right, Loomis fought his way. There was a temporary falling back of two of John E. Smith's reserve brigades, causing a report that Sherman's left had been repulsed. Sherman awaited with some anxiety the moving of Thomas on the center. Grant kept watch of the contest, but held the troops of Thomas as in a vice. Sherman says, "column after column of the enemy was streaming toward me; gun after gun poured its concentric shot on us from every hill and spur that gave a view of any part of the ground." Hooker moved along the Rossville road to assail the rebel left and his appearance moving north on the ridge was to be the signal for the assault of the Center. And thus, until three P. M. Sherman fought alone, and it was evident that his weared troops could not abide much longer the fearful strain upon their endurance. Hooker's detention was occasioned by the necessity of building a bridge. Grant learned that he was coming, and seeing the rebel center weakened gave orders to Thomas to advance. The division of Granger's Corps, upon the signal of six guns was to cross the wooded valley between Orchard Knob and Mission Ridge and carry the intrenched lines at the base of the Ridge, and then halt, under the belief that the Ridge was too formidable to be carried. It is a bold rugged height, towering 800 feet above Chattanooga, and was crowned with a skillfully constructed line of defensive works bristling with veteran-bayonets and buttressed with famed batteries.

Sherman saw the white line of smoke and knew the wearily waited movement was made.

Onward rushed the heroes of the army of the Cumberland — through shot and shell they gained the pits and swept them clear. Bragg appears not to have suspected that men would be mad enough

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to attempt to climb that bold ascent, rugged, steep, and with a fire like the lava-streams of Vesuvius rolling over its rocky side. But they did. Granger led his men to the mountain side and with shouts they began to climb — to climb in a cataract of fire. Upward — upward, they bore their torn banners. Grant and Thomas stood side by side at Orchard Knob. The latter exclaimed "I fear, General, they will never reach the top." Only puffing the smoke of his cigar, the hero of Vicksburg quietly said "Give 'em time, General, give 'em time." By sunset they had planted their standards on the crest of the Ridge, the enemy was defeated and his Gibraltar carried! No wonder that catching the afar-off shouts of Granger's men, those in the valley responded with such cheers as only strong-lunged soldiers can give.

The enemy was soon in full retreat. All the succeeding day pursuit was made, and more than seven thousand prisoners, and forty-seven guns were captured. Among the brave men of Sherman's command, who fell on that field of honor, were Colonel Putnam of the 93d Illinois, Colonel O'Meara of the 90th Illinois and Major Bushnell of the 13th Illinois, while among the wounded were Colonel Raum, 56th, Lieutenant-Colonel Patridge, 13th, and Major A. P. Welch of the 56th.

Colonels J. M. Loomis of the 26th and Raum of the 56th were recommended by Sherman for promotion as Brigadier-Generals, for gallantry and competency.

Bragg had been beaten. The best army of the rebellion, save Lee's, had been broken; the most difficult positions had been taken; the Tennessee was our own, and the gateway into the South was open. President Lincoln wrote thus to Grant:

"WASHINGTON, December 8th.

"Major-General Grant:

"Understanding that your lodgment at Chattanooga and Knoxville is now secure, I wish to tender you, and all under your command, my more than thanks — my profoundest gratitude — for the skill, courage and perseverance with which you and they, over so great difficulties, have effected that important object. God bless you all!

"A. LINCOLN."

Here, as elsewhere in the battle-fields of the west, Illinois blood was shed like water. The shouts of victory upon its prairies were mingled with many a sob of bereavement. Its soldiers were present

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in great numbers, and never were they more willing to assume the post of honor and peril.

They were among the first to lead Sherman's advance, and among the first to surmount the crest of the Ridge. Captain Guthrie of the 19th Illinois, captured with his own hand a brave rebel Brigadier.

We cannot specify their deeds of daring. It is enough that the record of Illinois on November 25, 1863, was one of the most glorious it has made during the war for the Union.

Grant — the former Colonel of the 21st Illinois, thus addressed the army:

"The General commanding thanks you individually and collectively. The loyal people of the United States thank and bless you. Their hopes and prayers for your success against this unholy rebellion are with you daily. Their faith in you will not be in vain. Their hopes will not be blasted. Their prayers to Almighty God will be answered. You will yet go to other fields of strife, and with invincible bravery and unflinching loyalty to justice and right, which have characterized you in the past, you will prove that no enemy can withstand you, and that no defense, however formidable, can check your onward march."

His name was spoken throughout the land. Congress voted him a gold medal, and soon after, reviving the grade of Lieutenant-General, his name was sent in by the President and he was confirmed.

Bragg was chased to Dalton. A stand was made and a desperate show of resistance opposed to Hooker at Ringgold, but his impetuous bravery made it unavailing, and the enemy was compelled to fly. Again our victory was complete. Sherman and Howard pushed for the railroad and cut it up.

Grant could have marched his army to Atlanta, or anywhere else, but Burnside was sorely pressed in Knoxville, and must be relieved. General Granger, who was designated to march to his assistance, did not march with energy, and Sherman was assigned the work. True his men had traveled from "Big Black" to Chattanooga, and without rest had gone into the battle of the 25th, true they had been active in pursuit of Bragg and were without tents, comfortable clothing or supplies, but Burnside was in Knoxville with 12,000 fellow soldiers, and that was enough. With rapid marches they went forward, and found that Longstreet, hearing of Bragg's defeat, and anticipating the approach of our troops, had raised the siege and was in full retreat. Sherman's cavalry reached Knoxville Dec. 3d.

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This virtually closed the Union campaigns of 1863, for only the attack upon Charleston was subsequently of general interest. Had General Grant's daring plan of the assault upon the rocky heights of Lookout and Missionary Ridge failed, the consequences had been most disastrous. It was fraught with peril, but was a stupendous success. It saved our cause.

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Chapter VI. — The Red River Expedition — Missouri.

GREAT EXPECTATIONS — SABINE PASS — LOSS — MCPHERSON'S DISTRICT — THE INVINCIBLE ARMADA — DE RUSSY — GRAND ADVANCE — RANSOM'S ADVICE — DISASTROUS ENGAGEMENT NEAR MANSFIELD — HEAVY SACRIFICE — PLEASANT HILL — SMITH'S CHARGE — REBELS GIVE BACK — SUMMING UP — RETREAT — GRAND ECORE — THROUGH THE DAM — STEEL'S ARMY — RETREATS ON LITTLE ROCK — SABINE CROSSINGS — ROSECRANS IN MISSOURI — HUNDRED DAY REGIMENTS — PLEASANTON'S COMMAND — PRICE ESCAPES — UNION CITY — COLONEL HICKS AT PADUCAH — FORT PILLOW — NORTH CAROLINA.

GREAT results were anticipated from an expedition under General Banks. After the fall of Vicksburg he had been reinforced from the troops under General Grant, and every facility was afforded by the government to enable him to strike a severe blow destined to be a costly and disastrous campaign, losing heavily, gaining lightly.

In September, 1863, General Banks was ordered to lead an expedition against Sabine Pass. It was to be a combined land and naval attack — General Franklin with 400 men, and Lieutenant Crocker with four steamers, transports, &c. On the 8th, the attack was made by the naval force and failed, losing the steamers, Clifton and Sachem. The expedition returned to Brashear City. General Franklin had his headquarters at New Iberia. "The Nineteenth Army Corps under the immediate command of General Weitzel had crossed and camped at Berwick. The Thirteenth (formerly McClernand's) followed, leaving sufficient force to hold the base at Brashear."

There was some sign of activity in McPherson's district. In October, a rebel force of infantry and horse, numbering about 2,500, were seen on the east side of the Big Black, and continued a series of feints and threatened advances, sometimes approaching closely

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to our lines. McPherson concluded they were a blind to more important operations farther interior, and, on the 14th, ordered Logan's and Tuttle's divisions of the Seventeenth Army Corps, to make a demonstration. They marched sixteen miles and encamped at Big Black. By daylight, the cavalry advance had crossed the River at Messenger's Ferry, closely followed by Logan, with Tuttle in the rear. At noon our cavalry was at Brownsville, which the infantry reached at 3 P. M. The next day, Logan's advance met a part of Wirt Adam's confederate cavalry strongly supported by a battery in the timber at the right of the road. McPherson sent forward Maltby's brigade of Logan's division, and two pieces of artillery, while our cavalry dismounting and advancing through the timber, deployed as skirmishers and a sharp contest began. The rest of Logan's division coming up by the Canton road, confronted Whitfield's brigade of cavalry and artillery, mostly Texas roughs of fighting celebrity. They commanded the road. There was spirited skirmishing. Night came on, and daylight showed that rebel reinforcements had come up, and McPherson returned to Vicksburg.

General Banks had succeeded in occupying the coast of Texas, to within one hundred miles of Galveston, and early in 1864 a grand expedition was projected. Another "Invincible Aramada" was set afloat. Dick Taylor was to be swept from Louisiana, Magruder from Texas, and Price from Arkansas. A grand fleet under Admiral Porter, was to ascend Red River to Shreveport, Steele was to sweep down from Little Rock, Arkansas, and unite with Banks at Shreveport, while another column should move from Brownsville. There were twenty heavily armed steamers of various draught, including monitors Ozark, Osage and Neosho; iron-clad gunboats Benton, Carondelet, Pittsburg, Mound City, Louisville, Essex and Chillicothe, and the rams Price, Choctaw and Lafayette. General A. J. Smith embarked 10,000 men at Vicksburg, including the 1st and 3d divisions of the Sixteenth Army Corps, and the 1st and 4th divisions of the Seventeenth. The following afternoon the transports joined the fleet, and on the 12th the Aramada moved up the old Red River into the Atchafalaya, and in the afternoon came to anchor at Semmesport, an old town burned by the Ellett's.

The appearance of our gunboats caused the abandonment of two

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partly completed earthworks. Smith having landed a part of his forces, headed them toward Fort De Russy, a rebel strong-hold, thirty miles distant. The enemy's cavalry swarmed about them, striking them at every opportunity. The fort was a strong quadrangular work, with bastions and bomb-proofs, covered with railroad iron, with a strong water-battery, having casemates capable of defying Federal guns and artillery, commanding the river above and below. Dick Taylor marched the main body of his troops out to give battle to our forces, who, by an adroit movement, placed themselves on his interior line and pushed straight for De Russy. Taylor, angry beyond endurance, pressed after them, but they reached it in advance, and compelled the garrison to surrender and thus rendering futile a year's hard work of rebel engineering. General Smith destroyed the guns.

The Armada passed on, occupying Alexandria on the 16th, the army entering on the 17th. Eighty miles beyond was Natchitoches, and that was occupied on the 21st. Thus far all had gone well.

On the 26th, General Smith left Alexandria with the advance for Shreveport, the objective point of the expedition. On the 4th of April, General Banks reached Natchitoches in person, remaining two days, moving on the 6th with General Lee's cavalry in advance. On the 7th, Lee came — was compelled to maintain a constant skirmish as he advanced, until he passed Pleasant Hill, where he came upon the main body of the rebel cavalry under Major-General Green. Colonel Robinson commanded the Union cavalry advance of five thousand sabers, and engaged Green until the latter fell back upon the infantry and artillery at Bayou du Paul. Colonel Robinson halted and awaited reinforcements, his weary men sleeping on their arms. Morning came and he was joined by an infantry brigade of the old 13th under Colonel Landrum, and he again advanced, the enemy falling back seven miles. Here was the main rebel force, massed in strength at a strong position in the vicinity of Sabine Cross Roads, east of Mansfield. And now it was seen that the wily foe had drawn our forces into almost inevitable disaster. Banks had arrived with Ransom, who with two divisions of the 13th Army Corps, came on the field on the 8th. Ransom's keen eye took in the situation, and he earnestly counseled against attack until the

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Nineteenth Corps under Franklin, and Smith with his Vicksburg veterans of the 16th and 17th Army Corps, yet twenty miles distant, should arrive. That advice followed, had averted disaster, but it was over-ruled, and while orders were sent to General Franklin to hurry forward, an advance was ordered.

The enemy were ready. Major-General Dick Taylor was in command. General Green commanded the left, General Mouton the right with Walker's division and two cavalry regiments still farther to the extreme right. A strong force, wedged-shape, was concealed in the woods. Our brave men were inarched into the open base of that wedge and directed to charge upon its apex. As they advanced the wings of fire closed upon them, and on either flank and in front rolled in the waves of flame. Ransom made heroic efforts to turn defeat into victory, and to retrieve from disaster the terrible mistake of his superior. He saw with anguish his brave companions in arms mowed down, and did what man might to save the day. The cavalry was thrown into confusion; the Chicago Mercantile Battery, with Battery G, Regular Artillery, and Nim's Massachusetts Battery were driven from their guns. Retreat was the order, and was fast becoming a route, when Franklin came up with reinforcements, and the panic was stayed. The six guns of the Chicago Mercantile Battery, two of Battery G, four of the 1st Indiana, six of Nim's and two howitzers of the 6th Missouri were in rebel hands, and two thousand brave men hors du combat.

The forces of General Smith were known to have reached Pleasant Hill, and there General Banks concentrated his forces, and on the morning of the 9th awaited battle, on ground open and rolling, ascending both from the village, and from the direction of the rebel approach, while a belt of timber swept almost around it. On the right was Smith with his soldiers of the 16th and 17th Corps, Franklin held the left with the 19th. The 13th was in reserve. "Taylor's Battery" was there — two guns in the rear of General Dwight's (19th) brigade on the left, and four on an eminence to the left of the road. General Emery's division was exposed to the first assault, Colonel Lynch commanding his right brigade. Colonel Shaw the left.

About 5 P. M. the enemy came on, and received a discharge of

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case shell from our batteries. They came forward grandly, and Emery slowly retired, pressed back. Part of Taylor's guns were captured, and the confident foe crowded up to the crest of the hill. Suddenly Smith's men poured upon them a sweeping shower from their batteries, and the infantry followed by round after round of musketry at short range and rushed forward to the charge with bayonets. It was not in rebel flesh and blood to withstand that terrific reception and they gave back, and wore driven. Taylor's guns were recaptured with two of Nim's, and the Union army was for the present saved, but saved at fearful cost. Three thousand men were killed, wounded and missing, Ransom was wounded, never to recover. Twenty guns and one hundred and thirty wagons with twelve hundred horses and mules were lost. True we had captured Fort De Russy, Alexandria, Grand Ecore and Natchitoches, had opened Red River, had captured three thousand bales of cotton, twenty-five guns, and twenty-three hundred prisoners, principally trophies of the navy, and had material for two colored regiments, but our brave army was defeated, wounded and bleeding, the objective point of the expedition must be abandoned and a line of suffering was to be traversed.

The enemy hung upon our retreat, which, leaving our dead upon the field, began on the 10th and continued until the troops reached Alexandria.

Orders were sent to Commodore Porter to fall back to Grand Ecore, but the river falling rapidly, rendered it almost impossible, and the destruction of the fleet seemed inevitable, and with it the destruction of the army. Below the fleet were the falls, rocky, rapid, turbulent and dangerous. Over this it was impossible for boats to pass. But there was an escape. Providence had reserved the man. Lieutenant-Colonel Bailey, acting engineer of the 19th Army Corps, proposed constructing a series of tree dams, thus deepening a channel over the falls and opening a door of escape. Thousands helped. Trees were felled, stone barges were made, teams moved — all were active, and yet, Commodore Porter says "not one in fifty believed in the undertaking." The hour came; in spite of an inopportune breakage of the dam the Lexington drove through the narrow opening and was greeted with cheers from thirty thousand soldiers. The

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frightened pilot of the Neosho blundered, but the vessel came through with slight damage, and the Hindman and Osage followed safely. Then Bailey repaired and improved the dam, and on the 11th the Mound City, the Carondelet, and Pittsburg came through, and the day following, the Louisville, the Chillicothe and the Ozark and the two tugs. The fleet was saved, and on the 14th of May the army, under the protection of the gunboats, commenced its retreat from Alexandria, which it left in flames. On the 16th and 18th it had severe fighting. On the 19th it placed its pontoons over the Atchafalaya, which it crossed at Semmesport on the 20th, and marched toward the Mississippi. The next evening it was at Morganzia, and so ended General Banks' Red River expedition.

The rebels marched a strong force to crush General Steele, who had marched from Little Rock, Arkansas to join Banks at Shreveport. Steele was confronted at Camden, but made a flank march toward Washington, sending a detachment to secure Elkin's Ferry, heading the main column southward, turning from his former course almost at right angles.

His forces skirmished with Marmaduke and Shelby, and on the 3d of April held both banks of the Little Missouri, crossing at Elkin's Ferry. On the 4th he was assailed by Marmaduke and Cabell, whom he repulsed, and entered Camden on the 15th. Kirby Smith reinforced the rebels, and Banks' defeat enabled Taylor to send Smith help. Steele's supplies were cut off, Colonel Drake mortally wounded, losing 2,000 prisoners captured, four guns, and two hundred and forty wagons. Steele fell back, retreating with loss and constant fighting on Little Rock. Here he could only stand on the defensive while the enemy overrun the State, and organized a movement on Missouri.

This State had been the Western battle-ground through the early stages of the war and its kaleidoscopic fortunes were not yet ended. Late in September, 1863, the rebel General Cabell crossed, with 8,000 men, the Arkansas River east of Fort Smith. He sent General Shelby to join Coffrey at Crooked Prairie to make a destructive raid into Southwestern Missouri. This force was met and routed October 12th at Booneville by the State militia, and its artillery captured. General Ewing took up the pursuit and chased them to Pea Ridge, where General McNeil took it up and drove them into Arkansas.

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Steele assisted by Generals Solomon, Thayer, Rice and Ingleman and Colonel Benton fought the rebel force sharply at Sabine Crossings, losing some seven hundred, and inflicting a heavy loss upon the foe, capturing three pieces of artillery. This secured Steele a safe retreat into Little Rock, and temporarily relieved Missouri.

General Rosecrans assumed command in Missouri, relieving General Schofield. About the 21st of September, 1864, he learned that Price, crossing the Arkansas with two divisions of cavalry and three batteries of artillery, had joined Shelby to invade Missouri again with some 14,000 veteran mounted men. He had about 6,500 men, scattered in various posts. A portion of A. J. Smith's troops had crossed the Missouri in June and defeated Marmaduke, and re-embarked for Memphis.

As Price set forward, Steele's forces came out of their defenses and followed him. A. J. Smith was halted at Cairo, en route to join the army of the Cumberland, and marched to confront Price, who was marching for Jefferson City.

When Springfield was safe, General Sanborn went to reinforce General McNeil at Rolla, while General Ewing defended Pilot Knob, and ascertained on the 27th of September that the main force of Price was in Southeastern Missouri. Ewing's defense saved St. Louis, then only covered by A. J. Smith's command, giving its militia and citizens time to organize, and also the hundred day regiments of Illinois time to arrive. These were the 132d, the 134th, 136th, 139th, 140th and 142d. They were but partially drilled, but soldiers more ready for the conflict had never gone to the field. In the central district, General Brown was in command at Jefferson City, and was reinforced by Brigadier-General Fiske.

Price waited a few days at Richwood, and finding his way into St. Louis arrested, and that not yet could he supply his ruffian hordes from the stores of that city, marched for Jefferson City. By forced marches McNeil and Sanborn arrived there, and with their cavalry and artillery united with Brown and Fiske, and again the invaders were thwarted.

General Pleasanton assumed command at Jefferson City on the 8th of October, and sent a strong force of cavalry under Sanborn to follow up and harass the rebel force — keeping Price between our

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force and the Missouri River. On the 22d of October Sanborn's force routed General Fagan at Independence. On the 23d the Big Blue was crossed and there was a sharp engagement with the main rebel force, driving it beyond the Little Santa Fe. "On the 24th, after a march of sixty miles, the enemy were overtaken at midnight at Marias des Cygnes. Skirmishing began at 4 A. M. on the 25th with artillery, when the enemy were driven from the field with loss of mules, horses, etc. They fell back skirmishing to the Little Osage Crossing, when a charge was made upon two divisions of them by two advanced brigades under Colonels Benton and Phillips, and eight pieces of artillery and nearly one thousand prisoners, including Generals Marmaduke and Cabell were captured. The pursuit was kept up by Sanborn's brigade, with repeated and successful charges to the Marmiton, whence the enemy fled under cover of night toward Arkansas. Kansas troops and General Benton's brigade followed rapidly, and on the 28th Sanborn reached Newtonia, where the enemy made his last stand, in time to turn the tide of battle going against General Blunt, thus giving the final blow to the invasion.

"The loss of the enemy was ten pieces of artillery, a large number of small arms, nearly all his trains and plunder, and, beside his killed, wounded and deserters, 1,958 prisoners."

There was general disappointment that Price's army was not destroyed or captured, and General Rosecrans failed to retrieve in Missouri his laurels which withered at Chickamauga.

Elsewhere were events worthy of note, some of which are mentioned here, to clear the way for the record of the grand events of the closing campaigns of the war.

The rebel General Forrest moved on Union City March 23d and summoned its commander, Colonel Hawkins, to surrender. In opposition to the wishes of his subordinates it was given up. General Brayman marched from Cairo within six miles, when he heard of the surrender and returned. Forrest next occupied Hickman and with Buford's division marched against Paducah, which was held by Colonel S. G. Hicks [see Vol. I., p. 325] of the 40th Illinois volunteers and 655 men. He retired into Fort Anderson and made a defiant stand, assisted by gunboats Peosta and Paw Paw, under Captain Shirk of the navy. Forrest sent the following note:

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"HEAD-QUARTERS FORREST'S CAVALRY CORPS,
PADUCAH, March 25, 1864.

"To Colonel Hicks, Commanding Federal forces at Paducah:

"Having a force amply sufficient to carry your works and reduce the place, in order to avoid the unnecessary effusion of blood, I demand a surrender of the fort and troops with all the public stores. If you surrender you will be treated as prisoners of war, but if I have to storm your works, you may expect no quarter.

"N. B. FORREST, Major-General Commanding."

To this summons from a greatly superior force Colonel Hicks made the following reply, free from bravado, but dignified and high-toned:

"HEAD-QUARTERS, POST PADUCAH,
"PADUCAH, KY., March 25, 1864.

"Major-General N. B. Forrest, Commanding Confederate forces:

"I have this moment received yours of this inst., in which you demand an unconditional surrender of forces under my command. I can answer that I have been placed here by my Government to defend the post. In this, as well as all other orders from my superior officers, I feel it my duty as an honorable officer to obey, and must, therefore, respectfully decline surrendering as you require.

"Very Respectfully,
"S. J. HICKS, Commanding Post."

The assault was ordered, twice made and repulsed. Forrest occupied the town and made some captures, but retired leaving Hicks uncaptured, with a loss of fourteen killed and forty-six wounded.

On the 12th of April Forrest assaulted Fort Pillow, under Major Booth. After a desperate resistance the fort was carried, and then occurred the most disgraceful and inhuman butchery of the war. Atrocities were committed scarcely equaled by Sepoys. The rebels were infuriated at the presence and bravery of colored troops and slaughter held high carnival. No special pleading can ever mitigate, much less justify the atrocity of that wholesale massacre.

Columbus was summoned to surrender, but did not, and no assault was made.

In North Carolina events of importance were transpiring, but Illinois troops were not engaged, although General J. N. Palmer was in command.

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Chapter VII. — General and Biographical.

CHANGE OF PLAN, NOT OF BASE — GOVERNOR OGLESBY — MEMOIR — EXTRACTS FROM INAUGURAL — ADJUTANT-GENERAL HAYNIE — PERSONAL SKETCH.

THE grand closing campaigns of the war were about to commence. In obedience to the clearly expressed will of the people, Congress revived the grade of "Lieutenant-General," and the President gave the act his approval, February 29, 1864, and placed Ulysses S. Grant in command of the armies of the United States. This was the beginning of the end. Summoning Sherman to his counsel, the plan of the two great campaigns was laid down. Independent, not to say rival movements were to end, and the enemy was no longer to have the opportunity to swing his armies, as upon a pivot, nor to move upon interior lines and crush, at will, our armies. The policy of the Lieutenant-General is best indicated in his own sententious language:

"I therefore determined first, to use the greatest number of troops practicable against the armed forces of the enemy, preventing him from using the same forces at different seasons against first one and then another of our armies, and the possibility of repose for refitting and producing necessary supplies for carrying on resistance."

The "anaconda" of the earlier stages of the war was remembered, but was no longer to be in a state of torpor, but lithe and strangely terrible. The armies East and West were to be one, and under one mind. Sherman, with the brave veterans of the West, should go against and through the army of Johnston; Grant, himself, would go with Meade and the army of the Potomac against Richmond; Sheridan should sweep the Shenandoah and Butler operate upon

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James River. Grant's eye ran over a battle-front of nearly 5,000 miles, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande. His preparations were made, and soon the railways groaned under the movements of vast bodies of men and supplies.

Before tracing these grand movements, especially those of Sherman and his co-laborer, Thomas, brief space may be given to changes in the State Government, which occurred before their close, and are now introduced to avoid a break in the military narrative when the date shall be reached.

Governor Yates declining a re-nomination as Governor, and becoming a candidate for the United States' Senate, the people chose as his successor

RICHARD JAMES OGLESBY.

He was born in Oldham County, Kentucky, July 25, 1824, was orphaned by the death of both parents when but eight years of age, in consequence of which his early education was much neglected, for he attended school but twelve months before he was twelve years of ago, and not more than three months afterward. He removed to Decatur, Illinois, in the spring of 1836; lived during the year 1838 in Terre Haute, Indiana, returned to Illinois and remained until the fall of 1840, when he returned to Oldham County, Kentucky, to learn the carpenter's trade; remained eighteen months, returned to Illinois in the spring of 1842, worked at his trade and at farming until the spring of 1844, when he commenced the study of Law with Judge Silas W. Robins, at Springfield, Illinois; was licensed, as an attorney, in the fall of 1845, and commenced practice in Sullivan, Moultrie County, Illinois.

He returned to Decatur in the spring of 1846, volunteered and assisted in raising Company "C," 4th Regiment (Colonel E. D. Baker), Illinois Volunteers in the Mexican war, of which he was elected 1st Lieutenant — served twelve months — participated in the siege of Vera Cruz, and commanded his company at the battle of Cerro Gordo, where it lost twelve in killed and wounded out of forty-one engaged. Returned to Decatur in 1847, and practiced Law in '47 and '48. The winter of '48 and '49, he attended the Louisville Law School, and received the diploma of the institution. The

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next spring he returned to Decatur, and in April crossed the plains from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, driving a six mule team. He remained in California, mining, until the fall of 1851, when he returned to Decatur to renew the practice of Law. In the spring of 1856, he visited Europe, Egypt and the Holy Land.

He returned to Decatur in the winter of 1857, having been absent twenty months; was elector on the Whig ticket in the year 1852; was Republican candidate for Congress in the 7th Congressional District in 1858, but was beaten by Hon. James C. Robinson, by 1,900 majority. The district had formerly given from 4,000 to 5,000 Democratic majority. In 1860, he was elected on the Republican ticket, State Senator, in a district that was largely Democratic, thus securing the election of the Hon. Lyman Trumbull to the United States Senate. Resigned his seat in the Senate, and accepted a commission as Colonel of the 8th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, on the 25th day of April, 1861. His regiment, was stationed at Cairo, Illinois, until July, 1861, when he was assigned to the command of the United States forces at Bird's Point, Missouri, where he remained six months in command of two brigades of infantry, and a portion of the time was also in command of the forces at Cairo, Illinois.

He commanded a force of 4,000 men sent from Bird's Point to Bloomfield, Missouri, a movement in connection with one made by General Grant, against the rebel forces at Belmont.

On February 1, 1862, he was relieved of the command at Bird's Point, and placed in command of the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Army of West Tennessee, under command of Brigadier-General Grant. The brigade consisted of his own regiment, the 8th, also the 18th, 29th, 30th and 31st Illinois infantry.

The brigade moved at the head of the army, and was the first to enter Fort Henry. It led the advance from Fort Henry to Fort Donelson during all the skirmishing, and was moved at the head or right of the army in the investment of Fort Donelson, and on the 12th, 13th and 14th of February, was constantly under fire.

On the morning of February 15th, this command was the first attacked by the rebels, maintaining the unequal contest without reinforcements for four hours, with a loss of 500 killed and wounded,

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the brigade numbering, 2,500 rank and file, present. It bore an active and most gallant part in the battle, and in the victory.

He commanded a brigade, until the evacuation of Corinth, but was not in the battle of Shiloh, the brigade now consisting of the 9th and 12th Illinois Vols., 22d and 81st Ohio, and the 14th Missouri Volunteers.

After the evacuation of Corinth, he commanded the 2d Division, Army of the Tennessee, some two months during the absence of Brigadier-General Davis, but on the return of the latter, resumed the command of his brigade, which he led through the terrible battle of Corinth, on the 3d day of October, 1862. Oglesby's and Hackleman's brigades of the 2d Division kept the entire rebel army at bay from 3 o'clock P. M., this day, thus saving Corinth to the Union arms.

While nobly charging at the head of his command, the noble Hackleman was killed, and Oglesby was taken from the field apparently in a dying condition from a wound received by a ball which entered the left lung, and which has never been removed.

On the 29th of November, 1862, for gallantry in the above battle, he was promoted Major-General over the Brigadier-General commanding the Division, and was confirmed by the Senate.

By the 1st of April, 1863, he had so far recovered as to be able to report for duty, and was assigned to the command of the left wing of the 16th Army Corps, consisting of two divisions of Infantry and one division of Cavalry, embracing all the territory in West Tennessee and Northern Mississippi, except a strip along the Mississippi River.

Constant pain, resulting from his wound, compelled him to tender his resignation on the last of June, 1863, which General Grant refused to accept, but gave him a leave of absence for six months. On the 24th of May, 1864, his resignation was accepted.

On the 25th of May, 1864, the Union Convention of the State of Illinois nominated him as candidate for Governor, and on the 8th of November, 1864, he was elected Governor, over James C. Robinson, (his former competitor for Congress), by 32,000 majority, the largest majority ever given in the State for any office.

General Oglesby was inaugurated Governor of the State of Illinois

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for four years on the 16th day of January, 1865. After taking the oath of office, the Governor said:

"I do not disguise the fact, nor do I desire to do so, that I have been chosen to this high position by the Union people of the State, without regard to party, and am expected by them to administer its executive affairs, with a view to no partisan or selfish purposes, and thus relieved of many of the burdens which usually attend a mere party triumph, am left free with you, to follow the path of duty pointed out so clearly that I hope to be able to adhere to it.

"In addition to the large number of troops of every branch of the service, including infantry, cavalry, artillery and engineers, voluntarily furnished by the State, in the last three and a half years, to carry on the war, could anything further have been required of us to have shown to the General Government our original, persistent and unalterable purpose to contribute every energy of the State and the cordial, hearty and soul-determined will of the people to maintain the integrity of the Union and assist in extirpating from the soil of the republic the last vestige of treason the recent matured and deliberate expression of an overwhelming majority of the people of the State, at the ballot-box, upon the well defined issues of the contest, reassure the nation and the civilized world that the State of Illinois, true to her instincts of loyalty and constitutional liberty, will remain faithful to her allegiance, true to the Union, an humble participant in the proud history and pure glory of the holy sisterhood of States, sharing their experience and abiding their fortune to the end of time. We say the Republic shall not die, the Union shall not be divided, the rebellion shall not prevail, traitors shall not conquer patriots pledged to the maintenance of these noble and dignified issues, believing their defense essential to the complete enjoyment of all the blessings promised us in the Constitution and laws of our country — with an entire consciousness of the exacting sacrifices imperiously demanded to support and uphold them — with our eyes upon and hearts full of devotion to the flag of our country, we declare before the world that the rebellion and human slavery shall fall and perish together.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

"The biennial message of my predecessor is before you. I invite your attention again to the full and careful statements it contains in reference to the present condition of the government. A faithful service of four years, the most interesting and embarrassing since the organization of the State government, has amply qualified him to study carefully the various interests of the State, and lends a dignity to his statements and recommendations, not to be accorded to those of one less experienced in the affairs of the State. The result of his arduous labors are felt in every part of the State, and everywhere there will greet him, as he retires from the distinguished office he so ably administered, the plaudits of his generous countrymen, "Well done thou good and faithful servant."

"It is a gratifying reflection that, since the commencement of the war, our State has been faithful to all her obligations to the National Government. No call has been made upon her that has not been promptly and fully answered. When it was the custom to fill the quotas of the State by volunteering, she exceeded all calls upon her by many thousands, and although there was some difference of views as to the

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credits to which the State was entitled, she nevertheless proceeded to fill the quota settled upon her under the apportionment made by the Provost Marshal General. When the attempt was made last year to raise the required number of men by drafting, and although, for a time, serious apprehensions were felt that stubborn resistance would be made against the efforts of the regularly appointed officers of the law to enforce the draft, time and reflection sufficiently demonstrated to those who may have contemplated the folly of this appeal to force, that there was no reliable or respectable portion of the community to be found to sustain this discreditable and dishonorable feeling. The law has been faithfully executed in every part of the State

"I think I may with all truthfulness say, in communicating to you the state of the government, that at no time in the history of the State, has Illinois been in a better condition, in reference to all the great interests of the people.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

"It is made the duty of the Governor to see that the laws of the State be faithfully executed. Ordinarily, this can be no great task; but in turbulent times, when the authorities of the nation are openly defied and resisted, and the peace of the people is threatened by armed bodies of men, in actual rebellion, it becomes a serious responsibility. Happily for us, our State, thus far, has escaped the ravages and desolation of the war raging on our borders. There have been a few attempts, however, in the last year, by two or three gangs of outlaws, to disturb the quiet of our people and involve the State in civil war. Their field of operations seems to have been confined to a few counties in the center of the State. Their time was spent in pillaging and murdering unprotected persons, and inflicting all manner of annoyance upon the peaceable inhabitants of those counties. Some of them claimed to be emissaries from the rebel States, sent into Illinois to raise recruits for the rebel army. As they were of the very lowest order of human existence, it is very likely true they were engaged in this infamous project. Another attempt was made, upon the eve of the election in November last, by a gang of desperate men, to release the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, fire the city of Chicago, by force take possession of the polls, and inaugurate revolution in the north part of the State. By the timely and prudent interference of the commanding officer at Camp Douglas, Colonel B. J. Sweet, zealously supported by his command, and the earnest co-operation of the police of the city of Chicago, the chief men engaged in the plot, with many miserable dupes following their vicious instigations, were arrested and confined, the scheme defeated, and the city and State saved from the terrors of this dark plot. To meet emergencies like these, and to be ready, at any moment, to resist the efforts of evil-disposed persons against the State, it may be prudent to have such a force at the disposal of the State as will enable the officers of the law faithfully to execute their duties in any part of the State, and, if serious resistance be made to the law, to crush it at once, and bring the offenders to speedy and exemplary justice. The very slightest attempt at insurrection, in our State, should be met by the firm and united efforts of the people to annihilate it. So confident am I of the support of the peace-loving and law-abiding citizens of the State, and so firmly do I rely upon their determination to sustain the rights of the State and its high character, against the machinations of all evil-disposed persons we may venture to hope we shall pass safely through the perils that still seriously threaten the country

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Every attempt at insurrection in the State, or invasion of our territory by an armed force, would involve a crime against the National Government, and would, in time, be met and resisted by the forces of the United States.

"It is the deliberate purpose of the National Government to maintain peace and good order throughout the whole country, to subdue the spirit of resistance to and violation of the Constitution, and laws of the country, whether it is dignified by the name of revolution, or seeks its covert designs in rebellion.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

"I desire to impress upon the defenders of our country, volunteers and drafted men alike, engaged in the same noble cause, the fact that the man who has faithfully served his country in this war, has much to be proud of and much to honor him. Such a man owes it to his reputation to guard it well, and see that no foolish blemish gathers upon it to ruin and destroy it. He is interested in cultivating the morals of the country and elevating the tone of society, because he becomes a member again of the community in which, when he returns, he fixes his home. The conduct of our soldiers in the field continues to deserve our highest praise. From the first hour of the war to the present moment our arms have been upheld upon almost every field and in almost every battle. The blood of Illinois is mingled with the blood of traitors on the mountain top, amid the hills, through the valleys and along the streams, as far as the mad waves of war overlap the once peaceful domain of our proud country. For prompt obedience, submission to the necessary discipline of war, skill in the performance of their duties, bold and daring courage in battle and humane treatment to the defeated foe, both officers and men continue to receive the highest encomiums of their commanders and deserve the lasting gratitude of every man, woman and child in the State and the nation. Illinois gives to our armies the best general of modern times.

"Although the war is not over, it is rapidly approaching the end. However formidable the rebellion at first, we have seen the worst of it. We have measured its breadth, sounded its depth and ascended to its height, and are bearing down upon it and crushing it out. It required nearly two years of dearly bought experience to learn its magnitude and discover the true means to be employed in halting its progress. There was always a well-founded belief, with a large portion of our people, that to speedily and certainly break the back-bone of the rebellion, it would be necessary to strike directly at the institution of slavery. So long, however, had this institution been fostered and protected by the indulgent sympathy of a vitiated public sentiment; so firmly were we convinced that, under our Constitution, it had found some sort of foothold; and, above all, so careful were we of the rights of our Southern brethren, and their delicate sensibilities upon this peculiar institution, that, to some extent, we had educated ourselves not to look fairly and squarely at the question; and I firmly believe, had the rebels remained true to the Union, and respected, in their true dignity, the rights of the people of the United States, and not sought, in a forcible appeal to arms, to divide and destroy the Nation and the Constitution, ages would have passed by before the wisdom and justice of man would have reached and stricken from the roll of human errors this monstrous evil upon our country. They went to war to make slavery the corner-stone of a new confederacy, and to build upon this error, in the very face of God, a hideous despotism. To do this, it was first essential that the only well established and divinely favored

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Republic should be destroyed, and they actually began the war for this purpose. Nor is this monstrous truth to be hidden or denied by all the falsehood and pretense — the slander and misrepresentation — that fiction can invent or man concoct. The public sentiment of the whole North and Northwest was, to let slavery alone, in the slave States, forever; but it has forfeited whatever of real or imaginary protection it ever was entitled to, and an impatient and outraged people will put up with its pretensions no longer. By a joint resolution of Congress of March 2, 1861, the following amendment was proposed to the Constitution of the United States: ‘No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State.’ And the Legislature of this State, at the session of 1863, ratified said amendment. It is well known that this amendment was proposed to conciliate the South — to show to them our temper on the slavery question; and thus, by a timely exhibition of moderation and forbearance, on the part of the administration coming into power, allay all cause for strife, or the pretense for it, on this embarrassing question. It was soon manifest, however, that no antidote could heal the mad spirit of rebellion. The South had deliberately prepared for the crisis, and were bent on involving the country in ruin. No concession could head off the furious purposes of these self-conceited and self-constituted usurpationists, who claimed, at last, the right to dictate who should and who should not be elected President of the United States. Another proposed amendment to the Constitution is now pending before Congress. It came near passing the last session. There are some reasons for believing it may yet be passed by the present Congress. This amendment is very unlike the one above quoted but, like the other, will, I hope, when it reaches our Legislature, receive its early sanction and approval. It is as follows:

Revolved, etc. (two thirds of both houses concurring), That the following article be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as an amendment of the Constitution of the United States, which, when ratified by three fourths of said Legislatures, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as a part of said Constitution, namely:

"ARTICLE XIII.

"SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

"SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

"These different amendments, proposed at different periods during the progress of the rebellion, show the marked change the sentiment of the country has undergone on this question. Moral convictions sometimes rest upon the demonstrations of moral proof. In this instance, there is the additional weight of moral consciousness, based upon the aggravated sufferings of a whole nation for nearly four years, arising solely out of this great evil — nor will the public sentiment of the country be checked or delayed, in its determination to eradicate slavery from the soil of the Republic by the constant inquiry, ‘What is to become of the negro after he is free?’ It might better be asked, what may not become of him? He can labor.

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He can learn. He can fight, improve and aspire, and if after we shall have tried, for as long to make him a useful free man as we have a useless slave, we shall fail, and he shall fail, there will be time enough left in which to solve this persistent question. If there were no other or higher motive for emancipation, I would still fervently advocate it as a punishment to traitors for the crime of treason, for it is useless to talk about ending the rebellion in any other way, than upon our own terms and conditions. If we cannot subdue them, to the extent of an unqualified cessation of hostilities against the National Government, and a positive return to obedience to the laws of the land, as they are honored and obeyed by every good citizen of the United States, we shall not have conquered them at all. The people of Illinois are not aiding in the prosecution of this war, with any view of at last, and when resistance to our laws is no longer possible, entering into any flimsy and deceptive compromise, to cajole ourselves and rebels into a fallacious and senseless settlement of the difficulties. They are in hostile rebellion against the National Government, savagely, and without cause, waging a cruel and barbarous war on us, and should be made to feel the strong arm of that government. When they lay down their arms and cry for peace, as they took them up and shouted for war, it will be time enough to arrange for them the terms upon which they shall be permitted to participate in the government. I do not adhere to the distinction so generally made between leader and follower in the monstrous offence. Both are guilty. But as it may be impossible, in the administration of justice, to reach all, those most prominent in guilt should be made to suffer most. In theory, I know no distinction amongst them; every man in rebellion against the United States is guilty of treason and deserves the punishment of death. Those who are not, and who have not been in rebellion, are not to be classed with them, in any event. They deserve and will receive the gratitude of the whole country in all time to come. Those who were forced to take up arms against their will deserve and will receive our clemency."

General Allen C. Fuller resigned the position of Adjutant-General of the State to take his seat in the General Assembly of which he was chosen Speaker of the House of Representatives. Naturally the appointment of a successor fell to a soldier, late the gallant colonel of the 18th.

General Isham Nicholas Haynie was horn on the 18th of November, 1824, near Dover, Tennessee, and emigrated with his parents to Illinois in 1830, settling in Marion county, where both his parents still reside. He began the study of law in June, 1844, and was licensed to practice in March, 1846. In 1847, when volunteers were called out for the Mexican war, he volunteered, and was commissioned by Gov. French, as First Lieutenant of Company C, 6th Illinois, commanded by Col. E. W. B. Newley. He was mustered in at Alton, in May, 1847, and served till the close of the war in 1848, being mustered out Oct. 12th. He then resumed the practice of law at Salem, and in 1850 was elected a member of the Illinois Legislature, serving

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during the sessions of 1851-52. In 1853 he graduated at the Louisville University with the highest honors of the law class, and thereupon resumed the practice of law until 1856, when he was appointed Judge of the Court of Common Pleas at Cairo, and removed his residence thither. In 1860 he was nominated on the Douglas ticket for Presidential elector from the old 9th District, and vigorously canvassed his district for Douglas and Democracy. He retired from the bench in 1861, and soon after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, declared in favor of the administration of Mr. Lincoln, and warmly supported him to the day of Mr. Lincoln's death.

In the fall of 1861 he raised and organized the 48th Illinois Infantry, and in September, 1861, was commissioned by Gov. Yates as its Colonel. In November he reported with his regiment to General Grant, at Cairo, and accompanied the army into Tennessee. He was at the taking of Fort Henry, and in the first assault upon Fort Donelson, Feb. 13, 1862, commanded a brigade. On the 15th his regiment formed a part of the brigade of the lamented W. H. L. Wallace, and remained on the field till ordered to withdraw. At the battle of Shiloh he was severely wounded while at the head of his regiment, but resumed command on the 23d of May following, and took part in the investment of Corinth. In the summer of 1862, he ran as the war candidate for Congress, in the 9th district, and was defeated by only 700 votes — the former Democratic majorities in the district being 1,300 or more. During the balance of the summer of 1862 he was in command of a brigade and the post of Bethel, Tennessee, near Corinth. He was appointed Brigadier-General by Mr. Lincoln in November, 1862, and served till March 4, 1863, when the failure of the Senate to act on the appointment made the same expire by limitation. He resumed the practice of law till December, 1864, and in the following month was appointed by Governor Oglesby Adjutant-General of the State, which position he now holds with great credit to himself and advantage to the people and the State.

General Haynie is entirely a self-made man. Till twenty years of age he was reared to hard labor on a farm, and thereafter prosecuted his studies and profession with no other aid than the means which he had himself earned. He has been a successful man, as is testified by a handsome private fortune and by an honored name as a citizen, a lawyer and a soldier.

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Chapter VIII. — Regiments and Batteries.

THE FIFTEENTH — FIRST ENLISTED FOR THREE YEARS — ITS PART AT SHILOH — BREVET BRIGADIER — GENERAL GEORGE C. ROGERS — THE SEVENTEENTH — ITS CAMPAIGNS — THE EIGHTEENTH — BREVET BRIGADIER-GENERAL JULES C. WEBBER — THE TWENTIETH — LIFE IN PRISONS — THE TWENTY-SECOND — THE TWENTY-THIRD — LIST OF BATTLES IN WHICH IT WAS ENGAGED — THE TWENTY-NINTH — RE-ENLISTMENT IN THE VETERAN SERVICE — THE THIRTIETH — A VETERAN REGIMENT — THE THIRTY-FIRST — THE CHARGE AT FORT HILL — THE THIRTY-SECOND — ELEVEN THOUSAND MILES OF MARCH — BUSTEED'S BATTERY — OLD BATTERIES A AND B, FIRST ARTILLERY — AN HONORABLE RECORD.

FIFTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

THE 15th Regiment was organized at Freeport, in April, 1861, and mustered into the United States service May 24th, being the first Illinois regiment mustered into the three years' service. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Thomas J. Turner; Lieutenant-Colonel, Edward F. Ellis; Major, Wm. R. Goddard; Adjutant, Cyrenus C. Clark; Quartermaster, Samuel Hice, Jr.; Surgeon, William J. McKim; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Harman A. Buck; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Leonard L. Lake; Chaplain, David E. Halteman.

Co. A — Captain, Louis D. Kelly; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel C. Joslyn; 2d Lieutenant, Mark Hathaway.

Co. B — Captain, William Haywood, 1st Lieutenant, David L. Baker; 2d Lieutenant, Addison N. Longcor.

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Co. C — Captain, Holder Brownell; 1st Lieutenant, Cyrenus C. Clark; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Bradley.

Co. D — Captain, Harley Wayne; 1st Lieutenant, Frank S. Curtis; 2d Lieutenant, Fred. A. Smith.

Co. E — Captain, James Rany; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel J. Benner; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Luke.

Co. F — Captain, John H. Paddock; 1st Lieutenant, William Henry; 2d Lieutenant, John J. Sears.

Co. G — Captain, James O. P. Burnside; 1st Lieutenant, R. C. McEathron; 2d Lieutenant, Albert Bliss, Jr.

Co. H — Captain, Morton D. Swift; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas J. Hewitt; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Gibbs.

Co. I — Captain, Joseph B. Jones; 1st Lieutenant, George C. Rogers; 2d Lieutenant, John S. Pratt.

Co. K — Captain, Adam Nase; 1st Lieutenant, James O'Brien; 2d Lieutenant, J. W. Puterbaugh.

On the 1st of June, the regiment proceeded to Alton, where it remained till the 1st of August, when it went to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. It then went to Rolla, Missouri, where it arrived in time to cover General Sigel's retreat from Wilson's Creek. On the 1st of October it marched to Tipton, where it joined General Fremont's grand army, and began a campaign in Missouri. Near Sedalia it assisted in the capture of 1,300 of the enemy. Thence it marched to Otterville, where it went into winter quarters on the 26th of December, remaining there till February 1, 1862. On the 7th of the latter month it was ordered to St. Louis, whence it proceeded to Fort Donelson, arriving on the morning of the surrender. Here it was assigned to Hurlbut's "Fighting Fourth Division." It then went to Pittsburg Landing, being the first regiment to disembark there. At the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April, the 15th was in the first line of battle, with the 77th and 53d Ohio regiments on either flank. At the first fire of the rebels, the Buckeyes broke and ran, and the enemy was soon on both flanks of the 15th, which bravely stood its ground for an hour, and until entirely cut up. It was in the final charge on the 7th, led by General Grant in person, which gave our army the victory. In this battle the 15th lost 252 men killed and wounded. Among the former were Lieutenant-Colonel E. F. W. Ellis, Major Goddard, Captains Brownell and Wayne and Lieutenant John W. Puterbaugh. It was in the advance on Corinth, when Colonel Turner, who had been absent on account

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of severe illness, again assumed command, but was obliged to give it up after the evacuation of that place. Captain George C. Rogers then took command of the regiment, and was soon afterward appointed Lieutenant-Colonel. After the evacuation of Corinth, the 15th marched to Grand Junction and Holly Springs, and on the 21st of July arrived at Memphis. After making numerous expeditions into the country, it broke camp at Memphis, on the 6th of September, and marched to Bolivar, Tennessee, and thence to the Hatchie River, and took an active part in the battle of the Hatchie, where General Hurlbut, with his division of 5,000 men, met 15,000 of the enemy on the retreat from Corinth, under VanDorn and Price, defeating them and capturing a large amount of property and many prisoners. It accompanied General Grant in his campaign through Northern Mississippi, and in the spring of '63 was ordered before Vicksburg, where it participated in the siege of that place, and was also with the army that pursued the rebel General Johnston to Jackson, Mississippi, taking part in the battle that was fought there, forcing the enemy to evacuate the city. It afterward, likewise, assisted in the reduction of Fort Beauregard, Louisiana, and was with General Sherman on his grand raid to Meridian, having a severe engagement with the enemy at Champion Hill, where it was deployed as skirmishers, and routed three regiments of rebel cavalry. The men now re-enlisted as veterans, and proceeded north on furlough, after the expiration of which they again returned south, and after a long and fatiguing series of marches, joined the grand army moving against Atlanta. Here, as attached to the brigade commanded by Colonel George C. Rogers, the regiment was detached with that command, and ordered to remain and fortify Allatoona Pass. While thus engaged, the 14th and 15th regiments, both in the same brigade, having become fearfully decimated, were consolidated by command of Major-General McPherson, and were afterward known as the Veteran Battalion, 14th and 15th Illinois Volunteers, the command numbering in all 625 men. After remaining at Allatoona for some days, the Veteran Battalion, with which the 14th regiment had become identified, was ordered to Marietta, Georgia, and thence to Ackworth, being detailed to guard the railroad at these places, the only communication of General Sherman. During this service, the

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battalion was constantly scouting through the country, and fighting guerrillas, until about the 1st of October, when the rebel General Hood with his army, then making a demonstration in the rear of Sherman, struck the railroad at Ackworth and Big Shanty, and after a fierce engagement succeeded in capturing a portion of the battalion. Those who escaped capture in this engagement now returned to Marietta, and after being mounted, started with General Sherman on his grand march to the sea. On this memorable incursion, the battalion acted as scouts, flankers, and advanced guard, and were the first to drive the rebel pickets inside their works at Savannah. During the long and arduous marches through the Carolinas, the battalion also accompanied General Sherman, being continually in the advance or on the flanks, skirmishing with the enemy. It was the first command to enter Cheneau, South Carolina, and Fayetteville, North Carolina, upon the capture of those places, and also participated in the battle of Bentonville. While at Goldsboro, recruits sufficient to refill both regiments were received, and the organization of the Veteran Battalion was discontinued from that time, and the 14th and 15th regiments re-organized. After the surrender of Johnston, the regiment marched to Richmond, and thence to Washington, where it participated in the grand review of Sherman's army, May 24, 1865, being afterward ordered to Louisville, Kentucky, and thence to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. It was sent for a short time to Fort Kearney, Nebraska, but soon returned to Fort Leavenworth, where it was mustered out on the 16th of September, 1865, and ordered to Springfield for final discharge. At that time its roster was as follows:

Colonel and Brevet-Brigadier-General, George C. Rogers; Lieutenant-Colonel, Lemuel O. Gilman; Major, Joseph Devlin; Adjutant, Andrew H. Hershey; Quartermaster, George A. Austin; Assistant Surgeon, Only P. B. Wright; Chaplain, Barton F. Rogers.

Co. A — 1st Lieutenant, George W. Thompson; 2d Lieutenant, David McGrath.

Co. B — Captain, Arthur Dawson; 1st Lieutenant, Charles W. White.

Co. D — Captain, Ezekiel Giles; 1st Lieutenant, Volney Bliss; 2d Lieutenant, Charles A. Harper.

Co. E — Captain, Benjamin F. Gardner; 1st Lieutenant, Henry M. Older.

Co. F — Captain, Jonathan M. Clendening; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin H. Riley.

Co. G — Captain, Albert Bliss, Jr.; 1st Lieutenant, Devalson J. Kimball; 2d Lieutenant, Augustus S. Chappell.

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Co. H — Captain, Edward Burrell; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas C. Shelly; 2d Lieutenant, William Dodds.

Co. I — Captain, Benjamin J. Gilford; 1st Lieutenant, Septio Roberts; 2d Lieutenant, William Derth.

Co. K — Captain, John A. Long; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob Paul; 2d Lieutenant, Tilghman Driesback.

During its term of service (four years and four months) the 15th mustered in an aggregate of 1,965 men, and at the date of its muster out numbered 640. It marched on foot 4,299 miles; traveled by rail, 2,403 miles; by steamer, 4,310; total, 11,012 miles.

General George C. Rogers was born at Piermont, New Hampshire, November 22, 1837, and came to the West in 1853. He was educated at Bradbury Academy, New Hampshire, and at Wauconda, Lake County, Illinois. He studied Law with Hon. E. P. Ferry, at Waukegan, and in 1860 was admitted to the bar, at Springfield. In that year he canvassed the State for Douglas. On the breaking out of the rebellion he raised the first company in Lake County, and went into the 15th regiment as First Lieutenant of Company I, and in September was made Captain. At the battle of Shiloh he was wounded four times, and while at home received from Governor Yates a commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment. After the battle of the Hatchie, he was appointed Colonel, in the place of Colonel Turner, who had resigned. At the battle of Champion Hills he was twice wounded. The works at Allatoona were built under his direction. In the Atlanta campaign he commanded a brigade, and in Washington, in June, 1865, he received his promotion by brevet as Brigadier-General — an honor fairly and bravely won. He was mustered out of the service with his regiment.

SEVENTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 17th regiment was organized at Peoria, and was mustered into the State service on the 13th of May, 1861, and into the United States service on the 24th of the same month. The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, Leonard Fulton Rosa; Lieutenant-Colonel, Enos P. Wood; Major, Francis M. Smith; Adjutant, Abraham H. Ryan; Quartermaster, Henry L. Smith; Surgeon, L. D. Kellogg; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Charles B. Tompkins; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Henry H. Penneman; Chaplain, Sanford A. Kingsbury.

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Co. A — Captain, Addison S. Norton; 1st Lieutenant, Abraham H. Ryan; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Robson.

Co. B — Captain, Benjamin T. Baldwin; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph L. Dodds; 2d Lieutenant, Albert W. Jones.

Co. C — Captain, Allen D. Rose; let Lieutenant, William Walsh; 2d Lieutenant, David A. Parks.

Co. D — Captain, Henry H. Bush; 1st Lieutenant, James McCartney; 2d Lieutenant, John J. Biggs.

Co. E — Captain, Francis M. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Roderick R. Harding; 2d Lieutenant, James C. Beswick.

Co. F — Captain, Josiah Moore; 1st Lieutenant, John R. Charter; 2d Lieutenant, Charles C. Williams.

Co. G — Captain, Otis A. Burgess; 1st Lieutenant, Jonathan H. Rowell; 2d Lieutenant, Frederick D. Callsen.

Co. H — Captain, Leonard F. Ross; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas A. Boyd ; 2d Lieutenant, Asias Willison.

Co. I — Captain, Enos P. Wood; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Saunders; 2d Lieutenant, Edward S. Bruington.

Co. K— Captain, James P. Walker; 1st Lieutenant, John Q. A. Jones; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew J. Bruner.

The 17th left Peoria on the 19th of June, 1861, for Alton, from whence it proceeded to Missouri, and was employed there and in Kentucky until the 20th of October, when it opened and engaged in the battle of Fredericktown, Missouri. It then remained at Cape Girardeau until February 6, 1862. It was at the taking of Fort Henry, February 10th, and Fort Donelson, February 12th. It was also in the three days' battle at Savannah, Tennessee, and in the battle of Shiloh, where it suffered severely. It next engaged in the siege of Corinth, frequently skirmishing with the enemy, but "more frequently using the shovel and the hoe." From Corinth it was ordered to Bethel, thence to Jackson, and on the 17th of July to Bolivar, where it was assigned to guard and provost duty. Here it remained till November, 1862, participating in an expedition to Iuka to reinforce General Rosecrans at the battle of that name, and in another to reinforce General Hurlbut at the battle of the Hatchie, but did not arrive in time to participate in either of those engagements. About the middle of November it was placed on duty at Lagrange, Tennessee, Colonel Norton commanding the post. Here it was continually on the alert, as this was the general depot for supplies for the armies south of this point. Early in December, it was ordered to Holly Springs and thence to Abbeville, where it

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remained till the surrender of the former place, when General Grant's forces were compelled to fall back for supplies. The regiment was soon after ordered to Memphis, remaining there till January 16, 1863, when it was sent to Vicksburg. A few days after arriving there, it proceeded to Lake Providence, Louisiana, then the headquarters of the 17th Army Corps. It remained on duty at this point until the operations for the investment of Vicksburg were commenced. Arriving at Milliken's Bend, La., on or about the 1st of May, it commenced the march across the Delta, to Perkins' Landing, on the Mississippi River, thence, via "Hard Times," to the place of crossing, below Grand Gulf, and advancing with McPherson's command, via Raymond, Champion Hills, Jackson, Big Black and to the final investment of Vicksburg, during which time it was on picket duty in the trenches before Vicksburg, on alternate days being employed as sharp-shooters. It remained in this position until the final capitulation of Vicksburg, when, having previously been assigned to General John A. Logan's division, it had the honor of marching into that city together with the other forces comprised in that division, on the final surrender of the city. Here, and in the vicinity of Big Black, it remained doing garrison duty, making frequent incursions into the enemy's country, once as far east as Meridian, under command of General Sherman, thence returning to Monroe, Louisiana, thence to Vicksburg and vicinity, where it remained until May, 1864. The term of service of the regiment expiring on the 24th of May this year, it was ordered to Springfield, Illinois, for muster out and final discharge; when and where those of the original organization, who did not re-enlist as veterans, were mustered out and discharged. A sufficient number not having enlisted to entitle them to retain their regimental organization, the veterans and recruits whose term of service had not expired, were consolidated with the 8th Illinois infantry, with whose history they were afterward identified, and were finally mustered out with that regiment, and discharged in the spring of 1866.

EIGHTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

This regiment was organized in Camp Anna, in the 9th Congressional District, under the "Ten Regiment Bill," and rendezvoused

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at Anna. On the 16th of May, 1861, it was mustered into the State service for thirty days by Captain U. S. Grant. On the 28th it was mustered into the three years' service, with the following roster:

Colonel, Michael K. Lawler; Lieutenant Colonel, Thomas H. Burgess; Major, Samuel Eaton; Adjutant, William B. Fondey; Quartermaster, John Olney; Surgeon, Henry W. Davis; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Orange B. Ormsby; 2d Assistant Surgeon, William W. Hipolite; Chaplain, Lewis Lambert.

Co. A — Captain, James Baird; 1st Lieutenant, James S. Craig; 2d Lieutenant, Henry S. Wilson.

Co. B — Captain Elias W. Jones; 1st Lieutenant, Cornelius C. Weaver; 2d Lieutenant, William Scanland.

Co. C — Captain, William S. Crawford; 1st Lieutenant, William J. Dillon; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew J. Ice.

Co. D — Captain, Jos. T. Cormick; 1st Lieutenant, Wimer Bedford; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Green.

Co. E — Captain, William Hunter; 1st Lieutenant, Edgar Potter; 2d Lieutenant, Charles H. Reed.

Co. F — Captain, Jabez J. Anderson; 1st Lieutenant, John Olney; 2d Lieutenant, William M. Thompson.

Co. G — Captain, Wilson M. Cooper; 1st Lieutenant, Nathan Crews; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Robinson.

Co. H — Captain, Richard R. Hopkins; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Moberly; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas G. Barnes.

Co. I — Captain, Samuel B. Marks; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Barton; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph Williams.

Co. K — Captain, Daniel H. Brush; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Lawrence; 2d Lieutenant, Argill Conner.

The regiment left camp on the 24th of June, and proceeded to Bird's Point, Mo. On the 27th of August, it was sent to Mound City, and on the 6th of October to Cairo. On the 1st of November, it was sent on a brief expedition to Bloomfield, returning on the 12th. Jan. 10, 1862, it took part in the reconnoissance before Columbus. It was at the taking of Fort Henry, and bore an active part in the capture of Fort Donelson, where it lost 50 killed and 150 wounded. It next participated in the battle of Shiloh, losing 10 killed and 65 wounded, and in the siege of Corinth. After the evacuation of that place, it joined in the pursuit of the enemy as far as Brownsville, when it returned to Jackson. Dec. 20th, it started in the pursuit of Forest, returning the following day. It remained at Jackson until May, 1863, doing garrison duty. In the spring of that year it was mounted, and participated in the pursuit of the guerrilla bands which infested that region, making frequent captures — at one time taking 37

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of Chalmers' guerrillas, including Col. Newsome and 12 of his men. April 29th it went to Covington, Tenn., and captured the town, where it had a brisk engagement with Roddy. On the 28th of May it was ordered to Vicksburg, via Memphis, and was one of the first regiments to occupy Haines' Bluff, where it constructed works for the defence of the rear against Johnston, occupying them until the surrender of Vicksburg. About the 10th of July it joined in General Steele's Little Rock expedition, and took part in the capture of the Arkansas capital on the 10th of September. Here it remained on garrison duty until October, when it was ordered to Pine Bluff, Ark. On the 18th it took an active part in the battle of Mount Elba, where it distinguished itself by sharp fighting. Early in December it was ordered back to Little Rock, and on the 16th re-enlisted for the veteran service, and was consolidated into three companies. On the 16th of March, 1864, seven new companies were assigned to the regiment, and Col. J. C. Webber commissioned as its commander. The regiment remained on guard duty at Little Rock until September, 1865, when it was ordered to Pine Bluff. Here it was engaged on guard duty, Col. Webber in command of the post, until Dec. 16th, when it was mustered out. It arrived at Springfield on the 31st, and was paid off and discharged on the 8th of January, 1866.

It is related of the 18th that it was composed very largely of the friends and supporters of Senator Douglas, by whose influence, as exerted in the last grand efforts of his life, they were induced to enter the army, and warmly to support the Government in its hour of need.

Col. Jules C. Webber was born at Mayville, Chautauque county, N. Y., August 27, 1838. At an early age he emigrated to Michigan, where he resided until 1850, when he took up his residence in Grundy county, Ill. Here he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in February, 1861. He entered into partnership with Richard Ritter, afterward Colonel of the 28th Illinois. Col. Webber raised a company of volunteers for the army, and proceeded with it to Springfield, but was unable to secure its acceptance, and was compelled to disband it. Hearing of the organization of the 18th regiment in the southern portion of the State, he proceeded to Anna, and enlisted as a private. He rose step by step until June 6, 1865, when he was

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commissioned Colonel of the regiment. At the conclusion of the war he was brevetted a Brigadier-General for "gallant and meritorious conduct." He is now Adjutant-General of the "Grand Army of the Republic."

TWENTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 20th regiment was organized at Joliet by companies from different counties, as follows: A, from Champaign county; B, from Will; C, McLean; D, Livingston; E, DeWitt; F, Will and Bureau; G, Kankakee; H, Putnam and LaSalle; I, Iroquois; K, Kendall; and when mustered into the service on June 13, 1861, numbered 924 men. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, C. Carroll Marsh; Lieutenant-Colonel, William Erwin; Major, John W. Goodwin; Adjutant, John E. Thompson; Quartermaster, John Spicer; Surgeon, Christopher Goodbrake; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Fred. K. Bailey; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Rolla T. Richards; Chaplain, Charles Button.

Co. A — Captain, John S. Wolfe; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel Bradley; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Kennard.

Co. B — Captain, Fred. A. Bartleson; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Goodwin; 2d Lieutenant, John F. Cleghorn.

Co. C — Captain, John O. Pullen; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Champion; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew J. Taylor.

Co. D — Captain, John A. Hoskins; 1st Lieutenant, Joshua Whitmore; 2d Lieutenant, John A. Fellows.

Co. E — Captain, Evan Richards; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. Pharres; 2d Lieutenant, James M. North.

Co. F — Captain, William Erwin; 1st Lieutenant, James E. Shields; 2d Lieutenant, James E. Shields.

Co. G — Captain, James W. Burgess; 1st Lieutenant, John Tunison; 2d Lieutenant, Cephas Williams.

Co. H — Captain, Orton Frisbie; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Whiting; 2d Lieutenant, John M. Powell.

Co. I — Captain, George H. Walser; 1st Lieutenant, George E. King; 2d Lieutenant, John C. Tobias.

Co. K — Captain, Reuben F. Dyer; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin Olin; 2d Lieutenant, John R. McKean.

The first severe battle in which the Twentieth participated was at Fredericktown, Mo., October 21, 1861. After this it remained for some months encamped at Cape Girardeau, and when again called into active service, in the spring of 1862, participated in the following battles: Fort Henry, February 10, 1862; Fort Donelson, February 13,

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14 and 15; Shiloh, April 6; siege of Corinth; Britten's Lane, September 1; Thompson's Hill, May 1, 1863; Raymond, May 12; Jackson, May 14; Champion's Hill, May 10; Vicksburg from May 19 to July 4, during the siege. In this siege it was engaged in the celebrated charges on Fort Hill, on May 22d and June 22d. After Vicksburg had fallen, it remained on guard in its vicinity until Sherman's Meridian raid, on which it took its full share in the battles of Clinton and Chunkeys' Station. After the raid it returned to Vicksburg, and thence home, on veteran furlough, in the month of March, 1864. At this time only one hundred and ninety-seven of the old members remained in the regiment. On its return to service, it joined Sherman at Big Shanty, and under him was engaged in the first charge on Kenesaw Mountain, and the subsequent great battle there on June 27, 1864. Subsequently it participated in the great battles of July 21st and 22d before Atlanta, and on the last mentioned date the enemy managed to flank it, and captured the entire regiment, with the exception of thirteen men and two or three officers. When the detailed squad was sent back, its total strength was thirty-five men, commanded by Capt. King, all the rest being in Andersonville, Charleston and other Southern prisons. This small remnant was mounted and employed in scouting service on Sherman's "march down to the sea," until it reached Goldsboro, N. C., where it received two hundred and fifty recruits, was rejoined there and at Alexandria by nearly all the former members of the regiment who lived, and had, by this time, been exchanged, and once more it resumed its character as a regimental organization. It was present in the grand review at Washington, and thence returned, via Louisville, to Chicago, where it arrived June 19, 1865, for final muster and discharge. It brought home twenty-one officers and three hundred and twenty-two men, of whom only about seventy were in the original nine hundred and twenty-four of which the regiment was composed in 1861.

TWENTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

In the first volume of this work (p. 307), we have given the original roster of this regiment and a sketch of its career up to the time of its marching to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville. It passed

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the winter of 1863-'4 among the mountains of East Tennessee. Early in the spring it moved to London, Tennessee, thence to Cleveland, marching thence under General Sherman, and was engaged in the two days' fighting at Resaca. It was afterward, for eleven days and nights, under fire in the trenches at Ackworth, Georgia. It left this point on the 10th of June, and was mustered out of service on the 7th of July, 1864.

TWENTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

In Vol. I. (p. 367 et seq.), we have given the original roster of this regiment and the history of its career until the battle of Winchester, West Va., July 25, 1864, when its brave commander, Col. Mulligan, was killed. After this battle, the 23d participated in all the campaigns of Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and more than once avenged the death of its chief, under the respective commands of Captains Fitzgerald, Moriarty and Simpson. After the total overthrow of Early in the Valley, it was ordered to the Army of the James, and, under Captain Ryan, took part in the great last movement of Grant. The Yates Phalanx, 39th Illinois, and the Chicago Irish Brigade, 23d Illinois, both successfully stormed Fort Gregg, the key to Petersburg, taking the fort at the point of the bayonet, and under a most disastrous fire. The 23d shared with the old Army of the Potomac the honor of driving the rebel armies to the "last ditch" of the defunct rebellion. After the surrender of Lee's army, the regiment was ordered back to Richmond, and did duty near that city up to the date of its muster out, in July, 1865, when it returned to Chicago. During its entire term of service, up to Richmond, it received but about one hundred recruits. Two hundred men who enlisted for the 23d were sent off down to Sherman's army, and the regiment never saw any of them but two, who had been captured by the enemy, escaped and rejoined at Richmond the command for which they originally enlisted. At Richmond they received five companies of recruits. The following are some of the principal battles in which this regiment was engaged: Lexington, Sept., 1861 (nine days' fighting); Moorfield, W. Va., Jan. 3, 1863; Philippi, W. Va., April 26, 1863; Petersburg Gap, W. Va., Oct., 1863; Medley, W. Va., Jan. 30, 1864; Leetown, W. Va., July 3,

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1864; Shepherdstown, W. Va., July 3, 1864; Maryland Heights, Md., July 6, 7 and 8, 1864; Snicker's Gap, July 17, 1864; Winchester, July 23 and 24, 1864; Martinsburg, July 25, 1864; Cedar Creek, Aug. 13, 1864; Halltown, Aug. 22 and 23, 1864; Berryville, Sept. 3, 1864; Opequan Creek (or second Winchester), Sept. 19, 1864; Fiser's Hill, Sept. 22, 1864; Cedar Creek, Oct. 13, 1864; Hatcher's Run, March 31, April 1 and 2, 1865; Fort Gregg, April 7, 1865.

In addition to these, detached companies have had desperate engagements, as follows: Companies B, D and K, South Fork of the Potomac, Nov. 12, 1862; company K, Fairmount, April, 1863; company I, Rowesburg, April, 1863; company I, Wolfsden, Oct., 1863; company C, Williamsport, Jan. 3, 1864; companies C, D and K, Moorfield, Jan., 1865; company D, Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865; company G, Greenland, April 25, 1863.

The last named company engagement, by company G, under Captain Wallace, was one of the most desperate engagements during the war. They were in a church when attacked by the rebels, killed more than their own number of the enemy, and then only surrendered when the building in which they were was set on fire.

TWENTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 29th regiment was organized at Camp Butler, and mustered into the service July 27, 1861. The original roster is as follows:

Colonel, James S. Reardon; Lieutenant-Colonel, James E. Dunlap; Major, Mason Brayman; Adjutant, Aaron R. Stout; Quartermaster, Ebenezer Z. Ryan; Surgeon, Charles C. Guard; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Samuel L. Cheaney; Chaplain, Zenas S. Clifford.

Co. A — Captain, Charles M. Ferrell; 1st Lieutenant, David R. Jones; 2d Lieutenant, Lorenzo D. Martin.

Co. B — Captain, George W. McKenzie; 1st Lieutenant, John D. Jamison; 2d Lieutenant, George C. Jamison.

Co. C — Captain, John A. Callicott; 1st Lieutenant John M. Eddy; 2d Lieutenant, Alfred DeWitt.

Co. D — Captain, John S. Whiting; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Hart; 2d Lieutenant, Eberlee P. H. Stone.

Co. E — Captain, William H. Parish; 1st Lieutenant, William Choisser; 2d Lieutenant, William W. Burnett.

Co. F — Captain, James Roper; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Belford; 2d Lieutenant, Richard M. Bozman.

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Co. G — Captain, Soloman S. Brill; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Wakefield; 2d Lieutenant, Theodore Millspaugh.

Co. H — Captain, Jason B. Sprague; 1st Lieutenant, Abner Hosteller; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Stewart.

Co. I — Captain, Augustus O. Millington; 1st Lieutenant, Marshall M. McIntyre; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel H. Russell.

Co. K — Captain, John A. Carmichael; 1st Lieutenant, Elijah P. Curtis; 2d Lieutenant, William T. Day.

In September, 1861, the regiment was ordered to Cairo. Here it remained, save when engaged in expeditions into Missouri and Kentucky, until the capture of Fort Henry, in February, 1862, when it was the first regiment to enter the rebel works after their evacuation. It next participated in the capture of Fort Donelson, where it suffered severely. It bore a most honorable part at the battle of Shiloh, and was engaged in the subsequent siege of Corinth. On the 6th of June, it was removed to Jackson, Tenn. While here, it engaged in several expeditions to various points in West Tennessee, and formed part of the force sent by General Grant to reinforce General Rosecrans at the time of the attack on Corinth. It arrived too late to take part in the battle, but pursued the retreating rebels, inflicting serious damage. On the 18th of December, Lieutenant-Colonel Kent was sent with two companies to the reinforcement of Jackson, and on the 20th, Colonel Murphy, commandant at Holly Springs, disgracefully surrendered his command, which included eight companies of the 29th Illinois. The men were paroled and sent to Benton Barracks, St. Louis, where they remained until exchanged in July, 1863. The remaining two companies were assigned to duty in the Western navy, where they served with honorable distinction in the siege of Vicksburg. In October, 1863, the regiment was reenlisted; and a few days later the 131st Illinois was consolidated with it. On the 31st of December, 1863, the regiment was sent to Natchez, Mississippi. Here in the succeeding month it re-enlisted in the veteran service, and received veteran furloughs at Springfield on the 19th of July, 1864. On the 22d of August it left Springfield for Natchez, where it remained until October, when it went to the mouth of White River, and from thence to Paducah, Ky. In the latter part of November it returned to Memphis. It took part in the expedition sent into East Tennessee, and on the 1st of January, 1865,

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went to New Orleans. It then took part in the campaign against Mobile, and was actively engaged at the siege of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. On the 12th of April, it marched into the city of Mobile. On the 20th of June it left for Galveston, Texas, and proceeded thence to various points in that State, where it remained until the 6th of November, 1865, when it was mustered out of the service. It arrived at Camp Butler November 25th, and three days later was paid off and discharged.

THIRTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 30th regiment was mustered into the service at Camp Butler, August 28, 1861, with an aggregate strength of 992 men. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Philip B. Fouke; Lieutenant-Colonel, Elias S. Dennis; Major, Thomas McClurken; Adjutant, George A. Bacon; Quartermaster, William Busbyshell; Surgeon, William A. Gordon; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John J. Turner; Chaplain, Williamson F. Boyakin.

Co. A — Captain, Warren Shedd; 1st Lieutenant, Nathaniel R. Kirkpatrick; 2d Lieutenant, Francis G. Burnett.

Co. B — Captain, John P. Davis; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Goodell; 2d Lieutenant, William Huffmaster.

Co. C — Captain, James R. Wilson; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander M. Wilson; 2d Lieutenant, Alfred Parks.

Co. D — Captain, Thomas G. Marckley; 1st Lieutenant, Michael Langton; 2d Lieutenant, George L. Gordon.

Co. E — Captain, John C. Johnson; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin H. Kline; 2d Lieutenant, John C. Johnson.

Co. F — Captain, Cyrus A. Bradshaw; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander Bielaski; 2d Lieutenant, John W, Martin.

Co. G — Captain, James Burnett; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. Calhoun; 2d Lieutenant, Orla C. Richardson.

Co. H — Captain, William C. Rhoads; 1st Lieutenant, Sidney Hall; 2d Lieutenant, William M. Gibson.

Co. I — Captain, Robert Allen; 1st Lieutenant, William C. Kesner; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Taylor.

Co. K — Captain, Alexander H. Johnson; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Nichols; 2d Lieutenant, James L. Dougherty.

The regiment left for the field on the 1st of September, and was stationed at Cairo. While here it made two or three reconnoissances in the direction of Columbus. On the 7th of November it

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was engaged in the battle of Belmont, where it did good service, capturing the celebrated Watson's New Orleans battery, and, with the 31st Illinois, charging into the enemy's camp and burning it. On the 10th of January, 1862, it went to Fort Jefferson, and thence proceeded on a heavy reconnoissance through Kentucky, returning to Cairo on the 22d. It was at the taking of Fort Henry, and took part in the siege and capture of Fort Donelson. It was next in the advance upon and siege of Corinth. On the 4th and 5th of June, it marched from Corinth to Bethel, and on the 8th took possession of Jackson, Tennessee. Near Medan Station, Mississippi, on the 1st of September, it met the rebel cavalry, 6,000 strong, and after four hours hard fighting it drove them off, gaining a brilliant victory. After marching to various points, it reached Memphis, January 19, 1863. February 22d, it left Memphis for Lake Providence, Louisiana. It was engaged in the battle of Raymond, May 12th. After the battle of Jackson, it participated in the pursuit of the defeated rebels. May 16th it took part in the battle of Champion Hills, losing heavily. It actively participated in the siege of Vicksburg until June 23d, when it moved to Black River and joined General Sherman's army, then watching the operations of the rebel General Johnston. It assisted in the investment of Jackson, and after the evacuation of that place returned to Vicksburg. It was in the engagement at Bogachitta Creek in October, returning to Vicksburg the same month. On the 1st of January, 1864, it re-enlisted as a veteran regiment. On the 3d of February it started with General Sherman on the Meridian campaign, participating in several skirmishes on the route, arriving at Meridian on the 15th. March 5th it left Vicksburg for Camp Butler, on veteran furlough. On the 18th of April, it again left Camp Butler for Cairo. On the 28th it started on the "Tennessee River Expedition," under General Gresham. It marched to Clifton, Tennessee, Pulaski, Athens, and Huntsville, Alabama. It joined General Sherman's grand army at Ackworth, Georgia, June 8th. On the 10th it moved to Big Shanty, and commenced skirmishing with the enemy. On the 27th it moved out on a demonstration against the enemy, and lost twenty in killed and wounded. On the 20th it arrived at Decatur, and was in the battles of July 21st and 22d, near Atlanta, losing heavily. It was actively engaged in

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skirmishing until the fall of Atlanta, and participated in the movement against Jonesboro. It also took part in Sherman's pursuit of Hood in his march northward. On the 15th of November it left Atlanta upon the grand march to the sea, and took part in the Carolina campaign. It was present at the grand review at Washington, and was mustered out at Louisville, July 17th, arriving at Camp Butler, on the 20th, for final payment and discharge.

THIRTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 31st regiment was organized at Cairo, and was mustered into the service on the 18th of September, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, John A. Logan; Lieutenant-Colonel, John H. White; Major, Andrew J. Kuykendall; Adjutant, Charles H. Capehart; Quartermaster, Lindorf Osburn; 1st Assistant Surgeon, David T. Whitnell.

Co. A — Captain, John D. Rees; 1st Lieutenant, John Campbell; 2d Lieutenant, Davidson C. Moore.

Co. B — Captain, Thomas J. Cain; 1st Lieutenant, Cressa K. Davis; 2d Lieutenant, Sterne W. Fogy.

Co. C — Captain, William A. Looney; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel R. Pulley; 2d Lieutenant, John H. White.

Co. D — Captain, James H. Williamson; 1st Lieutenant, Robert C. Nelson; 2d Lieutenant, Levi B. Casey.

Co. E — Captain, Irvin G. Batson; 1st Lieutenant, Josephus C. Gilliland; 2d Lieutenant, Robert E. Elmore.

Co. F — Captain, John W. Rigby; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Goddard; 2d Lieutenant, James M. Hale.

Co. G — Captain, Willis A. Stricklin; 1st Lieutenant, Larkin M. Riley; 2d Lieutenant, Simpson S. Stricklin.

Co. H — Captain, Orsamus Greenlee; 1st Lieutenant, Horace L. Bowyer; 2d Lieutenant, Jesse Robberds.

Co. I — Captain, Edwin S. McCook; 1st Lieutenant, John Mooneyham; 2d Lieutenant, Robert A. Bowman.

Co. K — Captain, Alexander S. Summerville; 1st Lieutenant, Charles H. Capehart, 2d Lieutenant, Levi E. Morris.

The 31st was engaged at the battle of Belmont, November, 1861, where it behaved with conspicuous gallantry. It next participated in the reconnoissances into Kentucky, in which the men suffered greatly from exposure. It was at the taking of Fort Henry, and at the siege and capture of Fort Donelson, where it lost 260

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men killed and wounded. On the 22d of April, it left the latter place for Pittsburg Landing, and participated in the movement upon Corinth until the evacuation of that place, from whence it marched to Jackson, Tennessee. Here it remained until November 1st, being occasionally sent out on reconnoissances of no great importance — except the reinforcement of Rosecrans at Corinth, where it arrived only in time to pursue the fleeing rebels, whom it followed as far as Ripley, Mississippi, and then returned to Jackson. On the 1st of November it marched from Jackson to Lagrange, Tennessee, thence on General Grant's "Yockna expedition," returning to Tallahatchie, where it remained during the year. Early in January, 1863, it moved to Lagrange, thence to Colliersville, thence to Memphis, and thence to Lake Providence, Louisiana. On the 1st of April it was again on the march, and on the 27th arrived at Milliken's Bend. On the 1st of May, it received orders to move immediately to General McClernand's assistance, he having, at the time, a severe engagement with the enemy at Thompson's Hills. At the time of starting on this march, the regiment was without rations and had had nothing to eat since the night previous. Colonel McCook, then commanding, asked the boys what they would do under the circumstances, and the unanimous response, with three cheers, was to go anyway. A march of twelve miles was made in three hours, and the regiment came up to the enemy, turned their right flank, and thus saved the day. On the next morning the regiment crossed the Bayou Pierre, and on the 3d came up with the enemy and defeated them again at Ingrain's Hights. The retreating foe was still pursued with constant skirmishing until the 12th, when they again made a stand at Raymond, but were driven to Jackson, Mississippi, where a severe fight ensued in which the enemy was also defeated. On the 16th, the 31st again engaged the rebels at Champion Hills, and won the field, after which the command was moved to the defenses before Vicksburg, at which place it engaged in the entire siege up to the surrender on July 4th, and participating in several sharp fights, among them the charge on Fort Hill, in which the regiment lost two officers and eight men killed and forty wounded. The flag of the command in this battle also received one hundred and fifty three shots, and the staff was shot in two four times. On the 7th of November, after the

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surrender of Vicksburg, the regiment moved out to Big Black River, at which place it veteraned January 5, 1864. On the 3d of February, the command moved with General Sherman on the great raid to Meridian, a distance of three hundred miles, returning to the same camping ground on March 3d. The 31st also accompanied the gallant General Sherman in his grand movement through Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama. On June 19th it engaged in the battle of Bush Mountain, on June 27th in the fight of Kenesaw Mountain, and participated in all the battles, skirmishes and marches made by the 3d division during the siege of Atlanta, among them the memorable battles of the 21st and 22d of July and the 31st of August at Lovejoy Station. The regiment also accompanied the army in pursuit of General Hood, and in the march to the sea, having no communication with home for upward of fifty days. On the 24th of May, the regiment crossed the Potomac and participated in the grand review of Sherman's army, in Washington, on the 20th of July, and was mustered out of service and ordered to Springfield, where it arrived on the 23d. The 31st regiment at its muster out comprised twenty-five commissioned officers and six hundred and seventy-seven enlisted men. When organized it numbered 1,130, and recruited, after that time, 700 men. There were killed in action, died of wounds and disease, and discharged, 1,128 officers and men. The following was the final roster of the regiment:

Colonel, R. N. Pearson; Lieutenant-Colonel, W. B. Shaw; Major, James N. Sanders; Adjutant, F. B. Thacker; Quartermaster, J. B. Davis; Surgeon, Gus Suhfras; Chaplain, J. Cole.

Co. A — Captain, Dul Quillman; 1st Lieutenant, James R. Tyler; 2d Lieutenant John M. Brown.

Co. B — Captain, W. W. Sargent; 1st Lieutenant, William Dillard; 2d Lieutenant, J. J. Dunn.

Co. C — Captain, S. C. Mooningham; 1st Lieutenant, W. S. Morris; 2d Lieutenant, A. H. Wilson.

Co. D — Captain, J. W. Toler; 1st Lieutenant, H. Y. Mangum; 2d Lieutenant, J. M. Bridges.

Co. E — Captain, J. H. Penegar; 1st Lieutenant, M. L. Coonce; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Parhamus.

Co. F — Captain, J. P. Carnes; 1st Lieutenant, J. H. Hunter; 2d Lieutenant, L. D. Hartwell.

Co. G — Captain, M. J. Potts; 1st Lieutenant, W. S. Blackmail; 2d Lieutenant, William Stricklin.

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Co. H — Captain, A. M. Jinkins; 1st Lieutenant, S. P. Steel; 2d Lieutenant, W. A. York.

Co. I — Captain, Isaac Wirt; 1st Lieutenant, W. F. Stickney; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel Wirt.

Co. K — Captain, J. W. Stewart; 1st Lieutenant, H. C. Lewis; 2d Lieutenant, M. S. Barney.

The regiment had from its organization four Colonels, five Lieutenant-Colonels, six Majors and three Surgeons. No company of the regiment had less than nine officers, and the only officer in the regiment, at its discharge, who held a commission at the time of enlisting, was the Chaplain.

Brevet Brigadier-General Robert N. Pearson was born in Fayetteville, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, on the 9th day of January, 1841, where he lived with his father until October, 1859, (during which time he learned the trade of bricklayer), when he emigrated to Illinois, where he resided until the breaking out of the rebellion in 1861. In April, he enlisted as a private under Captain (afterwards Major-General) B. M. Prentiss, at Quincy, Illinois, for the period of three months. During the three months he was promoted to corporal and then to second sergeant, in which grade he was mustered out at the expiration of service. He returned to his residence in Quincy, Illinois, but not feeling satisfied at home, went to Cairo, and on the 18th of September, 1861, enlisted as a private in Company K, 31st Illinois (John A. Logan's). At the time of enlistment he did not know a man in the regiment. He served as private until the 1st of March, 1862, when he was promoted to commissary sergeant. But this being rather dull, he was reduced to the ranks at his own request, and again took the musket, and on the 16th day of May, 1862, was appointed Adjutant of the regiment for gallant and meritorious conduct at Belmont, Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. He served in this capacity until the 24th day of February, 1863, when he was promoted to Major of the regiment by a unanimous vote of the officers, and served as Major until July 1, 1863, when he was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel for meritorious conduct during the battles before and siege of Vicksburg. On the 26th of September, 1864, he was promoted to Colonel of the regiment, and on the 13th day of March, 1865, was brevetted Brigadier-General for brave and gallant conduct during the war, and on the 19th of July, 1865, was

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mustered out of the service with his regiment. With the exception of one leave of absence for twenty days, he never was absent from his regiment, and was engaged in all the battles in which the regiment took a part, from the time of muster in until the final muster out. He is now employed in the Adjutant-General's office at Springfield.

THIRTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 32d regiment was organized at Camp Butler, and was mustered into the service on the 31st of December, 1861. Its original roster was as follows:

Colonel, John Logan; Lieutenant Colonel, John W. Ross; Major, John S. Bishop; Adjutant, James F. Drish; Quartermaster, Charles A. Morton; Surgeon, William S. Edgar; 1st Assistant Surgeon, George B. Christy; 2d Assistant John J. Gilmer; Chaplain, Asaph C. Vandewater.

Co. A — Captain, Henry Davidson; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph S. Rice; 2d Lieutenant, John Berry.

Co. B — Captain, William J. Pierce; 1st Lieutenant, James J. Searight; 2d Lieutenant, John H. Allen.

Co. C — Captain, Thaddeus Phillips; 1st Lieutenant, Abram D. Keller; 2d Lieutenant, Josiah Burrough.

Co. D — Captain, George H. English; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel McLennan; 2d Lieutenant, James W. Mitchell.

Co. E — Captain, Alfred C. Campbell; 1st Lieutenant, Richard W. Babbett; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Edgar.

Co. F — Captain, George W. Jenks; 1st Lieutenant, Smith Townsend; 2d Lieutenant, John Laboytaux.

Co. G — Captain, Jonathan Moore; 1st Lieutenant, Robert H. Stevenson; 2d Lieutenant, Charles A. Eames.

Co. H — Captain, John B. Duncan; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. Wright; 2d Lieutenant, John York.

Co. I — Captain, Samuel Cummings; 1st Lieutenant, Josiah Y. Ellas; 2d Lieutenant, William Ulm.

Co. K — Captain, Samuel B. Crowley; 1st Lieutenant, John J. Rider; 2d Lieutenant, Theodore Schifferstein.

On the 31st of January, 1862, the regiment left camp for Cairo. On the 2d of February it was ordered to Bird's Point, and on the 8th ordered to join General Grant in the field. It was in the battle of Shiloh on the 5th of April, where it lost very heavily. It remained in the advance on Corinth, and about the 1st of July made the march to Coldwater under the most trying circumstances. It was

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in the fight near Grand Junction on the 21st of September, where our forces, being confronted by a vastly superior force, were compelled to retreat to Bolivar. On the 5th of October, being on the march to relieve Rosecrans at Corinth, it met the enemy at the battle of the Hatchie, where it bore a gallant part, and where the enemy were badly defeated, though greatly outnumbering our forces. November 8th, while on a reconnoissance in force from Lagrange southward, our troops surprised and captured 100 rebel cavalry at Lamar, Tennessee. The infantry took no part in this skirmish, arriving on the ground in time only to see the enemy routed. From this date until the siege of Corinth the 32d saw no fighting, but were engaged in marching from place to place, remaining but a short time in any of them. From the 25th of December until January 8, 1863, it was engaged in guard and fatigue duty, subsisting on the country. In March, the 32d moved to Memphis, where it remained till May, when it was ordered down the river, and on the 11th embarked for Young's Point, La. It took part in the movement on Vicksburg, garrisoning Young's Point until June 12th, when the post was abandoned, and the garrison sent to the intrenchments. On the 27th the regiment was ordered to garrison Warrenton. After the fall of Vicksburg it was ordered to join the expedition against Jackson, which was very trying to the troops, worn out as they were with the fatigues and perils of the siege of Vicksburg. On the 5th of December it arrived at Natchez. An attack on the place was expected, and General Gresham, commanding, made preparations to meet it. The expectation proved groundless, and no fight was had at that time. On the 23d of January, 1864, the 32d left Natchez for Vicksburg, where, on the 2d of February, a sufficient number of the men enlisted as veterans to retain the regimental organization, and were re-mustered. On the 4th the regiment started on the Meridian expedition, and on its conclusion returned to Vicksburg. On the 16th of March, it was ordered home on veteran furlough. On the 28th of April, it again left Camp Butler for Bird's Point, Mo., thence for Clifton, Tennessee, and joined the main army at Ackworth, June 11th. At the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, June 12th, the 32d occupied an exposed position in the advance. It was again in the advance in the assault upon the enemy at Nickojack Creek, and was the first to plant its colors upon

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the enemy's works. The rebels then withdrew to a strongly fortified position on the Chattahoochie River, whence they were driven back to Atlanta. From this time till the grand march to the sea began, the regiment saw but little fighting. In October it began the march, participating in that and the Carolina campaign. At Bentonville five companies of the 32d were engaged and suffered severely. It took part in the grand review at Washington, and then proceeded to Louisville, Kentucky, and on the 22d of June, 1865, was sent to St. Louis, and thence to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. It was then sent to Fort Kearney, Nebraska, and on arriving there returned to Fort Leavenworth. Here it was mustered out of the service on the 16th of September, having up to that time traveled about 11,000 miles.

BATTERY C, CHICAGO LIGHT ARTILLERY.
(BUSTEED'S BATTERY)

In August and September, 1861, Captain Richard J. Busteed recruited a battery of light artillery, which was known as "Busteed's Battery," and was mustered into the service at the Republican Wigwam, in Chicago, on the 28th of September, as Battery C, Chicago Light Artillery. The following is the original roster:

Captain, Richard J. Busteed; Senior 1st Lieutenant, Albert Cudney; Junior 1st Lieutenant, Robert J. Parker; Senior 2d Lieutenant, Samuel A. McClellan; Junior 2d Lieutenant, — Rogers.

The battery left Chicago for Washington on the 1st of October, 1861, arriving there on the 4th. After drilling for a few weeks, orders were issued from the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, disbanding the battery and transferring the men as follows: To Battery G, 1st N. Y. Artillery, 2d Lieutenant McClellan and 65 men; to Battery B, 1st N. Y. Artillery, 2d Lieutenant Rogers and 43 men; to the 4th N. Y. Independent Battery, 8 men; to Captain Tidball's (regular) Battery, 3 men; to Battery E, 1st N. Y. Artillery, Lieutenant Robert J. Parker. As this battery thus ceased to be an Illinois organization, we must leave it here, only remarking that the conduct of both officers and men in their new positions, was such as to do honor to our Prairie State.

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FIRST ARTILLERY REGIMENT.

The following are the original regimental officers of the 1st artillery regiment:

Colonel, Joseph D. Webster; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles H. Adams; Major, Ezra Taylor; Quartermaster, John Dismant, Jr.; Surgeon, Edmund Andrews; 1st Assistant-Surgeon, John M. Woodworth; 2d Assistant-Surgeon, William T. Kirk; Chaplain, Jeremiah Porter.

As the various companies of the artillery regiments were seldom or never together, we are compelled to give them separately, and commence with

BATTERIES A AND B, FIRST ARTILLERY.

Battery A was composed of the veterans of old Batteries A and B, Chicago Light Artillery, whose histories are necessarily separate until their consolidation. The original rosters were as follows:

Co. A — Captain, Charles M. Willard; Senior 1st Lieutenant, Francis Morgan; Junior 1st Lieutenant, Peter P. Wood; Senior 2d Lieutenant, Edgar P. Tobey; Junior 2d Lieutenant, John W. Rumsey.

Co. B — Captain, Ezra Taylor; Senior 1st Lieutenant, Samuel E. Barrett; Junior 1st Lieutenant, Levi W. Hart; Senior 2d Lieutenant, P. H. White; Junior 2d Lieutenant, I. P. Rumsey.

Old Battery A, Chicago Light Artillery, Captain James Smith, was recruited on the 19th of April, 1861, and in the short space of three hours was filled to the maximum for a six-gun battery. It left Chicago on the 21st of April, with other troops, under General Swift, for Cairo, arriving at that place on the 22nd. It remained in camp at Cairo till September, when, under Grant, it was sent to Paducah to take possession of and hold that place. From Paducah the battery made several marches, and in February, 1862, it formed a part of an expedition up the Tennessee River, for the reduction of Forts Henry and Hindman. It took possession of and held the latter fort, while Commodore Foote captured Fort Henry. On the 13th of February it received orders to march to Fort Donelson, which point it reached on the 15th, and, under General Lew. Wallace, was thrown between the rebels and General McClernand's troops, while the latter were being driven off. It was in all of the two days' fight at Shiloh, on the 6th losing one third of its members and one half the

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horses, but no guns. It was in the reserve division in the siege of Corinth, was sent across the country to Memphis under General Lew. Wallace, and there became permanently attached to the command of Gen. W. T. Sherman, being in the 2d Division, 15th Army Corps. It was with that corps at Chickasaw Bayou, covering the 6th Missouri regiment in its memorable charge. At Arkansas Post it was conspicuous and rendered effective service in the capture of the enemy's works, and also accompanied General Sherman in the "feint" on Haines' Bluff. It also placed in position and served a battery of 30-pound Parrots, at Young's Point. On the 10th of May, it was conspicuous in the battle of Champion Hills, and on the next day the battery had a skirmish at Bridgeport, and from thence advanced on Vicksburg. After taking an active part in the famous assaults of the 19th and 22d of May, it performed constant and brilliant service till the 3d of July, when it fired a few shells as a parting salute before the surrender of the city. During the siege of Vicksburg the battery was furnished with six 30-pounder Parrot guns, which, together with its light field battery, made its whole number of guns amount to twelve. This extra duty was performed cheerfully, in order that General Sherman might withdraw sufficient light batteries to enable him to compete with General Joe Johnston, who threatened to cross the Big Black and raise the siege of the city. On the 5th of July, the battery was sent on the road towards General Joe Johnston, at Jackson, Mississippi, where its position was the front. After performing gallant service in the capture of that place, it marched back to Camp Sherman, and this closed a campaign of eight months. After two months' rest the battery started for Chattanooga, and had the honor of being the first of Gen. Sherman's artillery to cross the Tennessee River and gain a foothold in front of Missionary Ridge, participating in the battle at that place, and joining in the pursuit of the flying enemy. Returning to Chattanooga, it marched thence to Larkinsville, Ala., and there spent the winter. On the 1st of May, 1864, the battery commenced its last campaign, the first fighting of which occurred at Resaca, Ga., on the 12th. It afterwards participated in the fighting at Dallas, at Kenesaw; and on the 12th of July, by order from the War Department, the members who enlisted in 1862 were consolidated with the same class of men from Battery B.

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Old Battery B was organized in April, 1861, and left in June for Cairo, where it lay three weeks, and then went to Bird's Point, across the river into Missouri. One section went to Fredericktown, Mo., and participated in the fight there on the 26th of October. The battery then went with Grant to Belmont on the 7th of November, going into action with six guns and coming out with eight, completely demolishing the rebel battery. Then at Donelson, in W. H. L. Wallace's brigade, the battery occupied the extreme right, fighting with scarce an intermission for three days. The day before the battle of Shiloh it was transferred to Sherman's division and was in that fight; it was also with him on the right and at the siege of Corinth, then was found at Lagrange, and at Holly Springs, and brought up in Memphis, with Sherman, on the 22d of July, 1862. Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg, Champion Hills and Mechanicsburg all attested its valor, and at Richmond, La., it left its mark. Then we find it moving to Memphis, thence to Chattanooga, and afterward to Knoxville, to the relief of Burnside, then speeding to Tellicoe Plains and again to Chattanooga, sending its guns down the river to Bridgeport, and moving to Larkinsville, where it stayed through the winter; after which it started out again with Sherman on his Atlanta campaign, leaving about the 1st of May. The battery was all through those fights, doing bravely at Resaca and Dallas, being highly complimented by Gen. Logan for its action at the latter place. It was afterwards at Kenesaw, and besides took part in many other minor engagements. On the 12th of July, 1864, it was ordered back to Springfield, that the men might be mustered out of service. The battery had 219 men altogether on its muster rolls, and lost about sixteen by deaths. At Belmont the loss was five wounded, of whom one was permanently disabled and one died. At Donelson one killed and five wounded. At Shiloh, two men killed and eight wounded. At Chickasaw Bayou, two men wounded. At Vicksburg, three men killed and four wounded. At Dallas, two men wounded, and at Kenesaw Mountain one. There have been twenty-four promotions in the battery, two into the artillery of the regular army.

The consolidated battery was commanded temporarily by Captain Samuel S. Smythe, Lieutenant of Battery I, who was taken prisoner in front of Atlanta, where Lieut. Robb, assisting him, was killed.

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Afterward E. P. Wilcox, of Battery B, was appointed Senior First Lieutenant, and Henry Roberts, of Battery A, Enoch Colly and James Dutch as the other Lieutenants; Lieut. Wilcox was soon after made Captain, and Spencer S. Kimball appointed Junior First Lieutenant. The battery participated in the balance of the Atlanta campaign and the chase of Hood back toward Nashville; and when Sherman left Atlanta the battery remained with General Thomas, taking part in no fight except at Nashville with Hood. It arrived in Chicago July 2, 1865, where it was mustered out and discharged.

General Ezra Taylor, who recruited batteries A and B in April, 1861, was born in Genesee County, New York, in October, 1819, and came to Chicago in September, 1839, where he engaged in the provision packing business with G. S. Hubbard, Esq., in 1840, which business he followed up to the 18th of April, 1801. He had been for many years connected with the local military organization of our city, at one time holding the office of Colonel of the 60th regiment Illinois militia, which was composed of the various uniformed organizations of the city; but being ardently attached to the artillery arm of the service, he resigned the Colonelcy of the regiment and accepted the Captaincy of the Chicago Light Artillery, which position he occupied in April, 1861. He served a term of ten years in the volunteer fire department, and has been dignified as Alderman from the 7th ward. After organizing Batteries A and B, he was sent to St. Louis to obtain arms for the artillery organization of the state, and spent considerable time in perfecting such organizations, after which he took command of Battery B at Cairo; after a few days at Cairo, was sent to Bird's Point, Missouri, where, in addition to his duties with his own battery, he was placed in charge of the field works, and was active in mounting the heavy guns at that point. He commanded Battery "B" at Belmont, Missouri, November 7, 1861, where a rebel bullet carried away a button from his cap, near the left temple, another struck his saddle, and another his horse, all of which did no serious damage. He was in command of his battery at the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson. After the fall of Fort Donelson, by invitation of General Grant, he made one of the party to go to Nashville, immediately after it fell into the hands of our troops. Landing on the 1st of April, 1862, he turned over the battery to

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Captain Samuel E. Barrett, (he Taylor) having been promoted to Senior Major of the 1st Illinois Volunteer Light Artillery, with orders to report to General W. T. Sherman at Shiloh, which he did on the 4th of April, 1862, whereupon General Sherman gave him the appointment of Chief-of-Artillery, and in which capacity he served two years, or until April, 1864, participating in all the skirmishes, marches and fights of his gallant and noble commander. At Chickasaw Bayou he was complimented in orders by General Sherman for his efficiency in posting and serving the artillery, and after Sherman had decided to withdraw from the frowning hills of Vicksburg, he succeeded in bringing off his artillery through an almost impenetrable swamp and over the worst kind of corduroy road, during a terrible dark night, without the loss of a man, horse, or single implement, and without giving the alarm to the enemy's pickets, and had all safe on board the transports before daylight in the morning. From thence he accompanied the troops to Arkansas Post, thence to Young's Point, in front of Vicksburg. During the siege of Vicksburg the artillery took no step backward, but advanced its guns at every favorable point until the stronghold surrendered. General Taylor was always at the front and superintended the posting of every gun in person. No sooner had the surrender taken place than he was ordered to join General Sherman in the pursuit of Joe Johnston, and rode some fifteen miles the same afternoon to the head-quarters of General Sherman. After relieving Knoxville, the troops returned to Chattanooga, thence to Bridgeport, and were posted along the railroad from that point to Huntsville, Alabama, and Colonel Taylor went north to Cairo, St. Louis and Chicago for the purpose of hurrying up the new guns and equipments for his artillery, and afterward took part in the Atlanta campaign. General McPherson took command of the Army of the Tennessee with Colonel Taylor as Chief-of-Artillery. While with McPherson he fought at Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Calhoun and Dallas, where he received a wound through the body which was at the time considered mortal, but a naturally strong constitution, together with the best surgical aid, after a long time enabled him to move about again, but the effects of the wound are permanent, and he never expects to be as he was before. In March, 1865, he was brevetted Brigadier-General "for gallant and meritorious services."

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Chapter IX. — The Meridian Raid.

SHERMAN'S DEPARTMENT — GRANT'S ORDER — SHERMAN'S PLAN — GENERAL W.S. SMITH'S MOVEMENTS — SHERMAN — MCPHERSON — HURLBUT — CHAMPION HILLS — JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI — BURNT BRIDGE — REBELS EVACUATE — WHERE IS SMITH? — DESTRUCTION — KINGLAKE — PROPHETIC SIGNIFICANCE — BACKWARD MARCH — RESULTS — SCHOFIELD.

AFTER the eventful victory of Mission Ridge, and the relief of Burnside, General Sherman turned his attention to his own department, McPherson in command of the 17th Army Corps at Vicksburg, while part of Hurlbut's 16th, with Smith's and Grierson's cavalry divisions were at Memphis. The rebel Bishop-General Polk, in command of a large army, was at Meridian, with Forest, Loring and other leaders within supporting distance.

General Grant ordered the army of the Tennessee to keep open the Mississippi River, and maintain our control of its east bank. "General Sherman decided to do this by occupying prominent points in the interior with small corps of observations, threatening a considerable radius, and to operate against any strong force of the enemy seeking to take a position on the river, by a movable column menacing its rear. To destroy the enemy's means of approaching the River with artillery and trains, he determined to organize a large column of infantry and move with it to Meridian, effectually breaking up the Southern Mississippi Railway, while a cavalry force should move from Memphis to meet him, and perform the same work with respect to the Mobile & Ohio Railway.

"Brigadier-General William Sovy Smith, chief of cavalry on General Grant's staff, was placed in command of all the cavalry of the department, and instructed to move with it from Memphis on or before the 1st of February, by way of Pontotoc and Okolona and

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Columbus to Meridian, a distance of two hundred and fifty miles, so as to reach that place by the 10th. General Smith was specially instructed to disregard all small detachments of the enemy and all minor operations, and, striking rapidly and effectually any large body of the enemy, to be at his destination precisely at the appointed time. Simultaneously, the 11th Illinois and a colored regiment under Colonel Coates of the former regiment, with live tin-clad gunboats under Lieutenant Commander Owen, were sent up the Yazoo, to ascend that stream and its tributaries as far as possible, so as to create a diversion and protect the plantations on the River, and Brigadier-General Hawkins was directed to patrol the country in the rear of Vicksburg toward the Big Black, and to collect some fifty skiffs, by means of which detachments of two or three hundred men might be moved at pleasure through the labyrinth of bayous between the Yazoo and the Mississippi, for the purpose of suppressing the depredations of the horde of guerrillas then infesting that region." — [Colonel Bowman.]

Sherman moved from Vicksburg on the 3d of February. With him were two divisions of Hurlbut's 16th Army Corps, under that gallant commander, two divisions of the 17th under McPherson, and a cavalry brigade under Colonel Winslow. Hurlbut's command moved by Messenger's, while McPherson's column marched by the railroad. Little opposition was experienced until the 5th, when Hurlbut met the enemy at Joe. Davis' plantation, and McPherson at Champion Hills, and kept up an incessant skirmish for eighteen miles, but did not arrest the march, and entered Jackson that evening, thus preventing a contemplated rebel concentration. At Champion Hills, however, the lines deployed for battle, and again when near Jackson, but the rebel force withdrew so rapidly as to leave his Pearl River pontoons in good condition.

At Jackson the columns were united, and McPherson in the lead crossed Pearl River on the captured pontoon bridge, on the 7th entered Brandon, on the 8th reached Live Creek near Morton, which was entered the next day. McPherson's force stopped to "operate" on the surrounding railroads, and Hurlbut went forward almost without the show of resistance through Hillsboro and Decatur, to the Tallahatchie River, twenty-five miles west from Meridian. Here

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the way was obstructed by felled trees. Sherman put a sufficient force to guard his trains, and threw his men over the obstructions, and marched them to the Ocktibbeche River, where he found the bridge in flames. Two hours saw a new one, over which he marched his gallant Westerners, and at half past three, the same day, entered Meridian. French's and Loring's divisions, under Polk in person, had removed the locomotives and cars toward Mobile and Selma, and had evacuated the town the preceding night and that morning, and were retreating, covered by Lee's cavalry.

Smith was not there with his cavalry. He did not move from Memphis until the 11th, ten days later than he was ordered, and by that time the enemy had gathered in his front, and he only advanced to West Point, from which he retraced his way on the 22d, returning to Memphis. Without cavalry it was evident that the rebels could not be overtaken before crossing the Tombigbee, and Sherman therefore halted his weary columns and gave them rest on the 15th. On the 16th the railways centering there were "inspected." Says Colonel Bowman: "The depots, storehouses, arsenals, offices, hospitals, hotels and cantonments in the town were burned, and during the next five days, with axes, sledges, crowbars, clambers and fire, Hurlbut's corps destroyed on the north and east sixty miles of ties and iron, one locomotive and eight bridges; and McPherson's corps, on the south and west, fifty-five miles of railway, fifty-three bridges, 6,075 feet of trestle work, nineteen locomotives, twenty-eight steam cars."

It is said this was a mere raid. It was meant for a grand movement, by which, while Farragut was hurling shot at Mobile, Sherman would have separated Johnston from that city, distracted and demoralized Polk's army and perhaps have reached Mobile itself, but the cavalry failed.

The United States Service Magazine says: "Kinglake, in his history of the Crimea, finely describes in general the advantages and perils of the ‘movable column,’ and then proceeds to rank under that name the march of the allied armies from Old Fort to Sebastopol. But that march was so arranged that each night the allies would be in communication with their ships. The distance to be marched was comparatively short. In case of attack it was only necessary to secure contact with the fleet, which could protect their flanks and

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co-operate with its fire. Finally there was no attack and no great danger. What, then, should be said of the intrepidity which carried a genuine ‘movable column,’ away from its base, across a distance of one hundred and thirty miles, into the very heart of an enemy's country, with two powerful hostile armies not far distant, and then deliberately returned it intact, over its old track, in three weeks, destroying the enemy's property far and wide."

The raid had a significance not then fully realized. It was true the cavalry failed, and the rebel General Polk knew the significance of that failure when he said in his congratulatory order, "The concentration of our cavalry on his column of cavalry from West Tennessee formed the turning-point of the campaign," but the Western troops had proved their endurance in a long and hazardous march, away from their base of supplies, into the heart of a hostile country, and it was seen how they could "subsist" themselves. The army had, within a month, marched about 400 miles, driven the enemy out of Mississippi, lived upon rebel stores and "country produce," and returned in better health than when it started.

"In such indexes there were seen
The baby fingers, of the giant mass
Of things to come at large."

Already to Sherman something was whispering "On to Atlanta," and "From Atlanta to the Sea," and in the depths of his deep-set, piercing hazel eyes were gleaming new fires, the reflection of freshly kindled purposes.

The Tombigbee was between him and Polk's main army and Smith was not heard from, so on the 20th McPherson headed back over the main road, while Sherman accompanied Hurlbut and the handful of cavalry northward to look for Smith. At Union he sent Colonel Winslow, with three regiments of cavalry, fifty miles on the road by which Smith was expected to advance, while the main body moved to Hillsboro, where McPherson joined it on the 23d.

The return was undisturbed. The total loss was 21 killed, 68 wounded, 81 missing.

On the 14th of March, General Sherman, then commanding the Military Division of the Mississippi, was summoned to proceed to Nashville and confer with the Lieutenant-General, and leaving Memphis

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immediately, he joined his illustrious companion-in-arms on the 17th, and accompanied him to Cincinnati. There, in a room of the Burnet House, the conquerors of the rebellion sat down amid their maps and charts and planned the final campaigns of the war for the Union. Sherman says modestly in his report: "We had a full and complete understanding of the policy and plans for the ensuing campaign, covering a vast area of country, my part of which extended from Chattanooga to Vicksburg."

The details of that conference may never be entirely known, but it was known very shortly that concentration was resolved upon. The war would be directed by a commander in the field, and not one in a Washington office. Grant was to separate from his Western troops; Sherman was to be almost supreme Military Dictator in the Valley of the Mississippi, assisted by such subordinates as Thomas, McPherson, Schofield, Hooker, Slocum, Howard, Hurlbut, Logan and Palmer, and commanding nearly 100,000 men. The objective points were Richmond and Atlanta. Illinois had a large number of her best regiments with Sherman, and naturally his progress henceforth engrossed her attention.

Four of the noted commanders under Sherman went from Illinois, two of them we have noticed personally and the third will merit a few paragraphs which may be given here:

John McAllister Schofield was born in Chautauque County, New York, September 29, 1831, and has won his laurels while quite a young man. At twelve years of his age he was brought to Illinois by his father's removal to this State. He graduated from West Point at the age of twenty-two. As brevet 2d Lieutenant in the 2d Artillery he was stationed at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina, and also at Cassin, Florida. After two years he was ordered to West Point as Instructor in Natural Philosophy, where he remained five years, or until 1860. He was promoted 1st Lieutenant, and obtained leave of absence to accept the chair of Natural Philosophy in Washington University, St. Louis.

When war came he was appointed as mustering officer for the Missouri troops, and was elected Major of the 1st Missouri Volunteers, and also promoted Captain in the Regular Army. He was Assistant Adjutant-General and Chief of General Lyon's staff at Wilson's Creek, and narrowly escaped the fate of his commander.

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In November, he was commissioned Brigadier-General of Volunteers, and assigned to command of Missouri militia, and made the guerrillas who infested that State feel the weight of his iron policy. In October he was placed in command of the Army of the Frontier, composed of Missouri and Arkansas troops, and defeated Hindman near Pea Ridge. While commanding in Missouri his "conservative tendencies" were distasteful to many Union men, but in the second contest of Mr. Lincoln, he gave him his ardent support.

In February, 1864, he relieved General Foster at Knoxville, and remained in command at that point until Spring, when Sherman placed him in command of the Army of the Ohio, numbering 13,559 men and twenty eight guns. He proved an able leader. At Kenesaw he won Sherman's hearty approval. He commanded the field-force thrown out by Sherman to arrest Hood, and fought with ability the battle of Franklin. In the battle of Nashville he was in command of the 23d Army Corps, and, with General Smith, made a decisive charge upon Hood's left. General Sherman ordered that corps to come to his aid. It was moved in mid-winter to the Potomac in fourteen days without the loss of man or beast, and was transferred to Wilmington and thence to Newborn to assist Sherman in his march through the Carolinas. Near Kinston he sustained a furious assault and repulsed it with heavy loss to the enemy. The rebels made a stand against him at Kinston, but were compelled to retreat. He moved forward and occupied Goldsboro a short time in advance of Sherman.

He has made a most desirable record as a soldier, and should war unhappily come again, is sufficiently young to render the State service.

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Chapter X. — Sherman's Grand March.

SHERMAN'S STATEMENT OF THE PLAN — INSPECTS HIS DEPARTMENT — SUPPLIES — LETTER TO GRANT — MARCH — ROCKY FACE RIDGE — BUZZARD'S ROOST GAP — FLANKING — SNAKE CREEK GAP — THOMAS' FEINT — MCPHERSON'S MOVEMENT — CAMP CREEK — POSITION OF TROOPS — HOOKER IN ACTION — JOHNSTON RETREATS — RESACA OURS — PURSUIT — COST — LOGAN AND PALMER — NINTH SQUAD — ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SEVENTH COLOR-BEARER — ROME — ADAIRSVILLE — LAY'S FERRY — SWEENEY — SIXTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS — ALLATOONA PASS — HEADED FOR DALLAS — REBEL COURIER — FIGHTING AT NEW HOPE CHURCH — AT DALLAS — REBEL BRAVERY — ASSAULT ON BULL-DOG SWEENEY — THE PASS SECURED — ETOWA BRIDGE — BLAIR WITH REINFORCEMENTS.

GENERAL SHERMAN says, after mentioning the interview between himself and General Grant narrated in the preceding chapter:

"I returned to Nashville, and on the 25th [March, 1864], began a tour of inspection, visiting Athens, Decatur, Huntsville and Larkin's Ferry, Alabama; Chattanooga, London and Knoxville, Tennessee. During this visit I had interviews with Major-General McPherson, commanding the Army of the Tennessee, at Huntsville; Major-General Thomas, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, at Chattanooga, and Major-General Schofield, commanding the Army of the Ohio, at Knoxville. We arranged in general terms the lines of communication to be guarded, the strength of the several columns and garrisons, and fixed the 1st day of May as the time when all things should be ready. Leaving these officers to complete the details of organization and preparation, I returned to Nashville on the 2d of April, and gave my personal attention to the question of supplies.

"During the month of April, I received from Lieutenant-General Grant a map with a letter of instructions. Subsequently I received notice from him that he would move from his camps about Culpepper, Virginia, on the 15th of May, and that he wanted me to do the same from Chattanooga. My troops were still dispersed, and the cavalry, so necessary to our success, was yet collecting horses at Nicholasville, Kentucky, and Columbus, Tennessee. On the 27th of April, I put all the troops in motion for Chattanooga, and on the next day went there in person. My aim and purpose was to make the army of the Cumberland 50,000 men; that of the Tennessee

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35,000, and that of the Ohio 15,000. These figures were approximated, but never reached, the Army of the Tennessee failing to receive certain divisions that were still kept on the Mississippi, resulting from the unfavorable issues of the Red River expedition. But on the 1st of May the effective strength of the several armies, for offensive purposes, was about as follows:
"Army of the Cumberland, Major-General Thomas commanding:
Infantry 54,568
Artillery 2,377
Cavalry 3,828
Total 60,773
Guns 130
"Army of the Tennessee, major-General McPherson commanding:
Infantry 22,437
Artillery 1,404
Cavalry 624
Total 24,465
Guns 96
"Army of the Ohio, Major-General Schofield commanding:
Infantry 11,183
Artillery 679
Cavalry 1,697
Total 13,559
Guns 28
Grand Aggregate of troops 98,739
Grand Aggregate of guns 254

"About these figures have been maintained during the campaign, the number of men joining from furlough and hospitals about compensating for the loss in battle and from sickness. These armies were grouped on the morning of May 6th as follows: That of the Cumberland at and near Ringgold; that of the Tennessee at Gordon's Mill, on the Chickamauga; and that of the Ohio near Red Clay, on the Georgia line, north of Dalton."

It was one of the grandest armies ever led by gallant chieftain.

In the army of the Cumberland were the 4th, 14th and 20th Army Corps. The 4th Corps, commanded by Major-General Howard, comprised the divisions of Brigadier-Generals Stanley, Newton and Thomas J. Wood; the 14th, under Major-General Palmer, those of Jeff. C. Davis, R. W. Johnson and Absalom Baird ; the 20th, under Major-General Hooker, the hero of "Lookout," those of A. S. Williams, John W. Geary and David Butterfield.

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The army of the Tennessee comprised the 15th with portions of the 16th and 17th Army Corps, under Major-Generals John A. Logan, George M. Dodge and Frank P. Blair. The remaining divisions of the 16th and 17th were with Hurlbut and Slocum at Memphis and Vicksburg, or with the Red River expedition. The 15th Corps included the divisions of Osterhaus, Morgan L. Smith, John E. Smith and Harrow; the 16th, those of Ransom, Corse and Sweeney, and the 17th, those of C. R. Woods and Leggett.

In the cavalry array were McCook's division of the army of the Ohio, Kilpatrick's and Garrard's divisions of the army of the Cumberland, and Edward McCook's brigade of the army of the Tennessee. General Sherman says:

"Should Johnston fall behind Chattahoochee, I would feign to the right, but pass on to the left, and act on Atlanta or its eastern communications, according to developed facts. This is about as far ahead as I am disposed to look; but I would ever bear in mind that Johnston is at all times to be kept so busy that he cannot, in any event, send any part of his command against you or Banks. If Banks can at the same time carry Mobile and open up the Alabama River, he will in a measure solve a most difficult part of my problem — provisions. But in that I must venture. Georgia has a million of inhabitants. If they can live, we should not starve. If the enemy interrupt my communications, I will be absolved from all obligations to subsist on my own resources, but feel perfectly justified in taking whatever and wherever I can find. I will inspire my command, if successful, with my feelings, and that beef and salt are all that are absolutely necessary to life; and parched corn fed General Jackson's army once on that very ground."

The enemy was before our force in numbers, strong in determination, commanded by brave and skillful Generals, and able to choose their position — at least so they supposed. Between the armies was a rugged and apparently inaccessible out-lyer of the Alleghanies, "Rocky-Face Ridge," through which was the defile called "Buzzard's Roost Gap," which was cut by Mill Creek, on the bank of which was the railroad connecting Chattanooga and Dalton. This pass was strongly defended, flooded by water, and commanded by batteries, and then the rebel force expected to sweep our men with destruction, but to give them that opportunity was no part of Sherman's plan, yet Dalton must be reached. Southward was Snake Creek Gap, opening the way to Resaca, where he could strike the rebel railway communication, eighteen miles below Dalton. Thomas made a feint, as though he meant to assail the defenses of Buzzard's Roost moving from Ringgold on the 7th of May, facing the Gap meeting

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but little opposition, carrying the Ridge, "but turning south found the crest too narrow and well protected by rock epaulements to enable him to reach the gorge." McPherson reached Snake Creek Gap on the 8th, surprised a rebel brigade sent to hold it, and, on the 9th, came within a mile of Resaca, but found it too strongly defended to be carried by his force and retired on the Gap. At all points the enemy was pressed, but all points seemed to have been made well-nigh impregnable. On the 14th the rebel army was confronted in force in a strong position behind Camp Creek, occupying the forts at Resaca. A pontoon bridge was thrown by Sherman over the Oostanaula at Lay's Ferry toward Calhoun, over which was sent Sweeney's Division of the 16th Army Corps, with orders to threaten Calhoun; Garrard's Division of cavalry moved from Villanow, and crossed, to break the railway below Calhoun and above Kinston, while the main army pressed Resaca on all sides. McPherson got across Camp Creek near the mouth, and secured a position near the rebel works, on hills commanding, with short range artillery, the railway and its trestle bridges, while Thomas pressed close along Camp Creek Valley, and enabled Hooker to place his corps across the head of the Creek, up to the main Dalton road, and down it close upon Resaca.

Schofield came up in the afternoon amid the thunder of battle, close upon Hooker's left. The latter drove the enemy from several strong points on hill-crests, captured a four-gun battery and many prisoners. That night Johnston retreated south across the Oostanaula, and the next morning our forces entered the town, saving the highway bridge, but not that of the railroad, which was in flames. Here another four-gun battery and valuable stores were found. Pursuit was the order. Thomas pressed on the heels of Hardee, Gen. McPherson marched by Lay's Ferry, while to the left Schofield advanced by as many blind roads as were practicable. So Sherman had won the first stage of his arduous journey, and had rendered vain almost impregnable defenses, yet not without loss. Nearly 5,000 Union soldiers paid for the victory, killed and wounded, in the various struggles closing with the battle of Resaca.

Illinois troops were under fire in nearly all of these engagements. Logan and Palmer, and their associates of the 14th and 15th Army Corps would never shrink from peril, and their men would follow

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where they would lead. A squad of the 9th Illinois Volunteers remained after McPherson fell back from Resaca, and coolly amused themselves in cutting the telegraph and destroying the railway until the next day when they came safely into camp. A correspondent of a daily paper narrates the following incident: "As we were falling back, the rebels thinking we were repulsed cheered lustily. This stung the gallant color-bearer of the 127th Illinois, named Hess. Springing back to the embrasure he flaunted the colors defiantly at the enemy. Brave fellow! his death atoned for his rashness. A rebel shot him through the heart. Other hands took up the flag with a similar fate."

Our pursuing columns pressed forward with the prestige of victory, receiving Resaca as an omen of resistless victory.

Near Adairsville the rebel force was again encountered, but it was gone at morning. Near Cassville the rebel army was formed in battle array on the 19th, strongly entrenched, but as our troops converged it again retreated at night, crossing the Etowah and burning road and railway bridges near Cartersville. Jeff. C. Davis' Division went off to Rome, and seized its forts, guns, mills and founderies, and secured two good bridges over the Etowah.

A few days' rest were given while supplies were brought forward. In these skirmishes many thrilling incidents occurred. General Sweeney made a gallant demonstration at Lay's Ferry. He was confronted by a strongly posted rebel brigade, and a fire was opened across the stream upon Sweeney's men, who had to charge across an open field to the shelter of some rail fences, from whence they returned the fire. Meantime, pontoon boats were launched in Snake Creek, a tributary of the Oostanaula, and six companies of the 66th Illinois and 81st Ohio were ordered to cross in them. The boats, with about 300 soldiers, pushed down the stream, when a regular storm of rebel bullets whistled around them, toppling some into the water and more into the boats. On they push, blazing away at the enemy in return. The rebel batteries now open, throwing round shot and shell among them, plowing up the water around, and in some cases, tearing through their crowded masses.

"At length they gained the land, and with a shout of triumph and derision, the brave fellows rushed up the banks, firing as they

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advanced, then charging right on the enemy breaking and routing them. Thus did these gallant Western men open a passage across the river for Dodge's command."

General Sherman was well satisfied that the enemy would confront him at Allatoona Pass, and that an attempt to carry it would be desperate, and determined to turn it by a circuit to the right, and leaving a garrison at Rome and Kingston, and taking twenty days' provisions on the 23d, the army was headed for Dallas. General Thomas captured a rebel courier and learned that Johnston was apprised of their movements and would be prepared to receive them in the vicinity of Dallas.

May 25th Thomas was advancing from Burnt Hickory on Dallas, in three columns, Hooker in advance. He found himself before Jackson's Division of rebel cavalry at a creek, which he crossed, barely saving the bridge already fired. Marching eastward, he drove the infantry some distance, when his advance, under General Geary, came in contact with Hood's Corps in line of battle. Three of Hooker's divisions were on the other roads and it was sometime before he could mass his corps, when under Sherman's orders he deployed and drove to secure New Hope Church at the junction of three roads, from Marietta, Dallas and Ackworth. He met Stewart's division of Hood's corps and a desperate battle followed, lasting two hours. Stewart's men were covered by rude earthworks, and Hooker failed to drive them from the three roads. Morning came. McPherson moved up to Dallas, Thomas toward New Hope, while Schofield swung toward the left to shatter and turn the rebel right. The cavalry under Stoneman supported Schofield, Garrard struck with McPherson, while McCook protected the rear. Thus several days went on, Sherman designing to work toward the left, and as soon as possible push for the railway east of Allatoona. Several short, sharp rencounters occurred. As McPherson was preparing on the 28th to close his left up on General Thomas, in front of New Hope Church, that the rest of the army might sweep more leftward and envelop the rebel right, he was suddenly and ferociously assailed by the rebels in force at Dallas.

Our men were not unprepared. Strong earthworks had been thrown up, and the enemy was repulsed. The first attack burst upon Logan's pickets, and "Black Jack," after a stubborn resistance,

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was compelled to suffer his advance to fall back upon the main lines. The massed rebel troops charged in heavy columns upon Harrow's division, exposed to a heavy artillery fire. Through that they came on in gallant style, up the hill to our very works, only to meet and break before a fire our troops had withheld until they had point blank range. Again they returned and were again repulsed. They next tried Osterhaus, and were again repulsed.

It was thought they were contented, but not so. Many have heard of "General Sweeney," formerly Colonel of the 52d Illinois, subsequently of Fenian notoriety. He lost his right arm in Mexico. He was in command of a division of the 16th Army Corps, and was next to receive the shock of the rebel charge. He had met it before, when his desperate resistance at Stone River went far to save the day from ruin, and whose companions had given him the expressive designation of "Bull-dog Sweeney." Sweeney met the twice repulsed columns and beat them back in broken disordered masses.

For twelve days had these battle-skirmishes gone on, and that with almost uniform success to us. Again the order was given to McPherson to close up on Thomas, occupying Thomas' position before New Hope. Thomas and Schofield moved a corresponding distance to their left, and swung round occupying the woods leading to Allatoona and Ackworth. Stoneman's cavalry advanced into Allatoona at the east and General Garrard's at the west end of the pass. The infantry closed up, Allatoona pass was turned, Sherman's second stage was reached in success, and another long stride taken toward the end.

He ordered rebuilt the Etowah railway bridge, and decided to leave Johnston in his strongly entrenched position at New Hope, and move upon the railway at Ackworth, when Johnston gave up his position and fell back to Lost Mountain. Our army moved to Ackworth, reaching the railway on the 6th. On the 7th the confederate right extended past the railway and over the Ackworth and Marietta road. Allatoona Pass, the commanding General found admirably adapted as a secondary base, and put it in order as such, providing for its defense. At Ackworth General Blair came up with two divisions of the 17th Army Corps and one brigade of cavalry for Garrard's division, these bringing the invading column up to about its original strength.

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Chapter XI. — Kenesaw and Peach Tree Creek.

PROSPECT — BIG SHANTY — SHERMAN'S DESCRIPTION OF SCENERY — HIS FORCES — OPERATIONS TO BREAK LINES — DEATH OF POLK — RAILWAY RECONNOISSANCE — LOST MOUNTAIN OCCUPIED — KULP HOUSE — ASSAULT OF KENESAW — SHERMAN'S STATEMENT — ILLINOIS — NEWSPAPER PARAGRAPHS — LOGAN'S CORPS — PALMER — TWENTY-FIFTH AND TWENTY-SEVENTH — EIGHTY-NINTH — LOGAN — FIFTY-NINTH AND SEVENTY-FOURTH — SHERMAN'S REPORT — PEACH TREE CREEK — CINCINNATI COMMERCIAL'S ACCOUNT — SITUATION — MCPHERSON'S ADVANCE — EIGHTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS — LOGAN'S CORPS — PALMER'S CORPS — FORTY-FOURTH — HOOKER IN POSITION AND FIGHTING — GEARY — WARD — FACE TO FACE — WILLIAMS — BRADLEY — FORTY-SECOND — TWENTY-SEVENTH — THOMAS COMMANDING AN ECLECTIC DETACHMENT — ONE HUNDREDTH — EIGHTY-EIGHTH — SEVENTY-FOURTH — COBURN — ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-NINTH AND LIEUTENANT-COLONEL FLYNN — MCCOOK — ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTH IN PERIL — DEFEAT OF PALMER — ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTH — ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-NINTH — IMPORTANCE OF THIS BATTLE — KENESAW REDEEMED — HOOD IN COMMAND — HIS PRESTIGE GONE.

THERE was sharp work ahead. Sherman says in his report, "On the 9th of June, our communications in the rear being secure and supplies ample, we moved forward to Big Shanty." Before him was an army, inferior to his own in numbers, but in positions assumed in the Switzerland of the Southwest, among mountains of rugged grandeur, streams of rapid volume and dense vine-tangled woodland, with the ablest Southern captain save Lee at its head, assisted by Polk, Hardee, Cleburn the Western Stonewall Jackson, Forrest the cavalry brigand, Hood the daring, dashing leader, soon to be in command, Wheeler and others.

The eye of General Sherman took in the grandeur and the difficulty of the situation. He says:

"Kenesaw, the bold and striking twin mountain, lay before us, with a high range of chestnut hills, trending off to the Northeast, terminating, to our view, in another peak, called Brushy Mountain. To our right was the smaller hill called Pine Mountain, and beyond it, in the distance, Lost Mountain. All these, though links in a

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continuous chain, present a sharp, conical appearance, prominent in the vast landscape that presents itself from any of the hills that abound in that region. Kenesaw, Pine Mountain and Lost Mountain form a triangle, Pine Mountain the apex, and Kenesaw and Lost Mountain the base, covering perfectly the town of Marietta and the railroad back to the Chattahoochee. On each side of these peaks the enemy had his signal stations. The summits were covered with batteries; the spurs were alive with men, busy in felling trees, digging pits and preparing for the grand struggle impending.

"The scene was enchanting, too beautiful to be disturbed by the harsh clamors of war, but the Chattahoochee lay beyond, and I had to reach it."

He thus states the disposition of his forces:

"On approaching close to the enemy, I found him occupying a line full two miles long, more than he could hold with his force. General McPherson was ordered to move toward Marietta, his right on the railroad, General Thomas on Kenesaw and Pine Mountain, and General Schofield off toward Lost Mountain; General Garrard's cavalry on the left, General Stoneman's on the right, and General McCook looking to our rear and communications."

By the 11th of June the Federal forces were up, and Sherman commenced operations with a view to break the rebel line between Kenesaw and Pine Mountains. McPherson commanded the railroad line between Allatoona and Kenesaw. Hooker was on the right, General Howard on the left and front of the enemy, and General Palmer between it and the railroad. The 13th and 14th were rainy days, rendering anything more than artillery practice impossible. On the morning of the 14th the 4th Corps moved forward in the center, closing up well on Hooker.

A correspondent of the New York Herald thus details an important incident occurring on the 14th:

"Skirmishers were thrown out in order to cover the advance of our lines, and a few sections of artillery were placed in position. The skirmishing was pretty brisk toward evening, and the batteries opened a dropping fire on the rebel position. Sherman rode up to a battery and turned his glass toward Pine Mountain.

"After taking a good view he turned to the officer in command, saying ‘Captain Simonson, can you send a shell right on the top of that knob? I notice a battery there and several General officers near it.’

"‘I'll try, General.’

"The Captain fired, and the General looked on with his glass.

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"‘Ah, Captain, a little too high; try again with a shorter fuse;’ and up went the glass to his eye. Away went the shell, tearing through Bishop Polk in its course.

"‘That will do,’ said Sherman, shutting down his glass.

"It is said that Johnston and Hardee were on their horses beside Polk when he fell, and when the first shell came they said ‘it is safer to alight.’ Polk smiled and still staid surveying our position, and thus met his death. We knew that night that he was killed, for our signal officers had discovered the system of rebel signals, which enabled them to read the dispatches along the enemy's lines."

Lovell succeeded him in command.

On the 15th Pine Mountain was found to be abandoned. Thomas and Schofield advanced to find him entrenched strongly along the line of rugged hills between Kenesaw and Lost Mountain. During the operations of the 15th and 16th, Sherman desired to ascertain the strength of some rebel batteries, known to be posted on their right flank commanding the Marietta road, and suspected to be of great strength, but no amount of shelling or sharpshooting would induce them to uncover. The General ordered out a locomotive, had steam raised to full head, attached three cars and ordered it started full speed toward Marietta. With a scream it plunged away, screaming and snorting as though bound for Atlanta with the latest news. The enemy started — they supposed it a desperate attempt to run a body of men past them into Marietta to assail their rear, and instantly their batteries were ablaze, right and left, throwing shot and shell. Sherman smiled grimly, and walked away — he had drawn the fire and ascertained the rebel strength, and it was clear an assault could not be made. The weather was tempestuous, but our forces pressed onward slowly but surely. On the 17th the enemy abandoned Lost Mountain with the long line of admirable breast-works connecting it with Kenesaw Mountain. Still the pressure on the rebel line continued. We quote again from Sherman's report:

"We continued to press at all points, skirmishing in dense forests of timber and across most difficult ravines, until we found him again strongly posted and entrenched, with Kenesaw as his salient, his right wing thrown back to cover Marietta, and his left behind Nose's Creek, covering his railroad back to the Chattahoochee. This enabled him to contract his lines and strengthen them accordingly.

"From Kenesaw he could look down upon our camps and observe every movement,

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and his batteries thundered away, but did us little harm, on account of the extreme height, the shot and shell passing harmlessly over our heads as we lay close up against his mountain town.

"During our operations about Kenesaw, the weather was villainously bad, and the rain fell almost continuously for three weeks, rendering our narrow wooded roads mere mud galleys, so that a general movement would have been impossible, but our men daily worked closer and closer to their entrenched foe, and kept up an incessant picket firing galling to him. Every opportunity was taken to advance our general lines closer and closer to the enemy.

"General McPherson watching the enemy on Kenesaw and working his left forward, General Thomas, swinging, as it were on a grand left wheel, his left on Kenesaw connecting with General McPherson, and General Schofield all the time working to the south and east along the old Sandtown road. On the 22d General Hooker had advanced his line, with General Schofield on his right, the enemy, Hood's corps, with detachments from the others, suddenly sallied and attacked. The blow fell mostly on General William's division of General Hooker's corps, and a brigade of General Hascall's division of General Schofield's army.

"The ground was comparatively open, and although the enemy drove in the skirmish lines, an advanced regiment of General Schofield, sent out purposely to hold him in check until some preparations could be completed for his reception, yet when he reached our line of battle he received a terrible repulse, leaving his dead, wounded, and many prisoners in our hands. This is known as the affair of the ‘Kulp House.’ Although inviting the enemy at all times to commit such mistakes, I could not hope for him to repeat them after the examples of Dallas and the ‘Kulp House,’ and upon studying the ground, I had no alternative in my turn but to assault his lines or turn his position. Either course had its difficulties and dangers. And I perceived that the enemy and our own officers had settled down into a conviction that I would not assault fortified lines."

The severest criticism which assailed the course of General Sherman at any point between Chattanooga to Raleigh has concentrated upon the Kenesaw assault. It was a failure, frankly so conceded, yet had it been a success, it had been lauded, as was the assault on Mission Ridge. If it had succeeded the results would have been ample repayment. It cost immensely in life, and added to the countless bereavements already sustained. It is better that the gallant leader shall say to the people, to the fathers, mothers, sisters and wives of those who fell what he has said to the Government. His official report says:

"All looked to me to ‘outflank.’ An army to be efficient must not settle down to one mode of offense, but must be prepared to execute any plan which promises success. I waited, therefore, for the moral effect, to make a successful assault against the enemy behind his breastworks, and resolved to attempt it at that point where success would give the largest fruits of victory. The general point selected

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was the left center; because, if I could thrust a strong head of column through at that point by pushing it boldly and rapidly two and one half miles, it would reach the railroad below Marietta, cut off the enemy's right and center from its line of retreat, and then, by turning on either part, it could be overwhelmed and destroyed. Therefore, on the 24th of June, I ordered that an assault should be made at two points south of Kenesaw on the 27th, giving three days' notice for preparation and reconnoissance; one to be made near Little Kenesaw by General McPherson's troops, and the other about a mile further south by General Thomas' troops. The hour was fixed, and all the details given in Field Orders No. 28, of June 24. On the 27th of June the two assaults were made at the time and in the manner prescribed, and both failed, costing us many valuable lives, among them those of Generals Harker and McCook, Colonel Rice and others badly wounded; our aggregate loss being near 3,000, while we inflicted comparatively little loss on the enemy, who lay behind his well formed breastworks. Failure as it was, and for which I assume the entire responsibility, I yet claim it produced good fruits, as it demonstrated to General Johnston that I would assault, and that boldly, and we also gained and held ground so close to the enemy's parapets that he could not show a head above them.

"It would not do to rest long under the influence of a mistake or failure, and accordingly General Schofield was working strong on the enemy's left; and on the 1st of July, I ordered General McPherson to be relieved by General Garrard's cavalry in front of Kenesaw, and to rapidly throw his whole army by the right down to and threaten Nickojack Creek and Turner's ferry across the Chattahoochee, and I also pushed Stoneman's cavalry to the river below Turner's."

Thus briefly do official reports tell the sad story of repulse and slaughter.

In the skirmishes preceding the sanguinary battle of the 27th, the men of Illinois were everywhere that danger was to be confronted, and they were worthy peers of those who fought beside them. The newspapers have such paragraphs as these:

"The rebels made a strong attack on McPherson's left, where they vainly strove to recover their lost position, but were repulsed by Logan's 15th Corps." "Howard and Palmer were thundering at their center."

"The 5th Kentucky, 124th Ohio, Hazen's brigade, 32d Indiana, and 25th Illinois of Gibson's brigade were thrown forward as a heavy line of skirmishers, by General Wood. On their left Wagner's brigade and the 27th Illinois of Harker's brigade were also deployed, and with one gallant, united effort they succeeded in capturing the enemy's first line of works."

Again and again we meet this same division. Now we meet an honorable mention of the 89th, made incidentally, showing its bravery in the face of appalling danger.

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On the 26th Logan formed his Corps, entrenching in advanced position, and on the 27th, at 8 A. M., formed it in battle order, and led it against the first line of rebel works through a terrific fire of musketry and artillery and carried it, and again carried the second line, and advanced beyond, but the abrupt mountain side and bristling strength of the defenses compelled him to fall back, losing many valuable lives, to the second line. In all the Western divisions engaged our State was represented. The 59th was support to the skirmishers of Newton's division. The 74th was in Harker's brigade, and in the advance of Newton's division. That gallant young hero was in the advance, and fell mortally wounded.

The dead were buried, and the wounded cared for, and again the puzzling tactics of Sherman came in play, and we again quote from his official report:

"General McPherson commenced his movement the night of July 2d, and the effect was instantaneous. The next morning Kenesaw was abandoned, and with the first dawn of day I saw our skirmishers appear on the mountain top. General Thomas' whole line was then moved forward to the railroad and turned south in pursuit toward the Chattahoochee. In person I entered Marietta at 8 1/2 in the morning, just as the enemy's cavalry vacated the place. General Logan's corps of General McPherson's army, which had not moved far, was ordered back into Marietta by the main road, and General McPherson and General Schofield were instructed to cross Nickojack and attack the enemy in flank and rear, and, if possible, to catch him in the confusion of crossing the Chattahoochee; but Johnston had foreseen and provided against all this, and had covered his movement well. He had entrenched a strong tete du vont at the Chattahoochee, with an advanced entrenched line across the road at Smyrna camp-meeting ground, five miles from Marietta.

"Here General Thomas found him, his front covered by a good parapet, and his flanks behind the Nickojack and Rottonwood creeks. Ordering a garrison for Marietta, and General Logan to join his own army near the mouth of Nickojack, I overtook General Thomas at Smyrna. On the 4th of July we pushed a strong skirmish line down the main road, capturing the entire line of the enemy's pits, and made strong demonstrations along Nickojack Creek and about Turner's Ferry. This had the desired effect, and the next morning the enemy was gone, and the army moved to the Chattahoochee, General Thomas' left flank resting on it near Paices' Ferry, General McPherson's right at the mouth of Nickojack, and General Schofield in reserve; the enemy lay behind a line of unusual strength, covering the railroad and pontoon bridges and beyond the Chattahoochee. Heavy skirmishing along our whole front during the 5th demonstrated the strength of the enemy's position, which could alone be turned by crossing the main Chattahoochee River, a rapid and deep stream, only passable at that stage by means of bridges except at one or two very difficult fords.

"To accomplish this result I judged it would be more easy of execution before he enemy had made more thorough preparation or regained full confidence, and accordingly

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I ordered General Schofield across from his position on the Sandtown road to Smyrna camp-ground, and next to the Chattahoochee, near the mouth of Soap's Creek, and effect a lodgment on the east bank. This was most successfully and skillfully accomplished on the 7th of July, General Schofield capturing a gun, completely surprising the guard, laying a good pontoon bridge and a trestle bridge, and effecting a strong lodgment on high and commanding ground, with good roads leading to the east. At the same time General Garrard moved rapidly on Roswell and destroyed the factories which had supplied the rebel armies with cloth for years. Over one of these, the woolen factory, the nominal owner displayed the French flag, which was not respected, of course. A neutral surely is no better than one of our own citizens, and we do not permit our own citizens to fabricate cloth for hostile uses.

"General Garrard was then ordered to secure the shallow ford at Roswell and hold it until he could be relieved by infantry; and as I contemplated transferring the army of the Tennessee from the extreme right to the left, I ordered General Thomas to send a division of his infantry that was nearest up to Roswell to hold the ford until General McPherson could send up a corps from the neighborhood of Nickojack. General Newton's division was sent and held the ford until the arrival of General Dodge's corps, which was soon followed by General McPherson's whole army. About the same time General Howard had also built a bridge at Powers' Ferry; two miles below General Schofield had crossed over and taken a position on his right. Thus during the 9th we had secured three good and safe points of passage over the Chattahoochee, above the enemy, with good roads leading to Atlanta, and Johnston abandoned his tete du pont, burned his bridges, and left us undisputed masters north and west of the Chattahoochee, at daylight of the 10th of July.

"This was one, if not the chief, object of the campaign, viz.: the advancement of our lines from the Tennessee to the Chattahoochee, but Atlanta lay before us only eight miles distant, and was too important a place in the hands of an enemy to be left undisturbed with its magazines, stores, arsenals, workshops, founderies, &c., and more especially its railroads, which converge there from the four great cardinal points. But the men had worked hard and needed rest, and we accordingly took a short spell. But in anticipation of this contingency I had collected a well appointed force of cavalry about 2,000 strong at Decatur, Alabama, with orders, on receiving notice by telegraph, to push rapidly south, cross the Coosa at the railroad bridge or the Ten Islands, and thence by the most direct route to Opelika. There is but one stem of finished railroad connecting the channels of trade and travel between Georgia and Alabama, and Mississippi, which runs from Montgomery to Opelika, and my purpose was to break it up effectually and thereby cut off Johnston's army from that source of supply and reinforcement.

"General Rosseau, commanding the District of Tennessee, asked permission to command the expedition and received it. As soon as Johnston was well across the Chattahoochee, and as I had begun to maneuver on Atlanta, I gave the requisite notice, and General Rosseau started punctually on the 10th of July. He fulfilled his orders and instructions to the very letter, whipping the rebel General Canton en route; he passed through Talladega, and reached the railroad on the 16th about twenty-five miles west of Opelika, and broke it well up to that place. Also three miles of the branch toward Columbus and two toward West Point. He then turned

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north and brought his command safely to Marietta, arriving on the 22d, having sustained a trifling loss not to exceed thirty men.

"The main armies remained quiet in their camps on the Chattahoochee until the 16th of July, but the time was employed in collecting stores at Allatoona, Marietta, and Vining's station, strengthening the railroad guards and garrisons, and improving the pier bridges and roads leading across the river. General Stoneman's and McCook's cavalary had scouted well down the river to draw attention in that direction, and all things being ready for a general advance, I ordered it to commence on the 17th; General Thomas to cross at Power's and Paice's ferry bridges, and to march by Buckhead, General Schofield was already across at the mouth of Soap's creek, and to march by Cross Keys, and General McPherson to direct his course from Roswell straight against the Augusta road, at some point east of Decatur, near Stone Mountain. General Garrard's cavalary acted with General McPherson, and Generals Stoneman and McCook watched the river and roads below the railroad. On the 17th the whole army advanced from their camps and formed a general line along the Old Peach Tree road.

"Continuing on a general right wheel, General McPherson reached the Augusta railroad on the 18th at a point seven miles east of Decatur, and with General Garrard's cavalry, and General Morgan L. Smith's infantry division of the 15th Corps, broke up a section of about four miles, and General Schofield reached the town of Decatur.

"On the 19th General McPherson turned along the railroad into Decatur, and General Schofield followed a road toward Atlanta, leading by Colonel Howard's house and the distillery, and General Thomas crossed Peach Tree creek in force by numerous bridges in the face of the enemy's intrenched lines. All found the enemy in more or less force, and skirmished heavily.

"On the 20th all the armies had closed in, converging toward Atlanta, but as a gap existed between Generals Schofield and Thomas, two divisions of General Howard's corps of General Thomas' army were moved to the left to connect with General Schofield, leaving General Newton's division of the same corps on the Buckhead road. During the afternoon of the 20th, about 4 P. M., the enemy sallied from his works in force, and fell in line of battle against our right center, composed of General Newton's division of General Howard's corps, on the main Buckhead road; of General Honker's corps next South, and General Johnson's division of General Palmer's corps. The blow was sudden and somewhat unexpected, but General Newton had hastily covered his front by a line of rail piles, which enabled him to meet and repulse the attack on him. General Hooker's whole corps was uncovered and had to fight on comparatively open ground, and it, too, after a very severe battle, drove the enemy back to his entrenchments, and the action in front of General Johnson was comparatively light, that division being well entrenched. The enemy left on the field over 500 dead, about 1,000 wounded severely, 7 stands of colors and many prisoners. His loss could not have fallen short of 5,000, whereas ours was covered by 1,500 killed, wounded and missing; the greater loss fell on General Hooker's corps, from its exposed condition.

"On the 21st we felt the enemy in his entrenched position, which was found to crown the heights overlooking the comparatively open ground of the valley of Peach Tree Creek, his right beyond the Augusta road to the east, and his left well toward

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Turner's Ferry on the Chattahoochee, at a general distance from Atlanta of four miles."

"The battle of Peach Tree Creek cannot be dismissed without further notice. A correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial described the situation, the problem and the solution, and we condense his article.

"A very few words will make the situation clear, even to such of your readers as have not had the opportunity of consulting a good map of Georgia, since the opening of the campaign.

"Seven miles from the Chattahoochee, in a straight line (nearly eight by rail), lies the city of Atlanta. The river runs generally southwest. Our army was advancing along the line of the Atlanta and Western railroad, in a southeast direction. A little north of east from the city, fifteen miles in a straight line, is Stone Mountain, near the base of which rises a stream called Peach Tree Creek, deep and difficult to cross. The general direction of this creek is west, it entering the Chattahoochee just above the railroad bridge. The creek forms nearly a right angle with the river, and within that angle lies Atlanta. The city then was defended by the Chattahoochee on the west, and by Peach Tree Creek on the north. This peculiar conformation of the streams was taken advantage of by the rebel leaders, and when they fell back across the Chattahoochee, they arranged their lines also along the two sides of this angle. The apex of the angle is at the railroad bridge. From that point the rebel lines ran southwest along the Atlanta side of the river, and directly east and west along Peach Tree Creek.

"The problem now presented to our commanders was this: Ought they to force a passage across the river, in the face of the enemy, at some point or points south of the railroad bridge, and advance upon Atlanta from the west and south — upon which sides, the river being crossed, it was comparatively defenseless; or should they throw their troops over the river north of the bridge, where they were likely to meet with little or no opposition, and thence march upon the rebel defenses south of Peach Tree Creek? Taking the first course was to perform, what is always considered one of the most difficult achievements in warfare, namely, to cross a great river in the face of a foe. The second case involved another exceedingly dangerous undertaking

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the fighting of a great battle with a river just in the rear. It was finally concluded, however, to risk the second alternative — a conclusion which reflects great honor upon our generalship, and was fully justified by two considerations: First, our superiority in numbers over the enemy made the danger of fighting, with a river in our rear, much less than ordinarily, under similar circumstances; and, second, a glance at the map will show that by crossing the Chattahoochee south of the railroad bridge, we exposed our line of communications; whereas, by crossing north of it we kept this line completely covered.

"The last of the army, except such portions as were destined to hold our line of communications, went over the river early on the morning of the 18th of July. It was a very wise arrangement to throw the left wing over first, because the higher up the river the crossing was effected the less liable the troops were to any formidable attack from the enemy; and it was a matter of the first importance to have a strong force on the other side, to assist, if necessary, the right wing, which was compelled to cross much nearer the rebels and near the great angle in their lines which I have already described. Besides, as we should, after getting over the river, be obliged to face the right, in order to march southward upon the rebel works along Peach Tree Creek, the left wing would be compelled to move much further than the right; and this was an additional reason for its being first thrown across. Operations actually took place in accordance with this theory.

"Before any portion of the army of the Cumberland (except Howard's corps) had reached the southeast side of the Chattahoochee, McPherson had made a material advance, moving his extreme left along a road which runs from Marietta direct to Stone Mountain, over a branch of Peach Tree Creek, named Nancy Creek, through the small village of Cross Keys, and forward so as to threaten seriously the line of the Georgia or Augusta Railroad. Schofield, next to McPherson's troops on the right, and Howard, on Schofield's right, made corresponding movements. By 10 A. M., on the 19th, Hooker and Palmer being then over, all portions of the line advanced, almost everywhere encountering the enemy's skirmishers (principally dismounted cavalry), and everywhere driving them back. Portions of

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Stanley's and Wood's divisions very handsomely distinguished themselves during this movement and by night of the 19th nearly the whole army had crossed to the south side of Peach Tree Creek. On the right, the brigade recently commanded by Colonel Daniel McCook, (now under the leadership of Colonel Dilworth, of the 85th Illinois,) met with a determined resistance as it passed over late in the afternoon, and lost nearly two hundred and fifty of its number, killed, wounded and captured. Inspired, however, by the gallant spirit of its recent leader, it maintained its ground until Colonel John G. Mitchell's brigade had come up to its support, when it drove the rebels from its front, and immediately threw up fortifications. The men of Kneffler's brigade (Stanley's division, Howard's corps,) swam the stream under a fire of artillery, and captured near fifty prisoners on the south side. Logan's corps, the 15th, moved over to the left of the Army of the Tennessee, and advancing with rapidity and energy, its left flank well covered by Garrard's cavalry division, it struck the Augusta Railroad at a point two and a half miles west of Stone Mountain and immediately commenced tearing up the track. This brilliant achievement, in connection with Rosseaus' remarkable and daring raid upon the Atlanta and West Point (Mobile) Road, must have greatly alarmed the enemy, and probably determined him to make, the next day, a desperate effort to drive us out.

"On Wednesday morning, then, behold our entire army south of Peach Tree Creek, on a line running nearly east and west, and confronting the rebel battalions who occupied strong works just before them. Day had scarcely dawned when the left wing of the army was in motion. The 17th corps (Blair's) passed to the extreme left, while the 15th (Logan's) marched westward along the Augusta Railroad, tearing up the track as it went, until it reached Decatur, eight miles from Stone Mountain. Schofield advanced toward Atlanta, connecting with General Dodge's division of McPherson's army on the left. Howard, marching by the left flank, formed a junction with Schofield; and Hooker, marching by the right flank, filled up the interval between Howard and Palmer. By noon of the 20th, the whole army was in line of battle, nearly in the following order:

"The 14th corps, Palmer's, on the extreme right; the 20th, Hooker's, next; the 4th, Howard's, next; the 23d, Schofield's, next; 16th,

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Dodge's, next, although partly in reserve; the 15th, Logan's next; and the 17th, Blair's, on the extreme left. Garrard's cavalry division covered our right flank, while General Ed. McCook's held the ferries along the river.

"During the afternoon of the 20th the whole left wing of the army advanced, driving the enemy before them in a series of sharp and brilliant skirmishes, which, occurring between small armies, would have been called battles. It was in one of these that General Gresham, commanding the right division of the 17th corps, received a severe if not dangerous wound. By nightfall our extreme left had advanced nearly ten miles south of the Augusta Railroad, and rested at a point which was a little south of east from Atlanta.

"The line which I spoke of as existing at noon on Wednesday was not everywhere complete. A line of skirmishers (the 121st Ohio, Colonel Banning,) connected General Palmer's right with the Chattahoochee, and only a strong line of skirmishers connected the left of General Newton's division with the remainder of the 4th corps — a gap of nearly two miles being thus held. The situation was a dangerous one, and General Thomas, with his accustomed wisdom and promptness, immediately commenced a series of movements for the purpose of closing it. Subsequent events and the statements of rebel prisoners revealed the fact that the enemy were aware of the existence of this gap — were actually hunting for it when they made their furious assault upon us in the evening, and most providentially failed to find it.

"Shortly after leaving the south branch of Peach Tree Creek, the ground begins to rise. A prolonged stretch of high ground extends thus all along the creek to the river, forming a ridge, cut with deep ravines, in Howard's front, a sort of broken table land in Hooker's, and rising into two considerable hills in Palmer's. On this range of heights, but at a considerable distance from the northern edge, was the enemy's principal line of works. The ground in front of Howard was densely wooded, as was mostly that in front of Palmer. But on a great part of Hooker's front, after ascending to the table land, was a considerable space of open fields, on the other side of which in the direction of Atlanta, were heavy woods. Behind all three of these corps ran Peach Tree Creek, through open ground, with high

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ground (also open) still further back, and furnishing splendid positions for our batteries, of which the experienced and able artillerists on Davis, Baird, Johnson, Hooker, Newton and Howard's staffs did not fail to avail themselves.

"It was shortly after 12, noon, when in accordance with General Thomas' design of closing up the Gap I have spoken of, General Newton's division prepared to advance from the bank of the creek, in order to relieve Hazen's brigade of Wood's division, which had been thrown over previously, and allow it to move off to the left, as well as to take up a position, which, by materially shortening our line, would tend still further to close up the interval between Newton and Wood.

"A strong skirmish line was sent out to feel for the enemy, who had rifle pits in advance of their principal works. Colonel Barrett, 44th Illinois, was put in command of the skirmishers, who comprised six regiments, four from Brigadier-General Kimball's brigade and two from Colonel Blake's. The latter officer is at present in command of General Wagner's brigade. The whole line advancing with rapidity and enthusiasm, drove the rebels from their rifle pits, and captured several, with the loss of only two men. This brought them within 350 yards of the main rebel works.

"Our line of battle quickly followed up this advance, and Kimball and Blake immediately took up a position on the ridge. The men had merely halted, as they supposed, for the purpose of eating their dinner, but were ordered to commence constructing a line of barricades. No order is more cheerfully obeyed by our soldiers, when in presence of the enemy, than this, and in this instance, as the event subsequently proved, saved hundreds of their own lives, and perhaps prevented the rout of their division. Colonel Blake, never slow to follow any good example, did not hesitate an instant in this case; and the clatter of logs and rails thrown together, with the ringing of picks, spades and shovels, resounded all along his front.

"The enemy made repeated efforts, from noon to half past two, to ascertain the position of our forces; and there was heavy skirmishing along Wood and Stanley's fronts, as well as along the skirmish line, which, stretching across the great gap, connected the left of Newton with the right of Wood. Then there was a temporary lull along the whole line.

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"It was about half past three when the enemy's skirmishers, advancing as if to reconnoiter, gave notice that something was impending. Our line had halted longer than was expected, and was just upon the point of resuming the advance, when this appearance of the rebels determined Newton to remain behind his hastily constructed works on the hill, and Hooker to march his troops at once from the low ground in front of him, so that he might connect with Newton's right. The order to advance was scarcely given, when from the high ground north of the stream, all Hooker's batteries, and part of Howard's, broke forth in a simultaneous peal of thunder. The rebel legions were pouring forth from the woods beyond the open fields at the top of the ridge and, pressing forward, rank behind rank, in startling and magnificent array, seemed resolved to crush at one blow whatever might oppose them. This spectacle the artillerists upon the elevated ground, north of the creek, could plainly see, but the infantry, climbing up the hill, on the south, could not. A moment later, and a savage yell upon the left, followed by the clang and clatter of ten thousand muskets, announced that Newton's division had been assailed by the foe. On Newton's front the enemy did not wait to push forward a skirmish line, but charged at once in lines of battle, two and three deep. Our skirmishers, in advance of our hastily constructed works, were driven in with the velocity of a whirlwind, and as they rushed back in disordered haste, came near throwing into confusion the extreme right of Newton, and for a moment caused it to give way.

"Meantime, Brigadier-General Geary's division of Hooker's corps, which, was considerably in advance of both Williams' division on the right and Ward's (Butterfield's) on the left, was struck by the rushing storm, and temporarily shattered. Both his right and his center divisions were pushed from their positions, after a short and desperate resistance, and hurled down the hill nearly to the banks of the creek. General Ward's division was still advancing up the hill side, when the wary old Kentuckian saw, as he then supposed, both Geary on his right and Newton on his left, overthrown. He was about to detach three or four regiments to their assistance, when, to his astonishment, the whole scene was changed as if by magic. Newton's line became firm as a rock, and, without another sign of

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wavering, continued to pour into the rebel host a steady, uninterrupted, and deadly fire. At the same time Geary's disordered regiments reformed, even under a withering fire from the enemy, while a couple of his batteries, directing their pieces full at the right flank of the lines which had driven us back, tore them in pieces with a tornado of shot and shell. The indentation in our lines produced by the giving way of Geary's two brigades became a pit of death into which hundreds of maddened rebels plunged, only to die or to fall wounded and bleeding upon the sod. Not another inch did Geary retire, but began slowly to advance, until, when the fight closed, he occupied exactly the same ground as when it began.

"It was just as General Ward became convinced that all was going well with Newton and Geary, that his own line reached the edge of the kind of table line I have described, only to find itself confronted at a distance of thirty paces, with the flower of the rebel army! The fearful tumult that at once burst forth was such that no man could tell which portion of it was the roar of musketry, and which the fierce, indignant, defiant yell that each host hurled at the other. Both were surprised. Our men scarcely knew that the enemy had emerged from the opposite woods, when they found themselves full in their presence. The rebels, disappointed elsewhere, supposed they had certainly reached their long-looked-for gap, but found instead a line of battle and a sheet of vindictive fire! Both lines instantly charged forward, pouring the leaden hail full into each other's bosoms. They stood in some places but fifteen feet apart, and still hurled death in each other's faces. They charged again, and the men intermingled and fought hand to hand! In places the lines crossed each other, and wheeled round only to renew the combat, the rebels facing Atlanta, the soldiers of the Union, Peach Tree Creek!

"When the storm broke upon Geary, General Williams' division had advanced upon the extreme right of Hooker's corps, almost as far as Geary himself. The gallant old veteran was struggling through a dense forest, and striving to form connection with Geary on his left, when suddenly the woods in front of him were filled with fierce yells and spurts of fire and whizzing missels, as if each tree had held

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"‘A spirit prisoned in its breast,
Which the first stroke of coming strife
Had startled into hideous life!’

But neither Williams nor his division are made of the material which learns easily to quail. The savage yells of the demons of slavery were answered by the loud shouts of freemen, battling for their country and their God. A bristling line of steel, glittering with fire, everywhere met and checked the rebel advance. A few rude and unfinished bulwarks of rails, thrown together by the men when they had last halted, furnished but little protection from the pitiless showers of bullets flung from the muskets of the enemy; but, in spite of rebel daring, energy and hate, Williams would not yield a foot of ground.

"Colonel Bradley's brigade of Newton's division (to the command of which he succeeded after the death of the noble Harker), was formed in columns of the regiments along the road leading from Buckhead to Atlanta, when the fight commenced. Immediately after the rebel assault began upon Newton's front, the 64th Ohio and 42d Illinois were sent to support Colonel Blake, while the 27th Illinois was dispatched to the assistance of General Kimball. The remainder of the brigade was at first also intended to go to the support of Blake; but its destination was changed, and it was formed in order of battle along the Atlanta road, where it assisted in repelling and capturing a column of the enemy which had forced its way past Blake's left flank and actually gained our rear.

"This incident deserves to be further noticed. So intense was the interest among our men to repel the rebels in our immediate front, that they did not perceive a small column had passed around entirely to the left of Blake, and penetrated the right of that long line of skirmishers which I have described as alone holding the huge gap between Newton and Wood, until they heard the noise of conflict immediately in their rear. The rebels had reached the Buckhead and Atlanta road. General Thomas was overlooking the progress of the fight in the rear of Newton. The moment he perceived the body of rebels, he hastily got together a force consisting of the pioneers of Kimball's brigade, some of the straggling skirmishers who had fled before the first rebel onset, and a couple of pieces of artillery.

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Taking immediate personal command of this novel battalion, he assailed the astonished rebels, and killed and captured the whole body.

"The 57th Indiana and 100th Illinois, of Colonel Blake's brigade, which were advanced in the first place as skirmishers, were separated for some time from the remainder of the brigade by the rebel column above mentioned.

"The right of Colonel Blake's brigade rested on the Atlanta road, the left of General Kimball's upon the same. Four guns of Goodspeed's Ohio Battery, under command of Lieutenant Scovill, were placed upon the Atlanta road, just in rear of these two brigades, and during the whole time the fight lasted did terrible execution upon the enemy. Once the rebels came up the ravine just to the left of the road, in close column, with ‘Brigadier-General’ Stephens at their head, determined, if possible, to capture these four pieces; but Kimball's left regiment, 74th Illinois, on the right of the road, and Blake's right regiment, the 88th Illinois, on the left of the road, poured into the column so terrible a direct and cross fire, that it reeled, staggered and broke in confusion, leaving its leader dead upon the field.

"The brigade which formed the left of General Ward's division is commanded by Colonel Jas. Wood of the 136th New York. But two of its regiments were in front line when the conflict commenced, the 26th Wisconsin and 20th Connecticut. The 55th Ohio afterward took part in the fighting, as did the 73d, which relieved the 26th Wisconsin, and the 136th New York, which relieved the 20th Connecticut. The troops immediately opposed to Colonel Wood were a Mississippi brigade, under command of a ‘Brigadier-General’ Featherstone, who was killed early in the fight. Colonel Wood did all that was required of him.

"The center of General Ward's division was held by Colonel Coburn's brigade. It was part of Colonel Coburn's brigade, which, in the terrible shock along the front of Ward's division, exchanged places with a part of the rebel line, and wheeled about to renew the fight with them.

"The next brigade going toward the left was General Ward's, commanded by Colonel Harrison, of the 70th Indiana. It did its full share of this glorious day's work. When the great charge of

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the rebels and counter-charge by our men were made, the 129th Illinois engaged the enemy in a hand-to-hand conflict, in which officers as well as men mingled indiscriminately. Lieutenant-Colonel Flynn and a rebel Colonel, each with a gun in his hand, fought each other for a considerable time, each dodging around a bush repeatedly, so as to give or avoid a shot.

"Colonel Anson G. McCook, of the 2d Ohio, commanded a brigade, consisting of old regiments, each of which has a historical name, and was until recently under command of Brigadier-General Carlin. The latter being on leave of absence, Colonel McCook assumed command. On him was devolved the duty of clipping the left wing of the rebel host which pounced upon us. He was on the extreme left wing of Palmer's corps, and his was the left brigade of General Johnson's division. It was formed into two lines, the first commanded by Colonel Taylor, of the 15th Kentucky; the second by Colonel Hobart, 21st Wisconsin. The brigade advanced to the top of the ridge in front, to keep in line with General Hooker, and had time to throw up some slight works before it was assailed. This remark applies to the first line only — the second had no works.

"The 104th Illinois, on the left of the first line was somewhat in advance of the other regiments, in consequence of the peculiar nature of the grounds, and was therefore the first struck when the rebels came thundering upon us. A brave stand was made, and then the right of the regiment began to crumble away. Colonel McCook, while feeling deeply the heavy responsibility resting upon his shoulders, remained cool and self-possessed as a veteran. He knew how terrible the result might be if this portion of our line was broken. Yet the rebel legions had advanced entirely up to our rude works, and a rebel color-bearer stuck his detested flag into one of the logs composing them. He almost instantly paid for his audacity with his life, being both shot and bayoneted where he stood. While the rebels were pressing with exultant shouts after the retiring 104th, the 15th Kentucky, 42d and 88th Indiana, which were in the line further back than the 104th, were shifted around in such a way that they were enabled to pour into the advancing enemy a destructive flanking and cross fire, which at once chilled his ardor and sent him to the right about. Again they essayed to charge; but by this time the gallant

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Colonel Hobart had placed the second line in such positions that it could assist materially in the conflict, and again the rebel flood was rolled back. Thus gloriously did Colonel McCook inaugurate his new command, and showed himself a worthy namesake of him whose blood bathed the soil of Alabama, and of him who gave his life for freedom at Kenesaw.

"All along the portion of our lines which we have just reviewed, the noise of battle continued to resound. At every point the rebel battalions seemed to have charged at least three times, and thrice the ground was left literally covered with their dead and mangled bodies. Against our single unprotected line of battle on Hooker's front, they hurled repeatedly two and three; and although our loss was here most terrible, yet that of the rebels so far exceeded it as to be almost unexampled in the history of warfare. By nightfall the charging squadrons had been everywhere repulsed, and driven in confusion and dismay back to their barricades. When this glorious consummation became fully evident, there rose all along; our battle-begrimmed ranks, so loud, so strong, so exultant, so terrible a cheer that it must have paled the cheeks of guilty traitors even in the streets and houses of Atlanta.

"Major-General Palmer is one of our leaders whose prudence and foresight did much to avert disaster this day, and enable us to win victory. He seemed to have an instinctive perception of the impending attack, and at midnight of the 19th, sent word to all his division commanders to strengthen their works. Had this not been done, the storm would probably have burst on him instead of Hooker. As it was, it touched only his extreme left, with what result we have already seen. I was overcome with emotion when I saw him late on the evening of the 20th, standing near a ridge swept by rebel cannon, surrounded by Von Schrader, McClurg, Shaw, and one or two other members of his excellent staff, and rejoicing with almost boyish exultation at the result of the battle, which his own wise precaution had contributed so materially to bring about.

"The 105th Illinois captured two colors, the 129th one."

It may seem that unusual space has been accorded to this engagement in which our total loss in killed and wounded did not reach 3,000, but it must be remembered that upon its results depended history. Johnston

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had been superseded by order of Jefferson Davis, and Hood was in command. He knew of the gap between Thomas and Schofield, and with desperate promptness attempted to throw his massed strength into it, and met Hooker and defeat. Had he succeeded he would have struck right and left in detail. Atlanta was virtually won at Peach Tree Creek, and the failure of Kenesaw Mountain redeemed, and Hood's prestige broken with his first blow. Our troops were in the terrible melee as the statement has shown.

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Chapter XII. — Into Atlanta.

ATLANTA — ITS IMPORTANCE — HEART OF CONFEDERACY — MUST BE TAKEN — HOOD IN COMMAND — SHERMAN'S REPORT — THE CHATTAHOOCHEE — BATTLE OF JULY 22D — MCPHERSON KILLED — LOGAN IN COMMAND — BLAIR ASSAILED BY HARDEE — SWEENEY — DODGE — TWELFTH ILLINOIS — SIXTEENTH CORPS — LONG'S CORPS — SMITH'S DIVISION — LOSS OF GUNS — THE CRISIS — SHERMAN — ORDER TO LOGAN — CHARGE — WOOD — VICTORY — GUNS RETAKEN — WHAT SHERMAN SAYS — THE STONEMAN RAID — CHANGES IN COMMAND — HOOKER — PALMER. — HOWARD — SLOCUM — DAVIS — WILLIAMS — BATTLE OF JONESBORO — VICTORY DECISIVE — REBEL RETREAT — PURSUIT — "ATLANTA OURS AND FAIRLY WON" — SHERMAN'S PROMOTION — RE-UNION AND FREEDOM.

ATLANTA," said a rebel newspaper, "is the gate city from the North and West to the Southeast. Its fall would open the way for the Federal army to the Gulf on one hand, and Charleston on the other, and close up those rich granaries from which Lee's army is supplied. It would give them control of our network of railways and thus paralyze our efforts.

"The capture of Richmond would prove of greater advantage to our enemies in a political point of view than any other sense. With our capital in their possession we would find additional influence brought against us abroad; but as a material loss its fall would in no manner compare with the disadvantages which would result from a defeat of General Johnston, and the occupation of Georgia that would follow. To lose the one would be as the loss of a limb; should we be driven from the other, it will be a terrible blow at our most vital point."

Hood had declared "We cannot lose Atlanta. If we do, the confederacy is broken. For my part I'll fight while a man stands by me, even until the streets of the city run with our blood."

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Its importance is seen in that it is the entrepot for the following railways: The Georgia, connecting Atlanta and Augusta, the Macon and Western to Macon, the Western and Atlantic to Chattanooga, and the Lagrange branch road to West Point on the Chattahoochee. It was the heart of the confederacy pumping vitalized blood into the arteries extending to the extremities. By these lines it was connected with the whole country. It is, by rail, one hundred and seventy-one miles from Augusta; one hundred and one from Macon; two hundred and ninety-two from Savannah, one hundred and thirty-eight from Chattanooga. Davis said, "It must not be given up." Here were the confederate rolling mills, founderies, machine shops, laboratories; here were great grain store-houses; here were the arsenal, oil stores, the pork depots, clothing factories, &c. No wonder it was to be defended to the extremity; no wonder that Grant and Sherman determined to take it, cost what it might.

Johnston's policy was to compel Sherman to garrison post after post. As he fell back, Sherman must weaken the force with which he followed, and in due time he would strike the daring leader and his weakened army and crush him. Davis rejected the policy, and gave the command to Hood, brave, able, careless of human life, disposed to field work, who inaugurated his campaign by his assault at Peach Tree Creek, and was about to repeat the experiment in another bold, costly, yet fruitless movement.

Yet his movements at first were in part deceptive. He, General Sherman, says:

"On the morning of the 22d, somewhat to my surprise, this whole line was found abandoned, and I confess I thought the enemy had resolved to give us Atlanta without further contest; but General Johnston had been relieved of his command and General Hood substituted. A new policy seemed resolved on, of which the bold attack on our right was the index. Our advancing ranks swept across the strong and well finished parapet of the enemy, and closed in upon Atlanta until we occupied a line in the form of a general circle of about two miles' radius, when we again found him occupying in force a line of finished redoubts, which had been prepared for more than a year, covering all the roads leading into Atlanta; and we found him also busy in connecting those redoubts with curtains strengthened by rifle trenches, abattis and chevaux-de-frise."

The General arranged his force to meet whatever emergency might arise. He says:

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"General McPherson, who had advanced from Decatur, continued to follow substantially the railroad, with the 15th Corps, General Logan, the 17th, General Blair on its left, and the 16th, General Dodge on its right, but as the general advance of all the armies contracted the circle, the 16th Corps, General Dodge, was thrown out of line by the 15th connecting on the right with General Schofield near the Howard house. General McPherson, the night before, had gained a high hill to the south and east of the railroad, where the 17th Corps had, after a severe fight, driven the enemy, and it gave him a most commanding position within easy view of the very heart of the city. He had thrown out working parties to it, and was making preparations to occupy it in strength with batteries. The 16th Corps, General Dodge, was ordered from right to left to occupy this position and make it a strong general left flank. General Dodge was moving by a diagonal path or wagon track leading from the Decatur road in the direction of General Blair's left flank.

"About 10 A. M. I was in person with General Schofield examining the appearance of the enemy's lines opposite the distillery, where we attracted enough of the enemy's fire of artillery and musketry to satisfy me the enemy was in Atlanta in force, and meant to fight, and had gone to a large dwelling close by, known as the Howard house, where General McPherson joined me. He described the condition of things on his flank and the disposition of his troops. I explained to him that if we met serious resistance in Atlanta, as present appearances indicated, instead of operating against it by the left I would extend to the right, and that I did not want him to gain much distance to the left. He then described the hill occupied by General Leggett's division of General Blair's corps as essential to the occupation of any ground to the east and south of the Augusta railroad on account of its commanding nature. I therefore ratified his disposition of troops, and modified a previous order I had sent him in writing to use General Dodge's corps, thrown somewhat in reserve by the closing up of our line, to break up the railroad, and I sanctioned its going, as already ordered by General McPherson, to his left, to hold and fortify that position. The General remained with me till near noon, when some reports reaching us that indicated a movement of the enemy on that flank, he mounted and rode away with his staff. I must here also state that the day before I had detached General Garrard's cavalry to go to Covington, on the Augusta road, forty-two miles east of Atlanta and from that point to send detachments to break the two important bridges across the Yellow and Ulcofauhatchee rivers, tributaries of Ocmulgee, and General McPherson had also left his wagon train at Decatur, under a guard of three regiments commanded by Colonel, now General Sprague. Soon after General McPherson left me at the Howard house, as before described, I heard the sounds of musketry to our left rear, at first mere pattering shots, but soon they grew in volume, accompanied with artillery, and about the same time the sound of guns was heard in the direction of Decatur. No doubt could longer be entertained of the enemy's plan of action, which was to throw a superior force on our left flank, while he held us with his forts in front, the only question being as to the amount of force he could employ at that point. I hastily transmitted orders to all points of our center and right to press forward and give full employment to all the enemy in his lines, and for General Schofield to hold as large a force in reserve as possible, awaiting developments. Not more than half an hour after General McPherson had left me, viz., about 12 1/2 M. of the 22nd, his Adjutant-General, Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, rode up and reported

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that General McPherson was either dead or a prisoner; that he had ridden from me to General Dodge's column, moving as heretofore described, and had sent off nearly all his staff and orderlies on various errands, and himself had passed into a narrow path or road that led to the left and rear of General Giles A. Smith's division, which was General Blair's extreme left; that a few minutes after he had entered the woods a sharp volley was heard in that direction, and his horse had come out riderless, having two wounds. The suddenness of this terrible calamity would have overwhelmed me with grief, but the living demanded my whole thoughts. I instantly dispatched a staff officer to General John A. Logan, commanding the 15th Corps, to tell him what had happened; that he must assume command of the army of the Tennessee, and hold stubbornly the ground already chosen, more especially the hill gained by General Leggett the night before."

So opened a battle bloodier than had yet marked the great march. The death of McPherson was a terrible calamity, for few of the gallant subordinates of Sherman equaled him in ability or popularity. His death was for a time concealed from the men, but when known caused the most intense sorrow. Logan quietly assumed command, and developed anew the soldierly qualities which had already given him so prominent a place among civilian generals.

At high noon the sun looked down on a desperate struggle, Hardee assailed Blair's left flank, overlapped it, and swung around until he came in contact with Dodge's corps in motion. In front of the 17th Army Corps there was bloody work. Sweeney formed his division, and placed Rice's brigade facing the rear, Mersey's (9th Illinois) southward, with Merrill's on his right. Dodge's right was about to be turned when he ordered the 81st Ohio and 12th Illinois under Von Sellar to charge the rebel flank. They crossed a valley, swept around the point of a ridge and burst upon the foe like a thunderbolt, strewing the ground with dead and wounded, capturing several prisoners and two stands of colors. "Bull-dog Sweeney" stood like a rock before Hardee, staying his advance, holding his ground against fearful odds until the troops could take position. The assault on our 17th Corps was terrible. The 10th Corps was involved by rebel masses, and lost several guns. Giles Smith's and Leggett's divisions fought against a swarm of troops — the old entrenchments was their battle-ground, and they fought on either side. Logan's corps at the center fought for victory and for life. Morgan Smith's division was so cut up it was compelled to retire. Our artillery was in part captured, including the celebrated Parrot 20-pounders, and Murray's regular artillery.

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Sherman saw the crisis. On a hill near Colonel Howard's house he placed a battery of the 15th Corps and one of the 23d, where they commanded a converging and enfilading fire upon the lines of gray, and sent to Logan the simple order "You must retake those guns." Logan rode along his columns inspiriting them by stern, burning words, and prepared to obey the order. Wood's division was to lead the charge. Wood swung his men so as to envelop the rebel rear, and supported by a portion of Schofield's command the charge was made. The 15th met the rebel column — the batteries near Colonel Howard's house opened upon the enemy — too near for artillery, a cheer rang along our lines, a low deadly fire sent death and wounds into the rebel column, it staggered, paused — down to their level came the cold bayonets of our army, and forward! The rebels until now flushed with success, broke and fled! A wild shout — a charge along the whole line, a seizure of all our lost artillery, except two guns, a pursuit and a victory. Hood had been a second time foiled. Sherman's official account is the following:

"Already the whole line was engaged in battle. Hardee's corps had sallied from Atlanta, and by a wide circuit to the east had struck General Blair's left flank, enveloped it, and his right had swung around until it hit General Dodge in motion. General Blair's line was substantially along the old line of the rebel trench, but it was fashioned to fight outward. A space of wooded ground of near half a mile, intervened between the head of General Dodge's column and General Blair's line, through which the enemy had poured, but the last order ever given by General McPherson was to hurry a brigade (Colonel Wangelin's) of the 15th Corps across from the railroad to occupy this gap. It came across on the double quick and checked the enemy. While Hardee attacked in flank, Stewart's corps was to attack in front directly out from the main works, but fortunately their attacks were not simultaneous. The enemy swept across the hill which our men were then fortifying, and captured the pioneer company, its tools, and almost the entire working party, and bore down on our left until he encountered General Giles A. Smith's division of the 17th Corps, who was somewhat ‘in air,’ and forced to fight first from one side of the old rifle parapet and then from the other, gradually withdrawing, regiment by regiment, so as to form a flank to General Leggett's division which held the apex of the hill, which was the only part that was deemed essential to our future plans. General Dodge had caught and held well in cheek the enemy's right, and punished him severely, capturing many prisoners. Smith (General Giles A.) had gradually given up the extremity of his line and formed a new one whose right connected with General Leggett, and his left refused, facing southeast. On this ground and in this order the men fought well and desperately for near four hours, checking and repulsing all the enemy's attacks. The execution on the enemy's ranks at the angle was terrible, and great credit is due both Generals Leggett and Giles A. Smith and their men for

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their hard and stubborn fighting. The enemy made no further progress on that flank, and by 4 P. M. had almost given up the attempt. In the meantime Wheeler's cavalry unopposed (for General Garrard was absent at Covington by my order) had reached Decatur and attempted to capture the wagon trains, but Colonel, now General Sprague, covered them with great skill and success, sending them to the rear of Generals Schofield and Thomas, and not drawing back from Decatur till every wagon was safe except three which the teamsters had left, carrying off the mules. On our extreme left the enemy had taken a complete battery of six guns, with its horses (Murray's), of the Regular Army, as it was moving along unsupported and unapprehensive of danger, in a narrow, wooded road, in that unguarded space between the head of General Dodge's column and the line of battle on the ridge above, but most of the men escaped to the bushes. He also got two other guns on the extreme left Hank, that were left on the ground as General Giles A. Smith drew off his men in the manner heretofore described. About 4 P. M., there was quite a lull, during which the enemy felt forward on the railroad and main Decatur road, and suddenly assailed a regiment which, with a section of guns, had been thrown forward as a kind of picket, and captured the two guns; he then advanced rapidly and broke through our lines at that point which had been materially weakened by the withdrawal of Colonel Martin's brigade, sent by General Logan's order to the extreme left The other brigade, General Lightburn, which held this part of the line, fell back in some disorder about four hundred yards, to a position held by it the night before, leaving the enemy for a time in possession of two batteries, one of which, a 20-pounder Parrott battery of 4 guns, was most valuable to us, and separating General Wood's and General Harrow's divisions of the 15th Corps, that were on the right and left of the railroad. Being in person close by the spot, and appreciating the vast importance of the connection at that point, I ordered certain batteries of General Schofield to be moved to a position somewhat commanding, by a left flank fire, and ordered an incessant fire of shells on the enemy within sight, and the woods beyond, to prevent his reinforcing. I also sent orders to General Logan, which he had already anticipated, to make the 15th Corps regain its lost ground at any cost, and instructed General Woods, supported by General Schofield, to use his division and sweep the parapet down from where he held it until he saved the batteries and recovered the lost ground. The whole was executed in superb style, at times our men and the enemy fighting across the narrow parapet, but at last the enemy gave way and the 15th Corps regained its position and all the guns except the two advanced ones which were out of view and had been removed by the enemy within his main work. With this terminated the battle of the 22d, which cost us 3,722 killed, wounded and prisoners.

"But among the dead was Major-General McPherson, whose body was recovered and brought to me in the heat of the battle, and I had sent it in charge of his personal staff back to Marietta on its way to his Northern home. He was a noble youth, of striking personal appearance, of the highest professional capacity, and with a heart abounding in kindness that drew to him the affections of all men. His sudden death devolved the command of the army on the no less brave and gallant General Logan, who nobly sustained his reputation and that of his veteran army, and avenged the death of his comrade and commander. The enemy left on the field his dead and wounded, and about a thousand well prisoners. His dead alone are computed by General

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Logan at 3,240, of which number 2,200 were from actual count, and of these he delivered to the enemy, under a flag of truce, sent in by him (the enemy) 800 bodies. I entertain no doubt that in the battle of July 22d the enemy sustained an aggregate loss of full 8,000 men."

General Garrard had been sent with a division of cavalry to break up the Augusta railway, and returned on the 24th, reporting success, having made the roads useless, and destroyed the bridges over the branches of the Ocmulgee.

Sherman now desired to destroy the Macon road, on which Hood's army must depend for supplies. He thus reports the partially unsuccessful attempts of McCook and Stoneman. The 14th Illinois under Colonel Capron, and perhaps other regiments, accompanied Stoneman:

"Generals Schofield and Thomas had closed well up, holding the enemy behind his inner intrenchments. I first ordered the army of the Tennessee to prepare to vacate its line and to shift by the right below Proctor's Creek, and General Schofield to extend up to the Augusta road. About the same time General Rosseau had arrived from his expedition to Opelika, bringing me about 2,000 good cavalry, but of course fatigued with its long and rapid march, and ordering it to relieve General Stoneman at the river about Sandtown, I shifted General Stoneman to our left flank and ordered all my cavalry to prepare for a blow at the Macon road, simultaneous with the movement of the army of the Tennessee towards East Point. To accomplish this, I gave General Stoneman the command of his own and General Garrard's cavalry, making an effective force of full 5,000 men, and to General McCook I gave his own and the new cavalry brought by General Rosseau, which was commanded by Colonel Harrison, of the 8th Indiana cavalry, in the aggregate about 4,000. These two well appointed bodies were to move in concert, the former by the left around Atlanta to McDonough, and the latter by the right on Fayetteville, and on a certain night, viz., July 28th, they were to meet on the Macon road near Lovejoy's, and destroy it in the most effectual mariner. I estimated this joint cavalry could whip all Wheeler's cavalry, and could otherwise fully accomplish its task, and I think so still. I had the officers in command to meet me, and explained the movement perfectly, and they entertained not a doubt of perfect success. At the very moment almost of starting, General Stoneman addressed me a note asking permission after fulfilling his orders and breaking the road, to be allowed, with his command proper, to proceed to Macon and Anderson, and release our prisoners of war confined at those points. There was something most captivating in the idea, and the execution was within the bounds of probability of success. I consented that after the defeat of Wheeler's cavalry, which was embraced in his orders, and breaking the road, he might attempt it with his cavalry proper, sending that of General Garrard back to its proper flank of the army. Both cavalry expeditions started at the time appointed. I have as yet no report from General Stoneman, who is a prisoner of war at Macon, but I know that he dispatched General Garrard's cavalry to Flat Rock, for the purpose of covering his own movement to McDonough, but for some reason

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unknown to me he went off towards Covington and did not again communicate with General Garrard at Flat Rock. General Garrard remained there until the 29th, skirmishing heavily with a part of Wheeler's cavalry, and occupying their attention, but hearing nothing from General Stoneman, he moved back to Conyer's, where, learning that General Stoneman had gone to Covington and south on the east side of the Ocmulgee, he returned and resumed his position on our left. It is known that General Stoneman kept to the east of the Ocmulgee to Clinton, sending detachments off to the east which did a large amount of damage to the railroad, burning the bridges of Walnut Creek and Oconee, and destroying a large number of cars and locomotives, and with his main force appeared before Macon. He did not succeed in crossing the Ocmulgee at Macon, or in approaching Andersonville, but retired in the direction whence he came, followed by various detachments of mounted men under a General Iverson. He seems to have become hemmed in, and gave consent to two thirds of his force to escape back whilst he held the enemy in check with the remainder, about 700 men, and a section of light guns. One brigade, Colonel Adams, came in almost intact. Another, commanded by Colonel Capron, was surprised on the way back and scattered; many were captured and killed, and the balance got in mostly unarmed and afoot, and the General himself surrendered his small command, and is now a prisoner at Macon. His mistake was in not making the first concentration with Generals McCook and Garrard near Lovejoy's, according to his orders, which is yet unexplained.

"General McCook, in the execution of his part, went down the west bank of the Chattahoochee to near Rivertown, where he laid a pontoon bridge with which he was provided, crossed his command and moved rapidly on Palmeto Station of the West Point road, where he tore up a section of track, leaving a regiment to create a diversion towards Campbelltown, which regiment fulfilled its duty and returned to camp by way of and escorting back the pontoon bridge train. General McCook then rapidly moved to Fayetteville, where he found a large number of the wagons belonging to the rebel army in Atlanta. These he burned to the number of 500, killing 800 mules, and carrying along others, and taking 250 prisoners, mostly quartermasters and men belonging to the trains. He then pushed for the railroad, reaching it at Lovejoy's station at the time appointed. He burned the depot, tore up a section of the road, and continued to work until forced to leave off to defend himself against an accumulating force of the enemy. He could hear nothing of General Stoneman, and finding his progress east too strongly opposed, he moved south and west, and reached Newman on the West Point road, where he encountered an infantry force coming from Mississippi to Atlanta, which had been stopped by the break he had made at Palmetto. This force, with the pursuing cavalry, hemmed him in and forced him to fight. He was compelled to drop his prisoners and captures and cut his way out, losing some 500 officers and men. Among them a most valuable officer, Colonel Harrison, who, when fighting his men, as skirmishers on foot, was overcome and made prisoner and is now at Macon. He cut his way out, reached the Chattahoochee, crossed and got to Marietta without further loss.

"General McCook is entitled to much credit for thus saving his command, which was endangered by the failure of General Stoneman to reach Lovejoy's. But on the whole the cavalry raid is not deemed a success, for the real purpose was to break the enemy's communications, which, though done, was on so limited a scale that I knew the damages would soon be repaired."

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On the 26th, Major-General Howard assumed command of the Army of the Tennessee, by order of the President. General Hooker was offended at this promotion of a junior, and asked to be, and was, relieved, and Slocum was appointed to command the 29th Corps, but as he was at Vicksburg, it was placed under General H. S. Williams. General Palmer also resigned the command of the 14th Corps, and was succeeded by Jeff. C. Davis, while General Stanley succeeded Howard in command of the 4th Corps.

Hood made another of his desperate attempts to cut our force in twain. In obedience to orders, the Army of the Tennessee had drawn out of its lines on the night of July 26th, and on the 27th moved behind the rest of the army to Proctor's Creek, the extreme right beyond it to prolong the line due south, facing eastward. Lee and Hardee fell on Howard, on the 29th of September, coming out of their works at Jonesboro. A stubborn contest of two hours followed, when the baffled rebels withdrew, leaving their dead and wounded. This victory was decisive. Sherman had seen that Atlanta was not to be taken by assault, hence, after arranging his forces carefully he made the retrograde movement heralded through the South as a retreat, as the abandonment of the campaign, but which was one of the most masterly movements of the great tactician. Hood came out of his defenses, as Sherman anticipated. The assault began on Hazen's division of the 15th Corps, and was manfully resisted. The 15th took possession of a hill commanding Jonesboro, and rested for the night, the 16th on their right, the 17th on their left, in front of them the dead and wounded.

Sherman was attempting to thrust the left-center of his army between Stewart's Corps, holding Atlanta, and Hardee and Lee in the field. General Schofield had succeeded in reaching the railroad near Rough and Ready, and was destroying it; General Stanley had reached it south of Schofield, and General Baird within four miles of Jonesboro, all tearing it up.

The rebel forces were divided, and full attention turned to the wing at Jonesboro. Garrard and Kilpatrick hung with the cavalry upon the rebel flanks. Davis assaulted the enemy's lines and carried them, capturing a portion of Gowan's brigade and two batteries, one of which was Loomas', taken from us at Chickamauga. Stanley

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and Schofield were ordered to hurry forward, but could not get into position until night rendered further action impossible. That night explosion after explosion was heard, supposed to be either from the dismantling of rebel works at Atlanta or his magazines.

Morning showed that Lee and Hardee had abandoned their works, and retreated. Pursuit was ordered south, and the enemy was overtaken at Lovejoy's Station, which was assaulted. General Sherman saw that this stand was made to secure communication with the McDonough and Fayetteville road, and immediately news came that Atlanta was abandoned on the night of the 1st, and was occupied by Slocum; that Hood had blown up his ammunition trains, and that Stewart was retreating to McDonough. He could not prevent the junction of the rebel forces, and he paused. Hood was in retreat. Atlanta was occupied by Slocum.

The army moved back to Atlanta by easy stages, and paused for it sadly needed rest.

The march had been made to Atlanta, and the mountainous center between thy Ocean and Gulf slopes secured — the granary of the rebellion was ours. By careful forethought, and marvelous executive energy our long line of communications had been preserved, and by Western patriotism the army had been kept from reduction. Sherman had been promoted to Major-General of the regular army, and through the country rang the shout, accompanied by ringing bells and booming artillery, Atlanta is ours, won by our Western troops!

Another "Ebenezer" was set up on the path of the Union army toward a restored Union and universal freedom.

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Chapter XIII. — Hood Turns North.

THE SITUATION — WHAT WILL HOOD DO — WHAT HE MIGHT HAVE DONE — HIS CHOSEN POLICY — ATHENS SURRENDERS — ROSSEAU — FORREST IN THE TOILS — MARIETTA — SMYRNA — ALLATOONA — ILLINOIS NINETY-THIRD — LIEUTENANT-COLONEL TOURTELLOTTE — CORSE COMES — "EFFUSION OF BLOOD" — DESPERATE DEFENSE — SEVENTH ILLINOIS — COLONEL ROWELL — CORSE'S REPORT — SHERMAN'S SIGNALS — TWELFTH AND FIFTIETH ILLINOIS — VICTORY — OUR LOSSES — RAUM AT RESACA — VARIOUS MOVEMENTS — TROOPS SENT THOMAS — THOMAS' ARMY — RANSOM DIES — ARMIES SEPARATED — HOOD CROSSES THE RIVER — BATTLE OF FRANKLIN — BACK TO NASHVILLE — HOOD'S POSITION — FEDERAL TROOPS — DELAY — PREPARATIONS — MOMENT — ORDER OF BATTLE — BATTLE OF NASHVILLE — SMITH AND SCHOFIELD — NIGHT — SECOND DAY — WOOD'S CORPS — STEEDMAN — ASSAULT — VICTORY — REBEL RETREAT — THE EIGHTY-EIGHTH — THE SEVENTY-SECOND — BRYDGE'S BATTERY — THE SEVENTY-FOURTH.

WHEN Sherman sat down to give his weary men time to breathe, Grant was holding Lee at Petersburg, Sheridan was closing up the passes of the Shenandoah, while in the Carolinas little was being accomplished — the angry contestants were confronting each other in lowering inaction. On and west of the Mississippi there were no movements of any magnitude, and all eyes were turned on the two great armies of the Union.

Sherman evidently meant to advance. If he should head his column southeastwardly he might reach the sea-coast and effect a junction with Grant. "What will Hood do?" If he should do what Johnston would have done, abandon the Chattahoochee and the country west, and place his disciplined force west of Atlanta, confronting Sherman boldly if he moved down the Atlantic slope, or hang with vengeful opportunity upon his flanks if he turned toward the Gulf, at the same time sending his cavalry against the Federal

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communications, then it was apparent that the difficulty of the Great March was yet to overcome, for between Sherman and Lee would be Hood; the rebels would have the interior lines; the concentration of their two armies would be possible, and with it the attacking of our force in detail.

Another policy was adopted. Hood was to move northward. When this was detected, Major-General Thomas was sent with an army to Nashville, to defend the rear, and, as it subsequently proved, to break Hood's army into pieces.

September 23d General Forrest appeared before Athens, and on the 24th summoned Colonel Campbell to surrender, which he did, only to see in half an hour, the approach of reinforcements, which in turn were driven after a sharp engagement. Forrest advanced, breaking the railway until the 27th, when he encountered General Rosseau, who, with a hastily collected garrison, successfully resisted him. Forrest moved round to the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and began to break it up, but Rosseau advanced upon him before the main body of the rebel cavalry came up, and General Steedman crossed the Tennessee the same day with 5,000 men, and the butcher of Fort Pillow fell back through Fayetteville, and the railroad was repaired within twenty-four hours. Forrest sent one portion of his command under Buford against Athens, where it was repulsed and fell back across the Tennessee. Forrest threatened Columbia, and finding the toils enclosing him, turned and succeeded, October 6th, in getting south of the Tennessee at Bainbridge. But for unforeseen difficulties, the plans of General Thomas must inevitably have accomplished the capture or entire destruction of his command. On the 1st of October Hood moved northward. His cavalry was sent to strike our communication at Marietta, while he threw his three corps of infantry over the Chattahoochee and marched by Dallas. Slocum was left to hold Atlanta and the railway bridge of the Chattahoochee, and, on the 4th, Sherman marched his army to Smyrna camp-ground, and the next day to a strong position at Kenesaw Mountain.

The rebel cavalry and a division of infantry struck the railroad at Big Shanty and destroyed it and the telegraph, and advanced rapidly on Allatoona Pass where were a million of our rations in charge

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of Lieutenant-Colonel Tourtellotte, with the 93d regiment, Illinois Volunteers. If it was surrendered, Sherman's army was in peril, but the ninety-third could not be expected to hold it against a whole division. The telegraph was cut. From the mountain heights the signal flag sent word to General Corse at Rome to take his brigade and speed to the help of Tourtellotte, and hold Allatoona till Sherman could come up.

Corse took picked men, among them the 7th Illinois, and hurrying by rail, reached Allatoona at 1 A. M. on the 5th, and sent back the train for additional forces, but an accident prevented their arrival in time. In an hour French was before the works with his rebel division. Corse was within with one thousand nine hundred and forty-four men. The enemy opened fire and continued it until 8:30 A. M., when French sent in a note, summoning a surrender within five minutes, announcing that he had surrounded our defenses and wished to avoid the "needless effusion of blood." There was something of the comico-martial in Corse's prompt, curt answer:

"HEAD-QUARTERS FOURTH DIVISION, FIFTEENTH ARMY CORPS,
ALLATOONA, GA., 8:30 A. M., October 5, 1864.

"Major-General S. G. French, C. S. Army, etc.:
"Your communication demanding surrender of my command I acknowledge the receipt of, and respectfully reply that we are prepared for the ‘needless effusion of blood’ whenever it is agreeable to you.

"I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
"JOHN M. CORSE."

The storm burst, striking the 39th Iowa and 7th Illinois, commanded by 0. General Corse thus tells the story:

"Young's brigade of Texans, 1,900 strong, had gained the west end of the ridge and moved with great impetuosity along its crest till they struck Rowell's command, when they received a severe check, but they came again and again; Rowell, reinforced by the ninety-third Illinois, and aided by the gallant Redfield, encouraged me to hope we were safe here, when I observed a brigade of the enemy, under General Sears, moving from the north, its left extending across the railroad. I rushed the two companies of the 93d Illinois, which were on the brink of the cut turning north from the redoubt and parallel with the railroad, they having been reinforced by the retreating pickets, and urged them to hold on to the spur; but it was of no avail. The enemy's line of battle swept us like so much chaff, and struck the 39th Iowa in flank, threatening to engulf our little band without further ado. Fortunately for us, Colonel Tourtellotte's fire caught Sears in flank and broke him so

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badly as to enable me to get a staff officer over the cut with orders to bring the 15th Illinois over to reinforce Rowell, who had lost very heavily. However, before the regiment sent for could arrive Sears and Young both rallied and made their assaults in front and on the flank with so much rigor and in such force as to break Rowell's line, and had not the 39th Iowa fought with the desperation it did, I never would have been able to get a man back into the redoubt. As it was, their hand-to-hand-conflict and stubborn stand broke the enemy to that extent he must stop and reform before undertaking the assault on the fort. Under cover of the blow they gave the enemy, the 7th and 93d Illinois and what remained of the 39th Iowa fell back into the fort.

"The fighting up to this time was of a most extraordinary character. Attacked from the north, from the west and from the south, these three regiments, 39th Iowa 7th and 93d Illinois, held Young's and a portion of Sears' and Cockerel's brigades at bay for nearly two hours and a half. The gallant Colonel Redfield fell, shot in four places, and the extraordinary valor of the men and officers of this regiment, and the 7th Illinois, saved us Allatoona. So completely disorganized was the enemy that no regular assault could be made on the fort till I had the trenches all filled and the parapets lined with men.

"The 12th and 50th Illinois arriving from the east hill enabled us to occupy every foot of trench and keep up a line of fire that, as long as our ammunition lasted, would render our little fort impregnable."

The band of Leonidas scarcely excelled that of Corse, and for heroic resistance Allatoona may well be mentioned with Thermopylae. Sherman arrived at Kenesaw at 10 A. M., and flew signals telling them to hold out till help came. When he saw that Corse was there, the excited Commander-in-chief said: "If Corse is there, he will hold out. I know the man." He could not forget the narrow path at Mission Ridge. Less than 2,000 brave men confronted overwhelming odds, and wrought a work not to be over-estimated in its results upon our cause. Corse was wounded in the face, but continued in command. Rowell and Tourtellotte distinguished themselves and both were wounded. Seven hundred men and seven officers, killed and wounded, were the price of our victory. The arrival of the 4th and 14th Army Corps at Pine Mountain and the movement of the 23d Corps on Dallas hastened French's withdrawal. Corse captured 800 muskets, three stands of colors, 411 prisoners, and buried 231 rebel dead.

Hood hurried toward the northwest, aiming for the railway at Resaca, but his movement was discovered by Sherman's cavalry, and the loyal troops were put in motion on the 10th, through Allatoona Pass on Kingston, which was reached by our three armies on the 11th after a forced

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march of thirty-eight miles. Various movements resulted in the conviction that Hood's movement on Rome had been a mere feint, and that he was over the Coosa, making full speed for Resaca and Dalton. Steps were taken to check-mate him. General Raum was in Resaca with a small command, and coolly received Hood's summons to surrender, and the latter, remembering Allatoona, contented himself with skirmishing, destroying the railway, and breaking up the little garrisons at Dalton and Tilton.

Various movements took place preparatory to Sherman's facing toward the Sea. He saw that Hood wanted to move toward Nashville, and told his subordinates that he would give him rations if he would. General Thomas was to take care of him. Satisfied that Hood had moved westward from Gadsden across Sand Mountain, Sherman dispatched, on the 26th, the 4th Corps under Stanley, and on the 30th the 23d under Schofield, directing them to report to Thomas at Nashville. The latter was fully apprized of the plan for the campaign and entrusted with the supreme command of all Sherman's army except the four corps with which he determined to move through Georgia. This gave him the two divisions of General A. J. Smith, 16th Army Corps, which had been in Missouri, but were en route for Tennessee, a force of cavalry to be commanded by General Wilson, with garrisons and supplying, as Thomas believed, a force, which, with such reinforcements as could be sent from the North, would enable him to defend the railroads and whip Hood if he crossed the Tennessee to the North, or pursue him if he turned to follow Sherman.

Thomas had an effective force of about 22,000 infantry, 7,700 cavalry, exclusive of garrisons, &c., confronting Hood's army.

On the 29th of October the gallant General Ransom died at Rome, a serious loss to the army and the country.

General Thomas desired to await the arrival of Smith before assuming the offensive against Hood with his three divisions of Lee, Stewart and Cheatham, estimated at 30,000 with Forest's cavalry, 7,000 more. Hood had repaired the Mobile and Ohio Railway, and occupied Corinth, bringing supplies by rail. On the 12th of November, Thomas received his last telegram from Sherman and communication between them ceased. On the 17th Cheatham crossed the

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Tennessee at Florence, and on the 19th Hood began his march from Florence towards Waynesboro.

General Schofield, commanding Union forces at Pulaski, fell back toward Columbia, which he reached on the 24th. As rapidly as possible our strength was concentrated. General Schofield was compelled to fall back upon Franklin, where with all the force he could muster a stand was made. The enemy made a furious assault which, at one time, threatened to become successful, but Schofield had chosen position wisely, with the river covering both flanks, and held his ground, repulsing each advance. Some of the Illinois troops suffered severely in this engagement. Major-General Stanley was badly wounded while rallying a portion of his command, which had been for the time being borne back by the furious rebel assault. The number of Federal killed was not large, but the aggregate loss of killed, wounded and missing was 2,326. Hood lost 1,750 killed, 3,800 wounded, 702 prisoners, an aggregate loss of 6,252, among whom were six general officers killed, six wounded, and one taken prisoner.

Schofield fell back seven miles, and effected a junction with A. J. Smith. The enemy crowded upon him, and Smith fell back into the outer defenses of Nashville. General Thomas put his army in line of battle three miles north of Nashville, and the enemy advanced to a point five miles distant, and for some time the intervening space was the scene of constant skirmishing. Reinforcements were rapidly sent to General Thomas, and he determined at once to dislodge Hood from his position, which he was rapidly strengthening, and this brought on the battle of Nashville.

As soon as Hood perceived General Thomas' indications he fell back out of the range of the latter's forts about Nashville to a much stronger position, withdrew both his wings from the river, and occupied some strong entrenchments on a range of hills, known as Granny White's. General Thomas leisurely concentrated troops, made his arrangements, gathered cavalry as rapidly as possible, and waited until the country became impatient, and even Grant telegraphed to know the cause of the delay. The events of the battle justified his judgment as the magnanimous Lieutenant-General says in his report.

On the 15th our forces moved out to attack the new position.

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Steadman held the extreme left, Wood's 4th Corps the left center, A. J. Smith's 10th Corps the right center, and Wilson's cavalry corps the extreme right, Schofield's 23d Corps being at first held in reserve. Steadman first moved his column on his left, driving in the enemy's skirmishers, but after a gallant and protracted effort was repulsed with heavy loss. This movement on the left, however, was only a feint, or cover for the main attack from the center and right. In order to turn the rebel left, the 4th and 16th Corps got into motion early in the morning, the two corps forming into line splendidly under a heavy cannonade. The whole forenoon was devoted to getting positions, and at three o'clock the whole line, infantry, cavalry and artillery, pressed forward. Wood and Steadman met with stubborn resistance, but Smith and Schofield carried all before them, and sweeping down on the rebel left and flank, turned it. Nothing could exceed the enthusiasm of our troops. The infantry heroically charged the intrenchments, the cavalry dismounted and swept the enemy from the river, and even the gunboats played their part by fighting the enemy's battery fourteen miles down the river. Sixteen guns were captured on right, left and center, and several battle flags were taken, and about 1,000 prisoners fell into our hands. The enemy was driven about eight miles when night closed in.

During the night dispositions were made on both sides for a renewal of the battle, and at eight o'clock the next morning the roar of our batteries announced that it had commenced. Our line was about the same as on the day previous. Wilson's cavalry covered the right, Schofield came next, then A. J. Smith, on Smith's left, Wood, and finally, Steadman on the extreme left. The whole line took the initiative by moving forward, Schofield and Smith against the rebel left flank. The fire that greeted Wood's corps, which was already engaged, was so terrible our men fell back, and the line was broken, but relief soon came from Schofield and Smith, who once more hurled themselves against the rebel left, and swept him from his works, completely turning his flank. Wood and Steadman followed it up with repeated assaults upon the rebel right. It held out for a long time, but again and again the assault was tried under tremendous storms of canister and shell, and it was finally successful. The enemy retreated in confusion, and victory rested upon the Union

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banners. Treason received its death-blow, and there was nothing more left to fight behind Sherman, who pressed triumphantly forward in his grand march to the sea, while Grant administered the blow of grace which ended the rebellion, and brought peace.

The 88th Illinois bore a splendid part in the battles about Nashville. Its brigade held the advance, the 88th composing the rear of the column. Before reaching Spring Hill news came that Forrest was advancing upon the town; without halting or unslinging knapsacks they were moved out of column by the right flank, and deployed as skirmishers in Forrest's front. Slowly and surely the regiment pushed the rebels back, and came to a halt for the night, The next morning, the 30th, the regiment was placed in position as skirmishers for the rear of the army. After some severe skirmishing with Hood's cavalry Franklin was reached, which Cox's division of the 23d Corps had already intrenched. At half-past three o'clock the second and third brigades of their division being flanked retired upon the main line in great haste and confusion, the rebels following closely. Almost instantly their brigade was on the charge, the consolidated 88th leading and clearing the way. Colonel Smith, Major Holden and Adjutant Realf, one of the bravest of the brave, were on horseback, not having had time to dismount. Colonel Smith, cap in hand, moved at the head of his regiment encouraging the gallant and shaming the cowards. It was a desperate hand-to-hand fight. Captain Barnard shot two rebels with his revolver. Corporal Neuman, of Company G, nearly severed a rebel captain's head with an ax, and somebody actually pinned a rebel soldier to the breast works by a stroke of a pick ax. The rebel tide was stayed, but again and again, with the desperation of frenzy, Hood charged the unyielding Union lines. The slaughter was horrible on either side, but the rebels were repulsed. At midnight, when our troops withdrew to Nashville, the 88th was left to cover the movements of the brigade, and for an hour and a half opposed their skirmish line to the solid rebel columns. When the regiment, arrived at Nashville, General Wood, accompanied by Generals Wagner and Thomas, paid it a visit. General Wood sought out Colonel Smith, and addressed him thus: "Colonel, I desire to repeat to you, in the presence of General Thomas and of your regiment, that which General

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Stanley said to me respecting yourself and the troops you command, that with the exception only of Colonel Opdyke, commanding your brigade, with whom you share the honor, to your special gallantry and special exertions, more than to those of any other man, is owing the repulse of the rebel column, the safety of the army and the victory of the day. In his name, and in mine, I thank you." The casualties of the regiment were two killed, seven wounded and six missing.

The 72d Illinois reached Franklin on the morning of the 30th, and proceeded at once to fortify the place. In the battle the regiment was placed at the center of the lines surrounding the city, and upon a slope, at the bottom of which was a grove of young trees. The men were not in the best condition for an engagement, but nevertheless, took position in the pits with alacrity, willingly and eagerly. The rebels rushed upon them, and when they came in range, the cry went up "Open on them, boys; give it to them," and for two long hours the firing was kept up. The enemy, however, vastly outnumbered them, and forcing the line on their left, opened a cross fire, which caused them to fall back to the second line. The first line was again taken by desperate fighting, and held till after dark, when the rebels coming up in superior numbers compelled them to leave it. The noble valor of the men was equaled by the coolness and determination of the officers. The gallant Lieutenant-Colonel Stockton and Major James being wounded, the command devolved upon Captain James A. Sexton, whose exertions were constantly marked with valor and skill.

Brydges' Battery gained enviable distinction also in the battles around Nashville. At Columbia and Spring Hill it was constantly engaged in skirmishing, and at Franklin was warmly employed. After the battle of Franklin it marched with the artillery brigade to Nashville, and was placed in several positions for the defense of that place, always preserving its reputation for valor, and doing soldiers' duty wherever situated. The battery was under command of Lieutenant White during the Nashville campaigns, Captain Brydges being Chief-of-Artillery, and commanding all the artillery of the corps.

The gallant 74th regiment shared with the 88th the honor of saving

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the day at Franklin. In the tremendous rebel charge the two regiments met it side by side. The men of the 74th fought hand to hand with the enemy. The intrenching tools which they had been using on the breastworks were directed against the rebel hordes. Hundreds of them reached the works with their battle-flags only to be cut down by the rain of musketry and artillery that greeted them. The men of the 74th defied the rebels to come into the works. Again and again did Hood essay to break through the solid line opposed to him, but only to meet with disaster upon disaster. The works and the ground in front were literally covered with dead and wounded. They called out, "You men in the works, for God's sake, bring us some water!" It was one of the most gallant and desperate defenses of the war. The losses of the 74th were: killed, none; wounded, Cyrus H. Scott, Co. A; Sergeant John G. Waldie, Co. G; Charles Ericcson, Co. F; Allen M. Furguson, Co. D; William E. Lowe, Co. B. The same meed of praise which was awarded the 88th was given to the 74th.

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Chapter XIV. — Regimental Sketches.

THE THIRTEENTH VETERANS — CONSOLIDATED WITH THE FIFTY-SIXTH — THE THIRTY-THIRD — THE STUDENTS AND TEACHERS AS SOLDIERS — THE THIRTY-FOURTH — THE THIRTY-NINTH (YATES PHALANX) — THE CHARGE ON FORT GREGG — THE FORTY-FIRST — ITS MARCHES AND BATTLES — THE FORTY-FOURTH — RE-ENLISTMENT WHEN THE INK FROZE UPON THE MUSTER ROLLS — THE FORTY-FIFTH (LEAD MINE REGIMENT) — THE FORTY-SIXTH — THE BATTLE OF THE HATCHIE — THE FORTY-SEVENTH — THE BATTLE OF IUKA — THE FORTY-EIGHTH — CONCLUSION OF ITS RECORD — THE FORTY-NINTH — RE-ENLISTMENT AS VETERANS — THE FIFTIETH — THE FIFTY-FIRST.

THIRTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

IN the first volume of this work [p. 296], we have given the original roster of the 13th regiment, and its history to the time of its re-enlistment in the veteran service. The veterans and recruits having accompanied the regiment as far as Springfield, Illinois, an order from Lieutenant-Colonel Oakes was received, detailing 1st Lieutenant Mark M. Evans, Company A, to proceed with the detachment to Huntsville, Alabama, and there to report to Brigadier-General John E. Smith, commanding 3d Division, 15th Army Corps, for orders. The whole number of veterans was 44, seven of whom, at this time, were prisoners of war. The number of recruits was 27; making the whole number for duty 64.

It is due to the men of the 13th to say that many of the members of the old organization enlisted in other regiments, having intimate friends in them; hence the list of veterans does not give a correct idea of the number who re-enlisted. On the 5th or 6th of June, 1864, Lieutenant Evans proceeded with his detachment to Huntsville, and on the 11th received an order assigning his detachment to duty

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with the 56th Illinois infantry. There being but nine companies in this regiment, the detachment was assigned to duty as a company organization, but retained its original designation. On the 1st of July the regiment was ordered to Adairsville, Georgia, to guard that portion of the railroad from rebel raiding parties, who continually attempted to destroy this line of communication with the front. The force being small, and the rebels exceedingly zealous in their attempts to accomplish their end, the duties of the regiment were of the most arduous kind. While at Adairsville the detachment was consolidated into one company, and transferred to the 56th Illinois, as Company I, by special field order No. 63. An election of officers was then held, resulting in the unanimous choice of Lieutenant Mark M. Evans as Captain, Lyman M. Cole as 1st Lieutenant, and Joseph L. Tennant as 2d Lieutenant.

The history of the veterans of the 13th now becomes merged with that of the 56th.

THIRTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY

The 33d regiment, known as the "Normal Regiment," being composed largely of teachers and students — its first Colonel being the Principal of the State Normal School — was organized at Camp Butler, and was mustered into the service on the 15th of August, 1861, 1,006 strong. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Charles E. Hovey; Lieutenant-Colonel, William R. Lockwood; Major, Edward R. Roe; Adjutant, Frederick M. Crandall; Quartermaster, Simeon Wright; Surgeon, George P. Rex; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Nathan W. Abbott; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Henry T. Antes; Chaplain, Herman A. Eddy.

Co. A — Captain, Leander H. Potter; 1st Lieutenant, J. Howard Burnham; 2d Lieutenant, G. Hyde Norton.

Co. B — Captain, Moses J. Morgan; 1st Lieutenant, C. Judson Gill; 2d Lieutenant, E. Aaron Gove.

Co. C — Captain, Daniel B. Robinson; 1st Lieutenant, Henry M. Kellogg; 2d Lieutenant, George H. Fifer.

Co. D — Captain, Henry H. Pope; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Mason; 2d Lieutenant, Franklin J. Duncklee.

Co. E — Captain, Isaac H. Elliott; 1st Lieutenant, Clarendon A. Stone; 2d Lieutenant, Julian E. Bryant.

Co. F — Captain, Dermont C. Roberts; 1st Lieutenant, Henry D. Winship; 2d Lieutenant, David A. Chumley.

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Co. G — Captain, Ira Moore; 1st Lieutenant, George P. Ela; 2d Lieutenant, William Elbert.

Co. H — Captain, James A. McKenzie; 1st Lieutenant, George E. Smith; 2d Lieutenant, Robert P. Williams.

Co. I — Captain, William W. H. Lawton; 1st Lieutenant, William T. Lyon; 2d Lieutenant, Edward A. F. Allen.

Co. K — Captain, Charles E. Lippincott; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Nixon; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Weaver.

The 33d left camp for Ironton, Missouri, September 20, 1861, receiving arms from the St. Louis arsenal. It remained at Ironton during the winter, going frequently on scouting expeditions. On one of these expeditions was fought the battle of Fredericktown. In March, 1862, it started for the South, under General Steele. It marched overland from Pilot Knob to Batesville, where it joined General Curtis' army, and then marched back to Jacksonport, and thence to Helena, Arkansas. During this march it fought in the "Battle of the Cache" and in many skirmishes, and suffered severely from fatigue and exposure. On arriving at Helena, it camped about twenty miles below the town, where it remained during the months of July and August, and then moved up to Sulphur Springs, and thence to Pilot Knob, when its effective strength had dwindled to 200 men. Four weeks later it was sent to Van Buren, Missouri. From this time till March 1, 1863, it was engaged in campaigning through Southeast Missouri. In the latter month it was sent to Milliken's Bend, and participated in the engagements at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Siege of Vicksburg and Siege of Jackson. In August it was sent to New Orleans, and took part in the Bayou Teche campaign, fighting no battles, and returning to New Orleans in November. It then went to Arkansas Pass, St. Joseph, Matagorda Island and Saluria, participating in the capture of Fort Esperanza. It then went to Indianola and Port Lavaca, Texas. On the 1st of January, 1864, it re-enlisted as a veteran regiment, and on March 14th received veteran furloughs at Bloomington, Illinois. On the 18th of April it left Springfield for St. Louis and New Orleans. From May 1st to July 28th it was stationed at Brashear City. Soon after it was distributed by companies along the railroad from New Orleans to Brashear, where it remained till the spring of 1865. The non-veterans of the regiment were sent to New York in charge of a

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body of rebel prisoners, September 17, 1864, and were mustered out at Camp Butler, about the 11th of October. When the Mobile expedition was organized, in the spring of 1865, the 33d was added to the 16th Army Corps, and began to make preparations for leaving. On the 2d of March, as it was proceeding by railroad to New Orleans, and had nearly reached Butte Station, where the last company, H, was awaiting it, the train was thrown from the track by running over a horse, and was completely wrecked. Nine soldiers were killed and about seventy wounded, two of whom afterward died from the injuries received. On the 18th of March, the regiment embarked for Fish River, Alabama, and with General Canby's army marched up the east side of Mobile Bay. It participated actively in the siege of Spanish Port from March 27th to April 8th, when the fort was surrendered to the Federal forces. On the 13th it marched to Montgomery, and while there received the news of the surrender of the rebel armies in the East. May 10th it left for Selma, and thence went to Meridian, Mississippi, remaining there till the middle of August. Here it was strengthened to more than the legal maximum, by the transfer of a large number of men from the 72d, 117th, 122d and 124th Illinois regiments, then serving in Alabama and about to be mustered out. On the 17th of August it reached Vicksburg, where it remained till its muster out on the 24th of November, 1865. On the 29th it arrived at Springfield, where it was paid off and discharged.

THIRTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

On page 386 of our first volume we have given the original roster of the 34th regiment, and its history up to the 10th of October, 1863, with personal sketches of some of its officers. From that date until November 8th it was at Battle Creek and Anderson Cross Roads, a portion of the time engaged in repairing roads, when it went to Harrison Landing, on the Tennessee River. November 15th, it arrived at Chattanooga, and on the 25th went out on the battle-field. At one o'clock the next morning it marched via Chickamauga Station to Graysville, where the enemy gave battle. The regiment was under fire for half an hour, but met with no loss. The next day it returned to Chattanooga, and was sent to London, East Tennessee, where it

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took possession of a grist mill, and for several days was detailed in grinding corn for the division. On the 19th of December it reached Chattanooga, and on the 22d re-enlisted as veterans. On the 8th of January, 1864, it started for Springfield on veteran furlough, and from there proceeded to Dixon, Lee county, for recruiting and re-organization. On the 29th of February it left Dixon for Chattanooga, arriving there on the 7th of March. It immediately proceeded to Rossville, Georgia. Here it remained until the movement upon Atlanta commenced, in which it took an active part until the surrender of the place. It accompanied General Sherman in his march to the sea, and through the Carolina campaign, and was at the grand review at Washington. It then went to Louisville, Kentucky, where it was mustered out on the 12th of July, 1865. On the 16th it arrived at Chicago, where it was paid off and discharged.

THIRTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

In Vol. I of this work [p. 579], we have given the original roster of the "Yates Phalanx," and its history to the close of 1864. During the winter of '64-65 it had frequent skirmishes with the enemy, but no regular engagements. During the month of March, 1865, it received about 100 recruits, and on the 27th of the same month it took part in the movements which finally resulted in the downfall of Petersburg and Richmond. It crossed to the left of the Army of the Potomac, and on the 2d of April took part in the charge on Fort Gregg, the, key to the works about Petersburg and Richmond. The 39th displayed extraordinary gallantry in this charge, and was the first to plant its colors upon the works. The charge was made across an open field, with a heavy fire from the front and a raking cross fire from each side. Just before reaching the fort, the regiment was compelled to cross a ditch twelve feet wide and six feet deep, with very steep sides. It was very easy to get inside this ditch, but to get out the officers and men were obliged to dig footholds in the banks with their bayonets and swords, when they ascended with a cheer, and triumphantly placed their flag upon the fort. As a testimonial, a magnificent brazen eagle, cast for the purpose, was presented to the regiment by Major-General Gibbons, and placed upon the regimental

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color staff; the color sergeant, Henry M. Day, who was severely wounded while planting the colors upon the fort, was presented with a medal of honor by the War Department, and Colonel T. O. Osborn was brevetted Brigadier-General. The 39th was afterward in the advance of the Army of the James in the pursuit of Lee, and had the satisfaction of witnessing the surrender of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia. It was retained for a few days as a guard over the camps and baggage of the conquered army, and then sent to Richmond, where it remained till August. It was then sent to Norfolk, where it remained till December 5, 1865, when it was ordered to be mustered out, which was accomplished on the following day, and on the 7th it started for Springfield, Illinois, for final muster and discharge, arriving at Camp Butler on the 12th. On the morning previous to receiving final payment, the regiment assembled at the chapel, and delivered its battle-torn flags to the State, and they were received in appropriate terms by Brigadier-General I. N. Haynie, Adjutant-General of the State. Here the career of the old 39th ended.

FORTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 41st regiment was organized at Camp Pugh, Decatur, and mustered into the service on the 5th of August, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Isaac C. Pugh; Lieutenant-Colonel, Ansel Tupper; Major, John Warner; Adjutant, Bartley G. Pugh; Quartermaster, Henry C. Bradsby; Surgeon, William M. Gray; 1st Assistant Surgeon, George W. Short; 2d Assistant Surgeon, John W. Coleman; Chaplain, Henry C. McCook.

Co. A — Captain, John H. Nale; 1st Lieutenant, Michael F. Kanan; 2d Lieutenant, George R. Steele.

Co. B — Captain, Alsey B. Lee; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Davis; 2d Lieutenant, Jackson H. Aldrich.

Co. C — Captain, John Conklin; 1st Lieutenant, William C. Campbell; 2d Lieutenant, Michael Danison.

Co. D — Captain, Edmund W. True; 1st Lieutenant, Robert H. McFadden; 2d Lieutenant, Francis A. Norvell.

Co. E — Captain, John L. Armstrong; 1st Lieutenant, Willis S. Oglesby; 2d Lieutenant; Robert Warwick.

Co. F — Captain, David P. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. McCook; 2d Lieutenant, John C. Lewis.

Co. G — Captain, Francis M. Long; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel K. Hall; 2d Lieutenant, John C. Cox.

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Co. H — Captain, Hiram Blackstone; 1st Lieutenant, James S. Steene; 2d Lieutenant, William F. Turney.

Co. I — Captain, Benjamin B. Bacon; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin R. Parish; 2d Lieutenant, Francis M. Green.

Co. K — Captain, Alexander Kelly; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Woodward; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Davis.

The 41st left Decatur on the 8th of August, 1861, for St. Louis, and proceeded on the 29th to Bird's Point, Missouri. It was at the taking of Fort Henry, and bore an active part in the three days' fight at Fort Donelson. It soon after went to Pittsburg Landing, and on the 6th of April participated in the fight at Shiloh, being held as a reserve on the 7th. It then took part in the siege and capture of Corinth, after which it marched to Memphis, where it arrived on the 21st of July. It left Memphis on the 5th of September, arriving at Bolivar on the 14th. On the 19th it went on a reconnoissance to Grand Junction, returning on the 4th of October, when it marched to the Hatchie River, where, on the 5th, it acted as a reserve and train guard, and opened communication between General Rosecrans and General Hurlbut. On the following day it returned to Bolivar, and from thence, on the 3d of November, it marched to Lagrange, arriving there on the 6th. Here it was sent out on reconnoissances to several points, and on the 28th started upon the "Yocna expedition," returning to the Tallahatchie River. On the 2d of January, 1863, it was sent to escort a supply train to Tullahoma, returning in five days. On the 10th it was stationed at Moscow, Tennessee, where it remained till the 5th of March, when it went to Memphis and camped till April 12th. It was then sent out on an expedition toward the Noncomo. At Coldwater, on the 13th, it met the enemy under Chalmers, and was under fire for seven hours. It returned to Memphis on the 15th, and on the 12th of May set out for Vicksburg, arriving at Young's Point, Louisiana, on the 19th, and joined the besieging force on the 24th. It remained there till Vicksburg surrendered, and on the succeeding day (July 5th) took up its line of march for Jackson, and participated in the battle of Jackson, July 12th, losing 162 in killed and wounded. It then marched to Vicksburg, and thence proceeded to Natchez. On the 28th of November it returned to Vicksburg, and immediately marched to the Big Black River, and went into winter quarters. In the spring

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of 1864, it joined Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, participating in its various engagements until the fall of that place. In November it took up its line of march for the sea, and on arriving at Savannah was consolidated with the 53d Illinois, January 5, 1865, with whose subsequent history it was identified.

FORTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 44th regiment was organized at Camp Ellsworth, Chicago, and mustered into the service September 13, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Charles Knobelsdorf; Lieutenant-Colonel, William J. Stephenson; Major, Thomas J. Hobart; Adjutant, Charles T. Dake; Quartermaster, William H. Gale; Surgeon, Ferdinand Weitze; 2d Assistant-Surgeon, William D. Carter; Chaplain, George Ervin.

Co. A — Captain, George Zelle; 1st Lieutenant, Nicholas Davis; 2d Lieutenant, Charles J. Hulbig.

Co. B — Captain, Wallace W. Barrett; 1st Lieutenant, Lemon G. Hine; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel N. Andrews.

Co. C — Captain, John Russell; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Stoner; 2d Lieutenant, Eli R. Manley.

Co. D — Captain, Edwin L. Hays; 1st Lieutenant, David O. Livermore; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob C. Hoffmire.

Co. E — Captain, Lothar Lippert; 1st Lieutenant, John A Commerell; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Gale.

Co. F — Captain, Andrew J. Hosmer; 1st Lieutenant, William Hicks; 2d Lieutenant, James M. Stephenson.

Co. G — Captain, Luther M. Sabine; 1st Lieutenant, Randolph D. Hobart; 2d Lieutenant, Robert Penman.

Co. H — Captain, James H. Barrett; 1st Lieutenant, Charles T. Dake; 2d Lieutenant, James S. Ransom.

Co. I — Captain, Jasper Partridge; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas B. Lacy; 2d Lieutenant, Jesse C. Bliss.

Co. K — Captain, Hermann Stach; 1st Lieutenant, Martin Reininger; 2d Lieutenant, William Gebhardt.

September 14th, the regiment left Chicago for St. Louis, and after receiving arms was sent to Jefferson City, arriving there on the 29th. It next went to Sedalia, where it was assigned to Sigel's command. October 13th, it left for Springfield, Missouri, arriving on the 27th, a few hours after Zagonyi's famous charge upon the rebels. November 8th it was sent to Wilson's Creek, but soon returned to

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Springfield, and on the 13th followed the main army to Rolla, remaining there during the winter, suffering severely from sickness. February 2, 1862, it again started for Springfield, to attack Price, who ingloriously fled on the approach of our forces. From the 13th to the 20th the enemy were actively pursued, the 44th being continually in the advance. On the 6th of March it moved to Sugar Creek Valley, and on the same day was began the battle of Pea Ridge [Vol. I., p. 222], which was concluded on the 7th, to the terrible discomfiture of the rebels, whose chieftains were slain. The 44th assisted in the pursuit of the rebels for three days, when it was abandoned. The regiment remained in this vicinity till April 5th, when it marched to Forsyth, Missouri, and Batesville, Arkansas, where the army was reorganized. On the 8th of May the 44th left Batesville in the direction of Little Rock, but the order was soon countermanded, and the regiment sent to Cape Girardeau, and thence to Pittsburg Landing, joining the main army two days previous to the evacuation of Corinth. It followed in pursuit of the rebels, but soon returned to Rienzi, Mississippi, remaining there till August 26th. It was then sent to Cincinnati and Covington, where it remained till September 17th, when it joined General Buell's army at Louisville, and started in pursuit of Bragg. It was at the battle of Perryville, October 8th, and followed in the subsequent pursuit of the enemy as far as Crab Orchard. On the 20th it marched to Bowling Green, where General Rosecrans assumed command. November 4th it left for Nashville, and participated in the Murfreesboro campaign. At Stone River it took a prominent part, losing more than half its number in killed and wounded. It remained with the army at Murfreesboro till June 28, 1863, and again went out to meet the enemy, engaging them at Hoover's Gap, Shelbyville and Tullahoma, arriving at Cowan Station July 2d. After a few days' rest, it moved to Stevenson, Alabama, driving the rear of the rebel army across the Tennessee at Bridgeport, Alabama, returning to Stevenson. On the 21st of August began the movement against Chattanooga. The 44th — which was in the 20th Corps — crossed Sand Mountains, and was moving toward Rome when the rebels attacked our forces at Chickamauga. It was immediately ordered back, and after three days' forced marching arrived on the field in time to take part in the battles of the 19th

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and 20th of September. Falling back to Chattanooga, it remained there, living on quarter rations, till the latter part of November. On the 25th of this month it was foremost in the bloody charge upon Mission Ridge, General Sheridan giving it the credit of being one of the first to place a flag on the rebel works. It then followed the retreating rebels, capturing many prisoners and several pieces of artillery. On the 27th it was ordered back to Chattanooga to prepare for a forced march to Knoxville to relieve Burnside. It arrived there three days after the siege had been raised. It then marched to Seaverville, back again to Knoxville, and thence to Strawberry Plains, where it was reported the enemy had made a stand. It then went into camp at Blaine's Cross Roads, where for a time it was on the point of starvation, having several times, for days to subsist on corn in the ear, and but a limited supply of that. If anything were necessary to prove the devotion and patriotism of the gallant 44th, it may be said that while here, suffering intensely from hunger and cold, over three fourths of the men voluntarily re-enlisted as veterans, though the ink would freeze to the pen as they signed the roll. About the 12th of January, 1864, the regiment marched to Dandridge, Tennessee, and on the 16th and 17th was attacked by a superior force of the rebels, and forced back to Knoxville. From there it marched to Kingston, and on the 30th to Chattanooga, where, February 3d, it received full rations from the Government for the first time in four months. On the 1st of March it reached Chicago, where it received veteran furlough. On the 14th of April it reached Nashville on its return to the field, and immediately moved for the front. May 1st it left Chattanooga, and joined the main army in the movement upon Atlanta, participating in the battles of Buzzard's Roost, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairsville, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Gulp's Farm, Chattahoochee River, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Jonesboro. From Atlanta, September 28th, it marched to Chattanooga, and on the 18th of October was sent out on a reconnoitering expedition to Alpine Valley. It then joined in the pursuit of Hood through Tennessee, participating in the battle of Franklin, where it showed great gallantry. At the battle of Nashville it bore a prominent part, and followed in pursuit of the broken columns of the rebels. It remained at Bull's Gap and Blue

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Spring till April 19, 1865, when it was ordered to Nashville, leaving there on the 19th of June for New Orleans, where it remained till July 16th, when it was ordered to Texas. It remained in this State till September 25, 1865, when it was mustered out at Camp Union, and ordered home. It arrived at Springfield on the 15th of October, and was paid off and discharged.

FORTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 45th infantry — the well-known "Lead Mine Regiment" — was organized in Galena and Chicago, six companies being recruited from the lead mines in the vicinity of the former city. It was mustered into the service December 26, 1861, with the following list of officers:

Colonel, John Eugene Smith; Lieutenant-Colonel, Jasper A. Maltby; Major, Melancthon Smith; Adjutant, William T. Frohock; Quartermaster, John Pyatt; Surgeon, Edward D. Kittoe; 1st Assistant-Surgeon, Francis Weaver; 2d Assistant-Surgeon, William Lyman; Chaplain, George W. Woodward.

Co. A — Captain Abraham Polsgrove; 1st Lieutenant, William T. Frohock; 2d Lieutenant, George Moore.

Co. B — Captain, Luther H. Cowen; 1st Lieutenant, Nesbit Banger; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel H. Townsend.

Co. C — Captain, Thomas Burns; 1st Lieutenant, James Rouse; 2d Lieutenant, John Byrne.

Co. D — Captain, Thomas D. Connor; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Rowley; 2d Lieutenant, John O. Duer.

Co. E — Captain, Leander B. Fisk; 1st Lieutenant, Charles D. Overstreet; 2d Lieutenant, John M. Adair.

Co. F — Captain, Melancthon Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Robert P. Seely; 2d Lieutenant, Dennis W. Griffin.

Co. G — Captain, Robert P. Seeley; 1st Lieutenant, Dennis W. Griffin; 2d Lieutenant, Syrice M. Budlong.

Co. H — Captain, John B. Hawley; 1st Lieutenant, William B. Seymour; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas C. Morris.

Co. I — Captain, Oliver A. Bridgford; 1st Lieutenant, James Balfour; 2d Lieutenant, Henry H. Boyce.

Co. K— Captain, Benjamin F. Holcomb; 1st Lieutenant, John Gray; 2d Lieutenant, Luther B. Hunt.

The 45th left Chicago for Cairo on the 12th of January, 1862, and on arriving at the latter point was immediately dispatched to aid Grant in his capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, at which engagements,

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although entirely new to the service, "the boys" highly distinguished themselves by their gallantry. From here the regiment was ordered to Pittsburg Landing, and was soon afterward employed in the memorable battle of Shiloh, and the investment and siege of Corinth. After the fall of Corinth it was sent on Grant's famous Mississippi campaign. In this it had several skirmishes and fights. On the 25th of April, 1863, it was ordered back from Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, where it had been for some time encamped, to join in the siege of Vicksburg. On the 1st of May it was in the engagement at Thompson's Hill, in which, as at Bayou Pierre on the 3d, Raymond on the 12th, Jackson on the 14th and Champion Hill on the 15th, it proudly sustained the honor of the Union arms. On the 19th of May it went into the works at Vicksburg, and bore its full share of the toils of that arduous siege until the fall of that rebel stronghold. It was this regiment which mined and blew up Fort Hill, aided in the desperate assault upon it on the 25th of June, and not only took, but held it, against every effort of the enemy, who saw inevitable ruin in its loss; and the battle flag of the 45th was the first to float over the Court House of Vicksburg. [Vol. I., p. 471.] It remained here doing provost duty until October 14th, when it was ordered out on the Canton raid, which was uneventful beyond a sharp skirmish at Boguechitto Creek, on the 17th. It returned from it to Vicksburg, went to Black River, Mississippi, on November 7th, and from there was sent to join Sherman on the celebrated Meridian raid. Beyond skirmishing and destroying rebel property, railroads, bridges, etc., the only event of this raid was a fight at Chunky Station, on the 14th, where the 45th whipped and drove off five times its number of rebels. Before going on this raid the regiment had re-enlisted for three years, at Black River, January 5, 1864, and after its completion it was sent home on veteran furlough. On May 1, 1864, it returned to Cairo, its furlough having expired, and on the 14th arrived at Clifton, Tennessee, whence it performed a march of 310 miles to Big Shanty, Georgia, where it joined Sherman on June 9th. Its share in the great march "down to the sea" was about the same as that of all the other regiments participating in that grand pedestrian feat, with the exception that it was sent by water from Savannah to Beaufort, and had a severe

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but victorious engagement with the enemy at Pocotaligo on January 14, 1865. It then rejoined the army of Sherman, and went with it to Washington, thence to Louisville, where it was mustered out, and then returned home, reaching Chicago on the 15th of July, 1865.

This regiment won a gallant reputation, but at the expense of great losses. When first mustered into the service it numbered, rank and file, 960, and on its return on veteran furlough, disease and battle had reduced it down to 231. Again it was filled up to 705, and brought back but 393 men and 17 officers. The first Colonel of the 45th, John E. Smith, was promoted to the rank of Major-General. The first Lieutenant-Colonel, J. A. Maltby, became a Brigadier-General. The first Major, J. A. Rawlins, became a Major-General, and Chief of General Grant's staff. Lieutenant-Colonel Smith (succeeding Maltby) was killed at Fort Hill, on June 25, 1863, and in the same engagement Major L. H. Cowan (succeeding Rawlins) was also killed. Captain R. P. Seeley, of Company G, then became Lieutenant Colonel in command, and Captain J. O. Duer, Major, and on the expiration of Lieutenant-Colonel Seeley's term of service, Duer was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, which rank he held at the muster-out of the regiment.

FORTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 46th regiment was raised as follows: Companies A, B, C, G and K, in Stephenson County; Company F, Richland County; Companies D, E, H and I, in Lee, Ogle and Whiteside counties. It was organized at Camp Butler, and mustered into the service on the 28th of December, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, John A. Davis; Lieutenant-Colonel, William O. Jones; Major, Frederick A. Starring; Adjutant, Benjamin Dornblaser; Quartermaster, Frank Fuller; Surgeon, Elias C. DuPuy; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Charles Carle; Chaplain, D. Teed.

Co. A — Captain, John Musser; 1st Lieutenant, William O. Saxton; 2d Lieutenant, Isaac A. Arnold.

Co. B — Captain, Rollin V. Ankeny; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Roush; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas J. Hathaway.

Co. C — Captain, Frederick Khrumme; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Arno; 2d Lieutenant, Addo Borchers.

Co. D — Captain, William F. Wilder; 1st Lieutenant, Joel L. Coe; 2d Lieutenant, Henry H. Woodbury.

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Co. E — Captain, John M. Marble; 1st Lieutenant, William Lane; 2d Lieutenant, William Plantz.

Co. F — Captain, Thomas Wakefield; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Barr; 2d Lieutenant, Winfield S. Ingraham.

Co. G — Captain, William Young; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas Hood; 2d Lieutenant, Moses R. Thompson.

Co. H — Captain, John Stevens; 1st Lieutenant, John A. Hughes; 2d Lieutenant, Frederick W. Pike.

Co. I — Captain, Charles P. Stinson; 1st Lieutenant, James Ballard; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Howell.

Co. K — Captain, John McCracken; 1st Lieutenant, William Stewart; 2d Lieutenant, Beverley W. Whitney.

On the 11th of February, 1862, the regiment left Springfield for Cairo, and at once reported to General Grant, before Fort Donelson, on the 14th. On the 15th it was ordered to the support of a battery on our right, where it was partially exposed to a brisk fire from the enemy, and had three men wounded, one mortally. After the surrender it was put on guard duty, and on the 17th ordered to Fort Henry. March 6th it left for Savannah, Tennessee, and arrived at Pittsburg Landing on the 18th. It bore a heroic part in the battle of Shiloh, where Colonel Davis had two horses shot under him, and was himself very badly wounded. It participated in the movement upon Corinth until the evacuation of the place. On the 10th of June it marched to the Hatchie River, and rebuilt a bridge which had been destroyed by the rebels. It then went to Grand Junction, Lagrange, etc., making a reconnoissance in force. On the 17th of July it started for Memphis, arriving on the 21st, and going into camp. August 27th it went out on the Pigeon Roost road, returning on the 31st. September 6th it started for Bolivar, remaining till October 4th, when the troops were ordered to make a diversion in the direction of Corinth. On the 5th, at Metamora, the battle of the Hatchie was fought, the 46th distinguishing itself for gallantry, and fully sustaining the glorious reputation won at Shiloh. Colonel Davis, who had returned to his regiment while still suffering from his wounds, fell at the head of his regiment, and died on the 10th, at the regimental camp at Bolivar. November 3d the regiment returned to its old camp at Lagrange, remaining there till the 28th, when it marched to Holly Springs, Mississippi, and took part in the Vicksburg campaign of 1862, during a part of which it was compelled to subsist entirely

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upon what could be obtained from the surrounding country, all supplies having been cut off. On the 12th of March, 1863, the 46th arrived at Memphis. On the 21st of April it marched to Hernando, Mississippi, to reinforce Colonel Bryant, who was in command of a brigade near Coldwater, and returned to Memphis on the 24th. May 13th the regiment left for Vicksburg, landing at Young's Point on the 15th. A portion of the regiment was captured on the night of the 25th of May, while on picket duty. The balance of it participated in the siege until the surrender. It next went to Jackson, Mississippi, and took part in the siege and capture of that place, returning to Vicksburg on the 23d of July. On the 11th of August it left for Natchez, where it remained till November 10th, and then returned to Vicksburg. January 4, 1864, the regiment was mustered into the veteran service, and on the 12th left for home on veteran furlough, arriving at Freeport, Illinois, on the 23d. From that date until the 1st of March the time was occupied in recruiting up to the maximum standard. On the 2d of the latter month, the regiment left Freeport, 987 strong, and proceeded to Vicksburg. On the 4th of May it embarked on an expedition under General McArthur to Benton and Yazoo City, returning to Vicksburg on the 21st. On the 1st of July it started upon the Jackson expedition under Major-General Slocum. While on this expedition, the regiment met the enemy on the 5th and 6th, near Clinton and Jackson, where it well maintained its reputation. Its loss was 3 killed, 36 wounded, 1 captured, 3 missing; total, 45. On the 29th of July it embarked for Morganzia, Louisiana. While lying here, on the night of August 8th, Lieutenant-Colonel Jones and 200 men of the regiment, while out on a scout, captured twelve rebels, who had fallen asleep, not dreaming of the near proximity of the boys in blue. On the 24th of August the 46th arrived at Port Hudson, and after a brief expedition to Clinton, returned to Morganzia. September 4th it proceeded to the mouth of the White River, where it went into camp, and where, on the 13th, the non-veterans of Companies A, B and C left it for home. On the 9th of October it arrived at Duvall's Bluff, Arkansas, and thence, November 27th, proceeded to Memphis. December 21st it joined in an expedition in the direction of Lagrange, returning on the 31st. On the 2d of January, 1865, it embarked for

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Louisiana, and on the 8th and 9th of February, went into camp at Dauphin Island, Alabama. During the investment of Spanish Fort, the 46th guarded the rear. During the siege of Fort Blakely, it alternated with other regiments in doing duty in the rear and in the trenches, taking part in the final capture. On the 12th of April Mobile was surrendered to our forces, who immediately occupied it. On the 27th of May the 46th embarked for New Orleans, which place it soon after left for Shreveport. It was stationed here and at Grand Ecore till December 27th, when it received orders for muster out and discharge, which were given at Baton Rouge on the 20th of January, 1866, when it embarked for Camp Butler, Illinois. Here it received final discharge on the 1st of February, having been in the service nearly four years and a half.

FORTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 47th regiment was organized at Peoria, and was mustered into the service on the 16th of August, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, John Bryner; Lieutenant-Colonel, Daniel L. Miles; Major, William A. Thrush; Adjutant, Rush W. Chambers; Quartermaster, William Stewart; Surgeon, George L. Lucas; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Timothy Babb; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Luther M. Andrews; Chaplain, Jeremiah Hazen.

Co. A — Captain, John N. Cromwell; 1st Lieutenant, Converse Southard; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Dodds.

Co. B — Captain, Joseph B. Miles; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin F. Biser; 2d Lieutenant, George Kinnear.

Co. C — Captain, John D. McLure; 1st Lieutenant, Silas Chapple; 2d Lieutenant, George Broad.

Co. D — Captain, John C. Townsend; 1st Lieutenant, Orlando Fountain; 2d Lieutenant, James P. Warrell.

Co. E — Captain, Samuel R. Baker; 1st Lieutenant, George Puterbaugh; 2d Lieutenant, William W. Pierce.

Co. F — Captain, Lyman W. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, Theodore M. Lowe; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph Moulton.

Co. G — Captain, Harmon Andrews; 1st Lieutenant, William Armmtrout; 2d Lieutenant, Abel Bradley.

Co. H — Captain, Thompson Gordon; 1st Lieutenant, George A. Wilkins; 2d Lieutenant, James Brassfield.

Co. I — Captain, Samuel S. Jackman; 1st Lieutenant, James Tisdale; 2d Lieutenant, Chester Andrews.

Co. K — Captain, Jacob Jemison; 1st Lieutenant, David DeWolf; 2d Lieutenant, Amos Tucker.

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On the 23d of September the regiment left Peoria for St. Louis, where it remained till October 9th, obtaining equipments and drilling. It then went to Jefferson City, and was engaged in post duties in Missouri till February 18, 1862, when it went to St. Louis. It then joined General Pope's command in the movement upon New Madrid and Island No. 10, and participated in it till those points were captured. April 22d it arrived at Hamburg Landing, to join in the Corinth campaign. May 9th it took part in the battle of Farmington, where Lieutenant-Colonel Miles was killed, and in the movement upon Corinth till its evacuation, when it joined in the pursuit, of the rebels. July 3d it marched to Rienzi, Mississippi, and thence, August 18th, to Tuscumbia. It was at the battle of Iuka September 10th, and after one day's pursuit of the enemy returned to Corinth, arriving in time to participate in the battles of October 3d and 4th. Here it lost 30 killed, and over one hundred wounded. Among the former were Colonel William A. Thrush and Captain David DeWolf. It engaged in the pursuit of the enemy as far as Ripley, Mississippi, returning to Corinth on the 14th. November 3d it started with General Grant on the Yocna expedition, arriving at Grand Junction January 1, 1863, and Corinth January 14th. From January 26th to March 12th it was guarding the railroad at Ridgeway Station, Tennessee. It then joined the grand army moving upon Vicksburg, participating in nearly all its operations. May 14th it took part in the capture of Jackson, Mississippi. While leaving the city as rear guard, Colonel John N. Cromwell became momentarily detached from the regiment, and, being surrounded by the rebels, was summoned to surrender, but refused, and was killed in the attempt to escape. The regiment immediately returned to Vicksburg, and took part in the assault upon the enemy's works on the 22d of May. June 4th it took part in an engagement at Mechanicsville, and on the 14th at Richmond, in both of which the enemy were defeated. After the fall of Vicksburg, it encamped at Bear Creek, engaging in an occasional scout till the middle of November, when it moved to Memphis, and from there to Lagrange, where it guarded the railroad, occasionally making a scout against Forrest's guerrillas. On the 26th of January it returned to Memphis, and on the 1st of February to Vicksburg, going into camp at

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the Black River Bridge. March 10th it left Vicksburg on the Red River expedition under General A. J. Smith, and was present at the capture of Fort De Russey, March 14th; participated in the night surprise and capture of a rebel regiment and battery at Henderson Hill, on the 22d; took part in the battle of Pleasant Hill, April 9th, and during the expedition was under fire several times, besides enduring very severe hardships. May 22d it arrived at Vicksburg, having been for three months engaged in a very tedious campaign. June 5th it left for Memphis, disembarking at Lake Chicot, marching inland a short distance, and "pitched into" and whipped a strong force of the enemy under Marmaduke. It then proceeded to Memphis, where the non-veterans joined General Smith's Tupelo expedition, and with it took part in the battle of Tupelo. The re-enlisted veterans, 107 in number, were sent north on thirty days' furlough, rejoining the regiment on the 8th of August, and the entire regiment accompanied General Smith's Oxford expedition. On its return it engaged the enemy at Abbeville, August 23d, and reached Memphis on the 27th. The original term of service of the regiment having expired, the non-veterans were ordered home to Springfield, where they were mustered out and discharged, October 11, 1864. The veterans and recruits, under Lieutenants Edward Bonham and Royal Olmsted, accompanied General Mower's expedition up White River to Brownsville, Arkansas, and thence into Missouri, in pursuit of General Price. After campaigning for some time in Missouri, the detachment arrived in St. Louis November 4th, and proceeded to Chicago to assist in quelling any disturbance which might arise on the day of election. It was next ordered to Springfield, where two hundred drafted men and four full companies were assigned to it. Lieutenant Edward Bonham was commissioned Major, and the battalion ordered to St. Louis, December 3d. Its destination was then changed to Louisville, whence it was sent to Bowling Green. January 27, 1865, it moved via Nashville to its old command at Eastport, Mississippi. It went to New Orleans, and joined the expedition to Mobile Bay, taking part in the reduction of Spanish Fort. While lying in front of Spanish Fort, it received six additional companies from Springfield, making it once more a full regiment. After the fall of Mobile it marched to Montgomery, Alabama, arriving April

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25th. During the summer it was on duty at Selma, Cahawba and Demopolis, and was mustered out at Selma, January 21, 1866, and finally paid and discharged at Springfield on the 5th of February.

FORTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

In the first volume of this work [p. 326] we have given the original roster of this regiment, with its history to the time of its re-enlistment as a veteran regiment, in January, 1864. March l0th, at the expiration of its veteran furlough, it left Centralia for Nashville, thence to Chattanooga, where it joined Sherman's army in the Atlanta campaign, and participated in the engagements at Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Sand Town, Decatur, before Atlanta, siege of Atlanta, and at Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station. It next joined in the march to the sea and the Carolina campaign, with credit to itself and the State. After the grand review at Washington, in which it had a part, it went to Louisville, leaving that city for Little Rock, June 25, 1865. Here, on the 16th of August, it was mustered out and sent to Camp Butler, where it arrived on the 21st, and was paid off and discharged.

FORTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 49th was organized at Camp Butler, and mustered into the service on the 31st of December, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, William R. Morrison; Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas G. Allen; Major, John B. Hay; Adjutant, James Morrison; Quartermaster, James W. Davis; Surgeon, William H. Medcalfe; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Andrew Beatty; Chaplain, James B. Corrigan.

Co. A — Captain, Thomas W. Morgan; 1st Lieutenant, Nicholas C. Chester; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Rogers.

Co. B — Captain, William P. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, James P. Burns; 2d Lieutenant, William Wesley.

Co. C — Captain, Louis Kinghoff; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Doll; 2d Lieutenant, Simeon Spira.

Co. D — Captain, John W. Brokaw; 1st Lieutenant, James W. Cheney; 2d Lieutenant, Emery B. Harlan.

Co. E — Captain, John G. Berrey; 1st Lieutenant, James M. Mcguire; 2d Lieutenant, Henry W. Kerr.

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Co. P — Captain, Benjamin W. Jones; 1st Lieutenant, Ransom C. Hagerman; 2d Lieutenant, William T. Freeland.

Co. G — Captain, Lewis W. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Bliss; 2d Lieutenant, William M. Whaling.

Co. H — Captain, Jacob E. Gauen; 1st Lieutenant, Service Sonday; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob Fischer.

Co. I — Captain, Archibald W. Thompson; 1st Lieutenant, James L. McClurken; 2d Lieutenant; George L. Watts.

Co. K — Captain, Benjamin T. Wood; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Laur; 2d Lieutenant, James G. Gilbert.

February 3, 1862, the regiment left Springfield for Cairo. On the 9th it reported to General Grant at Fort Henry, and was sent to Fort Donelson, and bore a gallant part in the siege and capture of that stronghold. It was next at the battle of Shiloh, where it lost 17 killed and 99 wounded. It took part in the siege of Corinth till its evacuation. June 6th it was stationed at Bethel, Tennessee, guarding the railroad, remaining there till March 10, 1863. It then went to White Station, guarding the railroad, until August 10th. It then joined the White River expedition against Little Rock. Between 2 and 3 o'clock A. M., August 30th, while en route to White River, the steamer Courier, on which it was proceeding, collided with the Des Arc and was sunk. No lives were lost, but a number of mules and horses and a quantity of ammunition and equipage and the company records sank with the steamer. It was the advance regiment in the capture of Little Rock, September 10th, and encamped there till November 15th, when it was sent to Memphis. Here, on the 15th of January, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted in the veteran service. On the 27th it went to Vicksburg, and joined in General Sherman's Meridian campaign. Returning to Vicksburg, March 3d, it participated in the Red River expedition, and was at the capture of Fort De Russey, March 14th, and the battle of Pleasant Hill, Georgia, April 9th, and numerous skirmishes. It returned to Memphis, June 10th, and on the 24th was sent home on veteran furlough. The non-veterans remained, under Captain John A. Logan, and took part in the Tupelo expedition, engaging the enemy at Tupelo, July 14th and 15th. The veterans rendezvoused at Centralia, and on the 4th of August left for Cairo, Nashville and Holly Springs, where the regiment was re-united. It participated in the Oxford expedition, and returned to Memphis on the 30th of August. It was

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then ordered to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. When the boat was about three miles above Cape Girardeau, it struck a snag and was sunk, but by the exertions of the regiment the leak was stopped and the boat bailed out and raised. September 30th the regiment left St. Louis for Franklin, Missouri, where, October 1st, it met the enemy and drove them out and occupied the town. It then accompanied the army in pursuit of Price. It returned to St. Louis November 18th, and on the 24th embarked for Nashville, and participated in the battles of December 15th and 16th. On the 24th it was ordered to Paducah, Kentucky, where the non-veterans were mustered out. The veteran organization remained here on garrison duty till it was mustered out, September 9, 1865. On the 15th it arrived at Springfield, where it was paid off and discharged.

FIFTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 50th regiment was organized at Quincy, and mustered into the service August 20, 1861. The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, Moses M. Bane; Lieutenant-Colonel, William Swarthout; Major, George W. Randall; Adjutant, Thomas J. Brown; Quartermaster, William Keal; Surgeon, Henry W. Kendall; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Garner H. Bane.

Co. A — Captain, Edgar Pickett; 1st Lieutenant, Henry P. W. Cramer; 2d Lieutenant, Sergeant Moody.

Co. B — Captain, John W. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Henry E. Horn; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Harbison.

Co. C — Captain, William M. Gooding; 1st Lieutenant, Theodore W. Letton; 2d Lieutenant, Horace L. Burnham.

Co. D — Captain, Thomas W. Gaines; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Cusick; 2d Lieutenant, William K. Hazlewood.

Co. E — Captain, William Hanna; 1st Lieutenant, Albert Pickett; 2d Lieutenant, William W. Birchard.

Co. F — Captain, William B. Snyder; 1st Lieutenant, Charles J. May; 2d Lieutenant, Charles M. Harris.

Co. G — Captain, George W. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, Selah W. King; 2d Lieutenant, Edward P. Barrett.

Co. H — Captain, Samuel R. Glenn; 1st Lieutenant, William S. Ishmel; 2d Lieutenant, John Cooper.

Co. I — Captain, Joseph D. Wolf; 1st Lieutenant, Horace L. Dunlap; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Elliott.

Co. K — Captain, Timothy D. McGillicuddy; 1st Lieutenant, Jefferson White; 2d Lieutenant, William A. Shane.

On the 9th of October, the regiment left for Hannibal, Missouri,

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and remained campaigning in that State till January 27, 1862, when it reported to General Grant at Cairo. It was at the taking of Fort Henry by Commodore Foote, and took an active part in the siege and capture of Fort Donelson. February 23d it went to Clarksville, Tennessee, and occupied the town, where it discovered several pieces of artillery which had been secreted by the rebels. On the 27th it was ordered to Nashville, but immediately returned to Clarksville. On the 30th of March it arrived at Pittsburg Landing, and took an active part in the battle of Shiloh and the subsequent movement upon Corinth. When the town was evacuated, the 50th joined in the pursuit of the rebels as far as Booneville, Mississippi, returning to Corinth, June 11th. On the 3d and 4th of October it was engaged in the repulse of the attack of the rebels upon Corinth, and did excellent service. The enemy was repulsed, and the 50th took part in pursuit of them to Ruckersville, Mississippi, returning to Corinth on the 12th. Here it remained until December 18th, when it went out on a scout to Lexington, Tennessee, returning on the 23d. April 15, 1803, it was sent to Tuscumbia, skirmishing, while on the way, at Bear Creek, Cherokee and Newsom's Farm. On the 27th it met the enemy at Courtland, and fought them on the following day. On the 3d of May it again arrived at Corinth. November 6th it started for Eastport, Mississippi, and on the 12th went into camp at Lynnville, twelve miles north of Pulaski. On the 17th the regiment was ordered to be mounted for scouting duty. It remained here on such duty until it was mustered into the veteran service, January 16, 1864, when it started for home. February 28th, the veteran furlough having expired, the regiment left Quincy for Lynnville, Tennessee, to rejoin its command, arriving there March 5th, with over 200 recruits. It soon took part in the Atlanta campaign, doing garrison duty at Rome most of the time. At the battle of Allatoona, which soon followed, it bore an honorable part. It then joined Sherman in his grand march to the sea, and participated in the Carolina campaign. On the 24th of May, 1865, it took part in the grand review at Washington, and on the 3d of June started for Louisville. It was mustered out here on the 13th of July, and on the following day arrived at Camp Butler, where it was paid off and discharged.

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FIFTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 51st regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, and mustered into the service on the 24th of December, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Gilbert W. dimming; Lieutenant-Colonel, Luther P. Bradley; Major, Samuel B. Raymond; Adjutant, Charles W. Davis; Quartermaster, Henry Howland; Surgeon, William C. Hunt; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John S. Pashley; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Thomas L. Magee.

Co. A — Captain, Henry F. Wescott; 1st Lieutenant, James E. Montandon; 2d Lieutenant, Antonio DeAnguera.

Co. B — Captain, Isaac K. Gardner; 1st Lieutenant, Henry W. Hall; 2d Lieutenant, George J. Waterman.

Co. C — Captain, Nathaniel B. Petts; 1st Lieutenant, Albert M. Tilton; 2d Lieutenant, Albert Eads.

Co. D — Captain, Ezra L. Brainard; 1st Lieutenant, Theodore F. Brown; 2d Lieutenant, James S. Boyd.

Co. E — Captain, John C. McWilliams; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas T. Lester; 2d Lieutenant, Augustus B. Sweeney.

Co. F — Captain, George L. Bellows; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Houston; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew H. Frasier.

Co. G — Captain, George H. Wentz; 1st Lieutenant, Merritt B. Atwater; 2d Lieutenant, Orin S. Johnson.

Co. H — Captain, John T. Whitson; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Greenwood; 2d Lieutenant, Charles B. Whitson.

Co. K — Captain, Rufus Rose; 1st Lieutenant, Otis Moody; 2d Lieutenant, Albert L. Coe.

The regiment left Chicago for Cairo February 14, 1862, and was engaged there in guarding the prisoners from Fort Donelson, and sending them north. On the 27th it crossed the river and camped on the Kentucky shore. March 4th it went to Bertrand, Missouri, where General Pope was collecting troops for a movement down the river. On the 9th of April it went to the vicinity of New Madrid, and took part in the movements which resulted in the capture of that place. It then joined in the movement upon Island No. 10, and actively participated in the capture of the rebels who fled from that post. It next went down the river to Osceola, and on the 27th was ordered to Hamburg, and took part in the battle of Farmington and other movements upon Corinth. After the evacuation of the town, the 51st took part in the pursuit of the retreating enemy. Returning to Corinth, it was detailed for guard duty on the Memphis and

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Charleston Railroad. On the 15th of September it reached Nashville, to join Buell in his pursuit of Bragg. On the 6th of November a rebel attack on Nashville was made, but without success. After doing post duty for some time at Nashville, the 51st joined in the movement against Bragg, and was in the thickest of the fight at Stone River. The three brigade commanders of the division were killed, and early in the day the command of the brigade fell upon Colonel Bradley, of the 51st. On the 6th of January, 1863, the regiment marched three miles south of Murfreesboro and encamped. On the 4th of March it marched to Eagleville, and two days later started for Franklin, to aid in the pursuit of Van Dorn, who was followed to Duck River, when the pursuit was abandoned. On the 24th of June it joined in the Tullahoma campaign, which resulted in driving Bragg out of Tennessee. On the 30th of July it camped at Bridgeport, Alabama, the rebel army being on the other side of the river. September 2d it crossed the Tennessee and marched to Alpine, Georgia, and took part in the various movements of the Chickamauga campaign. At Chickamauga, on the first day of the battle, it did gallant service, losing nearly one third its number in a single half hour. On the second day, the whole division to which it belonged became involved in confusion, but was skillfully extricated by General Sheridan. At the battles of Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountain the 51st was in the reserve. On the 28th of October it marched to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, reaching there December 9th. On the 26th of January, 1864, the regiment reached Chattanooga, where it re-enlisted in the veteran service, and was sent home on furlough, reaching Chicago on the 17th of February. On the 28th of March the regiment left Chicago for Nashville, and marched thence to Chattanooga. It then joined in the Atlanta campaign, taking part in the battles of Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Jonesboro. It afterward took part in the campaign which ended with the battles of Franklin and Nashville, in both of which it did good service. It then followed the retreating rebels till the pursuit was abandoned, when it marched toward Huntsville, Alabama, and was placed on "outpost" duty at Decatur till March 31, 1865, suffering great hardships. It then went to Greenville, East Tennessee, and

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on the 15th of April to Nashville, where it remained till June 15th. During this time the men whose term of service expired prior to October 1, 1865, were mustered out and sent home. The remainder of the regiment then left for New Orleans. July 28th it embarked for Texas, camping, August 1st, at Placidor. On the 25th of September, 1865, it was mustered out at Camp Irwin, Texas, and was sent home for final payment and discharge, arriving at Camp Butler on the 15th of October.

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Chapter XV. — Regimental and Personal.

THE THIRTY-SEVENTH — ITS MISSOURI CAMPAIGN — THE FIFTY-SECOND — ITS VARIOUS COMMANDERS — GENERAL SWEENEY — THE FIFTY-THIRD — "CUSHMAN'S BRIGADE" — THE FIFTY-FOURTH — RE-ENLISTMENT AS VETERANS — THE FIFTY-SEVENTH — AT SHILOH AND CORINTH — THE FIFTY-EIGHTH — CAPTURE AT SHILOH — GENERAL W. F. LYNCH — THE FIFTY-NINTH — A MISSOURI REGIMENT — CHANGE OF DESIGNATION — THE SIXTIETH — CONCLUSION OF ITS RECORD — THE SIXTY-THIRD — A VETERAN REGIMENT — THE SIXTY-FOURTH — "YATES SHARPSHOOTERS" — BRIGADIER-GENERAL JOSEPH S. REYNOLDS — MAJOR FRED. W. MATTESON — THE SIXTY-FIFTH — THE "SCOTCH REGIMENT" — THE THREE MONTHS' REGIMENTS OF 1862 — THE SIXTY-SEVENTH — THE SIXTY-EIGHTH — THE SIXTY-NINTH — THE SEVENTIETH — THE SEVENTY-FIRST.

THE THIRTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY

WAS organized in the fall of 1861, and took the name of "Fremont Rifles," in honor of General J. C. Fremont, then a favorite among the radical Union men of the West. Companies A and H were enlisted at Rock Island; C and F, at Waukegan, Lake County; Company D, in part in Michigan, and the balance in Chicago; Company K, at Danville; Company E, at Mendota, LaSalle County; Companies G and I, in and about Chicago; Company B, in Stark County. On the 18th of September, 186l, the regiment was mustered into the United States service at Chicago, with the following roster:

Colonel, Julius White; Lieutenant-Colonel, Myron S. Barnes; Major, John Charles Black; Adjutant, A. Neiman; Quartermaster, John H. Peck; Surgeon, L. F. Humeston; Assistant Surgeon, E. A. Clark; Chaplain, Edward Anderson.

Co. A — Captain, J. A. Jordan; 1st Lieutenant, Hervey Curtis, Jr.; 2d Lieutenant, Charles W. Hawes; Orderly Sergeant, L. B. Morey.

Co. B — Captain, Charles V. Dickinson; 1st Lieutenant, Cassimer P. Jackson; 2d Lieutenant, Fracis A. Jones; Orderly Sergeant, W. B. Todd.

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Co. C — Captain, Eugene B. Payne; 1st Lieutenant, Judson J. Huntley; 2d Lieutenant, Chauncey C. Morse; Orderly Sergeant, Arthur Whitney.

Co. D — Captain, John W. Laimbeer; 1st Lieutenant, Wells H. Blodgett; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. O. Mazell; Orderly Sergeant, Wm. M. Johnson.

Co. E — Captain, Phineas B. Rust; 1st Lieutenant, Orville R. Powers; 2d Lieutenant, Charles W. Day; Orderly Sergeant, W. M. Smith.

Co. F — Captain, Erwin B. Messer; 1st Lieutenant, Andreas Greve; 2d Lieutenant, Gallis Fairman; Orderly Sergeant, W. W. Doty.

Co. G — Captain, Henry N. Frisbee; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Bell; 2d Lieutenant, Manning F. Atkinson; Orderly Sergeant, D. McCarty.

Co. H — Captain, J. B. Frick; 1st Lieutenant, Herman Wolferd; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph Eaton; Orderly Sergeant, — Hinckley.

Co. I — Captain, Ransom Kennicott; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac C. Dodge; 2d Lieutenant, Frederick J. Abbey; Orderly Sergeant, George Kennicott.

Co. K — Captain, Wm. P. Black; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. H. Pithian; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. M. Bandy; Orderly Sergeant, N. B. Hicks.

On the 19th of September, the regiment, then 1,035 strong, received from the Chicago Board of Trade two magnificent silk banners — one a national ensign and the other their battle flag — and on the same day embarked for St. Louis, which city it reached on the 21st. On the 30th, the regiment was sent to Booneville, Mo., where it joined General Pope's expedition to Springfield. From the latter place, eight companies proceeded to Ottersville, where they remained during the winter.

On the 25th of January, 1862, the "Grand Army of the West," under Major-General Curtis, took up its line of march for Southwest Missouri, in search of General Price and his crew. On this memorable march the 37th took part in the battle of Pea Ridge [vide Vol. I., p. 222], in which its loss was 153 officers and men. It was next stationed at Cassville, a small town in Southern Missouri, where it did garrison duty until the fall of 1862, when it was transferred to General Schofield's command, under whom but little active service was experienced. The regiment next joined General Herron at Prairie Grove, where it participated in the battle which bears that name, and under him again entered Arkansas. Again it was ordered back into Missouri, being stationed for a brief period at Raleigh. It afterward took part in the battle of Chalk Bluffs, near Cape Girardeau. It again returned to St. Louis, whence it embarked for Vicksburg, to join the forces under General Grant. After the capture of that city it went to New Orleans,

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and thence to Brazos Santiago, Texas, forming a part of the expedition up the Rio Grande. At Brownsville, Texas, on the 10th of February, 1864, the men re-enlisted as veterans. At this date they numbered only about 327 men out of the 1,035 who left Chicago, in September, 1861.

In March, 1864, the regiment returned to Chicago on veteran furlough, where it delivered its battle-torn flags to the donors, the Board of Trade, and received in return therefor a new stand of colors. On the 26th of April, it again started for the front, reaching Memphis on the 29th. After taking part in a raid in search of Forrest, it proceeded to join the army of General Canby in Louisiana. The regiment was stationed at Simsport when General Banks made his disastrous retreat from Grand Ecore. It remained in General Canby's department, traveling from place to place, until the middle of February, 1865, when it was sent to Pensacola, Florida. A few weeks later it started for Mobile, where it arrived on the 2d of April, and immediately invested Fort Blakeley. In the memorable charge upon this fort, the 37th Illinois marched side by side with the 20th Iowa over 900 yards of open space, under a galling fire, and charged directly upon the enemy's works, which were captured. The 37th remained at or near Mobile until June 28th, when it was sent to Texas, arriving at Galveston July 2d. It was stationed at Galveston, Sabine City, Beaumont, Columbus and Houston, Texas, until May 15, 1866, when it was mustered out and ordered to Springfield for final payment and discharge.

FIFTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 52d regiment was organized at Geneva during October and November, 1861, under the superintendence of Colonel I. G. Wilson, and named the "Lincoln Regiment," and was composed of six companies from Kane County, one from Winnebago County, one from Bureau County, one from DeKalb County, and one from Whiteside County, in all 940 men. The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, Isaac G. Wilson; Lieutenant-Colonel, John S. Wilcox; Major, Henry Stark; Adjutant, Ethan J. Allen; Quartermaster, Charles B. Wells; Surgeon, Leland H. Angel; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Phineas K. Guild; 2d Assistant Surgeon, George W. Rhor; Chaplain, Benjamin Thomas.

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Co. A — Captain, Smith G. Ward; 1st Lieutenant, George E. Young; 2d Lieutenant, Charles R. White.

Co. B — Captain, Edwin A. Bowen; 1st Lieutenant, Solomon L. Roth; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Graves.

Co. C — Captain, John S. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, Edward M. Knapp; 2d Lieutenant, Erskin M. Hoyt.

Co. D — Captain, Jacob Grimes; 1st Lieutenant, D. Carlos Newton; 2d Lieutenant, Lewis H. Everts.

Co. E — Captain, Wesley Boyd; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Brainard; 2d Lieutenant, Henry C. Barker.

Co. F — Captain, Nathan P. Herrington; 1st Lieutenant, Slocum S. Dunn; 2d Lieutenant, John Dyer.

Co. G — Captain, Francis H. Bowman; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Wilcox; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Earl.

Co. H — Captain, Alvah P. Maffatt; 1st Lieutenant, Luther C. Lee; 2d Lieutenant, Morris J. McGrath.

Co. I — Captain, Joseph T. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph E. Ewell; 2d Lieutenant, Henry G. Wilmarth.

Co. K — Captain, Alphonso Barto; 1st Lieutenant, Edward S. Wilcox; 2d Lieutenant, Henry S. Doty.

During the months of December, 1861, and January, 1862, the regiment was occupied in guarding the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad in Missouri. In the latter part of January, 1862, it was ordered to Smithland, Kentucky, where it remained until the attack on Fort Donelson, when it was ordered to reinforce the army operating there, and arrived just in time to be assigned the unpleasant duty of taking charge of several boat loads of prisoners, who were delivered at Springfield and Chicago, after which the regiment rendezvoused at St. Louis. It was then ordered to join the Army of the Tennessee. It arrived at Pittsburg Landing and debarked on the 19th day of March, 1862, and was assigned to the 2d Division. It was engaged in the bloody battle of Shiloh, April 6th and 7th, and lost in killed, wounded and missing over one third of the number engaged, distinguishing itself on several occasions. Participating in the siege of Corinth, and the battles of Iuka and Corinth, it remained as a part of the garrison of the latter town until the summer of 1863, being engaged much of the time in severe marches after the rebel Generals Roddy, Chalmers and Forrest. During the autumn of 1863, the regiment, as part of General Dodge's command, marched across to Pulaski, Tennessee, from whence, on the 9th day of June, 1864, it started for Illinois on veteran furlough, more than

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three fourths of the regiment having re-enlisted. Soon after its return to Pulaski, the division was ordered to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and the regiment entered upon the campaign against Atlanta, participating in the battles of Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Lay's Ferry, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickojack Creek Decatur, 22d and 28th of July, before Atlanta, and Jonesboro. After the evacuation of Atlanta, the 2d Division of the 16th Corps, to which the regiment had been attached for two and a half years, was transferred to the 15th Corps, as the 4th Division, and was ordered to Rome, Georgia, the last of September, and on the 5th day of October it fought the bloody battle of Allatoona. On the 11th day of May, 1865, the regiment, as a part of General Sherman's grand army, started on his ever memorable "march to the sea." On the termination of that grand march, at Raleigh, North Carolina, the regiment went with the rest of the army on the pilgrimage to Richmond, and thence to the grand review at Washington. It was then ordered to Louisville, where it was mustered out of the service on July 6, 1865, and thence was ordered to Chicago for discharge.

The 52d originally numbered 940 men, and afterward received about 400 recruits. When mustered out, it numbered but 517 officers and men.

During its existence as an organization, the 52d had no less than six different commandants. The first was Colonel I. G. Wilson, under whom it was raised. He resigned in December, 1861, very soon after being mustered into the service, and was succeeded by Captain T. W. Sweeney, of the 2d Infantry, United States Army (Regulars). He was only in command about two months, when he was promoted to the rank of Major in the regular army, and made Brigadier-General of Volunteers. He has since made himself more prominent by his connection with the Fenian Brotherhood and its designs in behalf of Ireland. Lieutenant Colonel J. S. Wilcox was promoted to the rank of Colonel, and took command upon Lieutenant-Colonel Sweeney's promotion in April, 1863. Colonel Wilcox resigned while the regiment was home on veteran furlough, and was succeeded in command by Lieutenant-Colonel E. A. Bowen, who was mustered out on October 24, 1864, his term of service

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having expired. Major Wesley Boyd next took command, until December 18th, when his term of service, also expired. At that time, Lieutenant J. D. Davis, who had been promoted from the ranks to a 2d Lieutenant, for meritorious conduct at Shiloh, and for other gallant services had been raised to the rank of 1st Lieutenant, was again promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, as which he was in command at the time the regiment was mustered out.

FIFTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 53d regiment was organized at Ottawa, and mustered into the service in March, 1862. It originally consisted of ten companies of infantry, one of artillery and one of cavalry, and was known as "Cushman's Brigade." The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, Wm. H. W. Cushman; Lieutenant-Colonel, Daniel F. Hitt; Major, Theodore C. Gibson; Adjutant, Seth W. Hardin; Quartermaster, Philo Lindley; Surgeon, William W. Welsh; 1st Assistant Surgeon, James O. Harris; Chaplain, Festus P. Cleveland.

Co. A — Captain, Josiah B. Wright; 1st Lieutenant, William Armstrong; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel Slattery.

Co. B — Captain, Roland H. Allison; 1st Lieutenant, Seldon B. Griswold; 2d Lieutenant, Jarvis B. Smith.

Co. C — Captain, Joseph E. Skinner; 1st Lieutenant, William F. Dewey; 2d Lieutenant, Carser R. May.

Co. D — Captain, James E. Hudson; 1st Lieutenant, Warren H. Norton; 2d Lieutenant, Albert S. Kinsloe.

Co. E — Captain, Charles M. Vaughn; 1st Lieutenant, Alonzo W. Buell; 2d Lieutenant, Mark C. Wheeler.

Co. F — Captain, Daniel L. Houston; 1st Lieutenant, William G. Earl; 2d Lieutenant, John Potter.

Co. G — Captain, Morgan L. Payne; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Lodge; 2d Lieutenant, John H. Elwood.

Co. H — Captain, John W. McClenahan; 1st Lieutenant, Timothy W. Atwood; 2d Lieutenant, Simeon Rathbun.

Co. K — Captain, Michael Leahey; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Buckley; 2d Lieutenant, Robert V. Simpson.

The regiment left Ottawa in March, 1862, for Camp Douglas, Chicago, where it, for a few days assisted in guarding the rebel prisoners from Fort Donelson. It left Camp Douglas on the 23d,

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and proceeded to Savannah, Tennessee, and arrived on the battle field of Shiloh on the 7th of April, after the enemy had been driven from the field. It participated in the movement upon Corinth, which place it entered on the 30th of May. It marched thence to Grand Junction, where it was left alone for a few days. It entered Lagrange, Tennessee, June 26th, and moved from thence to Holly Springs, Memphis and Bolivar, arriving at the latter place September 13th. On the 20th it made a reconnoissance, returning to Bolivar the next day, having met the enemy in force near Grand Junction. On the 6th of October, while crossing "Davis' Bridge," on the Hatchie River, it met four times its number of rebels, retreating in disorder from Corinth, and defeated them. It returned to Bolivar October 8th, and marched to Lagrange November 4th. While here it made two reconnoissances toward Coldwater. On the 28th it went with General Grant on the "Yocna expedition," returning northward, to the vicinity of Waterford, Mississippi, in the latter part of December. January 11, 1863, it arrived at Moscow, Tennessee, where it remained during the winter, on guard and picket duty. March 11th it reached Memphis, and remained there till May 17th, when it was sent to Young's Point, Louisiana. On the 20th it went to Haines' Bluff, and thence to Snyder's Bluff, where it remained till June 24th, and then joined the main army in front of Vicksburg. It participated in the siege and capture of that place, and suffered severely in killed and wounded. It then took part in the siege and capture of Jackson, where it behaved with distinguished gallantry. Here Lieutenant-Colonel Earl was killed, and a number of staff and line officers were killed and wounded, while the entire regiment suffered severely, losing 134 men out of the 200 engaged. A few days afterward, the regiment returned to Vicksburg, and on the 18th of August moved by transports to Natchez, Mississippi, where it remained until November 30th, when it embarked again for Vicksburg, camping at Milldale, eight miles from the city. While here the regiment re-enlisted in the veteran service. February 3, 1864, it started upon the Meridian campaign, returning to Hebron on the 29th. On the 13th of March it was sent home on veteran furlough, arriving at Ottawa on the 22d. At the expiration of the furlough, the regiment rejoined its command, and in May proceeded to Clifton, whence it marched

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across the country to join Sherman's army, then engaged in the Atlanta campaign. It bore its share of the toils and perils of the campaign, taking a prominent part in the desperate charges and assaults of the 20th, 21st and 22d of July, losing in the three days' fights 101 men. After a few days' rest at Eastport, it marched in pursuit of Hood northward, returning to Marietta November 6th. On the 16th it started on the march to the sea, and participated in that and the Carolina campaign which succeeded it. While at Savannah, the 41st Illinois, consisting of two companies and about 222 officers and men, was consolidated with the 53d, and became companies G and K. The 53d was at the grand review at Washington on the 24th of May, and from there proceeded to Louisville, Kentucky, where it was mustered out of the service on the 22d of July. It was then sent to Camp Douglas, Chicago, where it was paid off and discharged on the 28th. The 53d was in the service nearly four years, and traveled a distance of 7,023 miles.

FIFTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 54th infantry was organized at Camp Dubois, Anna, and was mustered into the service on the 18th of February, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Thomas W. Harris; Lieutenant-Colonel, Greenville M. Mitchell; Major, Augustus H. Chapman; Adjutant, John W. True; Quartermaster, George Monroe; Surgeon, Shubal York; 1st Assistant-Surgeon, Thomas Wilkins; Chaplain, Sidney L. Harkey.

Co. A — Captain, Charles P. Woodruff; 1st Lieutenant, Russell W. Williams; 2d Lieutenant, William W. Purinton.

Co. B — Captain, Samuel B. Logan; 1st Lieutenant, Johnson White; 2d Lieutenant, Alexander M. Houston.

Co. C — Captain, Bird Monroe; 1st Lieutenant, Moses W. Robbins; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph Ledbetter.

Co. D — Captain, Presley B. O'Dear; 1st Lieutenant, Merit B. Redding; 2d Lieutenant, John F. Barkley.

Co. E — Captain, Neil Fisher; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas R. Miller; 2d Lieutenant, Chapman Sutton.

Co. F — Captain, John B. Hanah; 1st Lieutenant, James Chapman; 2d Lieutenant, Stephen L. Latimer.

Co. G — Captain, Richard W. Belknap; 1st Lieutenant, Newton J. Blankenbaker; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob M. Ryan.

Co. H — Captain, Edward Roessler; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Johnson; 2d Lieutenant, Hiram M. Scarborough.

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Co. I — Captain, Jeremiah W. Boatman; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph T. Barkley; 2d Lieutenant, Resin W. Ashbrook.

Co. K — Captain, Theodore C. Rodrig; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Bailey; 2d Lieutenant, Charles T. Kimble.

The regiment left Camp Dubois for Cairo on the 24th of February, and went thence to Columbus on the 14th of March. Here it remained on fatigue duty, repairing fortifications, &c., until June 29th. Three companies were stationed at Humboldt, Tennessee, during the fall. On the 18th of December the regiment was ordered to Jackson, which was threatened by the rebels. Company B and all the sick were left at "State Line," Tennessee, and the regiment finally reached Jackson on the 28th. The men left behind were captured by Forrest, who destroyed nearly all the records of the regiment, which had been left along the railroad. The regiment remained at Jackson till March, 1863. In April it marched to Corinth, returning to Jackson within a week. On the 30th of May it left Jackson, and arrived at Haines' Bluff on the 2d of June. Here it remained as a part of General Sherman's army, confronting General Joe Johnston. It left for Helena, Arkansas, July 24th, and on the 13th of August set out on the Little Rock expedition. It arrived at Little Rock on the 18th of September, and swam the Arkansas during the attack, being the only infantry regiment to cross the river that day. October 15th it left for Benton and Rockport, returning on the 23d. Here the regiment re-enlisted in the veteran service, and on the 9th of February, 1864, was sent to Mattoon to receive furloughs. The furloughs expired March 28th, and on that day a few unarmed men from the regiment, who were en route to join it, were attacked at Charleston, Illinois, by a party of Copperheads, killing Major Shubal York, Surgeon of the regiment, and four privates, and wounding Colonel Mitchell. An hour later the regiment arrived from Mattoon, and a number of the ringleaders of the attack were captured. They were forwarded to Springfield, and thence sent to Fort Delaware, but were afterward returned to the civil authorities for trial. The regiment left Mattoon on the 12th of April, and arrived at Little Rock on the 30th. On the 18th of May, it left Little Rock and marched northward in pursuit of the rebel General Shelby, and returned on the 30th. On the 26th of June, it met Shelby's forces near Clarendon, Arkansas, pursued them across

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the Cache River, and returned to Duvall's Bluff on the 29th. August 5th it relieved the 11th Missouri from guarding hay contractors on the Memphis and Little Rock Railroad, having five stations, with two companies at each. On the 24th it was attacked by General Shelby, with 4,000 men and four pieces of artillery. Colonel Mitchell succeeded in concentrating six companies at one station, and they fought till 3 o'clock P. M., when their hay works were set on fire by the enemy's shell, and they were driven out and captured in detail. They were paroled at Jacksonport, Arkansas, September 1st, and robbed of their clothing and all their valuables, with General Shelby's knowledge and consent. They were then sent to Benton Barracks, and on the 5th of December were exchanged. On the 18th of January, 1865, the regiment arrived at Hickory Station, and was immediately placed at its former station on the railroad, remaining there till June 5th. It was then sent to Pine Bluff, and thence to Fort Smith, arriving on the 80th of August, October 4th, it returned to Little Rock, where it was mustered out on the 15th. On the 26th of October it arrived at Camp Butler, where it was paid off and discharged. The regiment, from its original entry into the service till its discharge, mustered in 1,342 men and 71 commissioned officers.

FIFTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 57th regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, and was mustered into the service December 26, 1861, numbering 975 officers and men. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Silas D. Baldwin; Lieutenant-Colonel, Frederick J. Hurlbut; Major, Norman B. Page; Adjutant, Norman E. Hahn; Quartermaster, Edward Hamilton; Surgeon, James Zearing; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Henry S. Blood.

Co. A — Captain, John Phillips; 1st Lieutenant, John N. Schilling; 2d Lieutenant, William F. Conkey.

Co. B — Captain, Alfred H. Manzer; 1st Lieutenant, Nathan Linton; 2d Lieutenant, John R. Larkin.

Co. C — Captain, William S. Swan; 1st Lieutenant, Robert B. Morse; 2d Lieutenant, Moses S. Lord.

Co. D — Captain, Eric Forsee; 1st Lieutenant, Eric Johnson; 2d Lieutenant, Eric Berglend.

Co. E — Captain, Robert D. Adams; 1st Lieutenant, Bradley D. Salter; 2d Lieutenant, Albert L. Otis.

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Co. F — Captain, Frederick A. Battey; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph W. Harris; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph T. Cook.

Co. G — Captain, Gustav A. Busse; 1st Lieutenant, Fritz Busse; 2d Lieutenant, Charles W. Rosenthal.

Co. H — Captain, Josiah Robbins, Jr.; 1st Lieutenant, Nelson Flansbury; 2d Lieutenant, George Welch.

Co. I — Captain, Benjamin H. Chadburn; 1st Lieutenant, Theodore M. Dogett; 2d Lieutenant, William S. Hendricks.

Co. K — Captain, Augustus C. Barry; 1st Lieutenant, Harlan Page; 2d Lieutenant, William Brewer.

On the 8th of February, 1862, the regiment broke camp and embarked for Cairo, and then on to Fort Henry, joining General Grant's army before Fort Donelson, and fought, during the three days' battle, under General Lew. Wallace. The regiment, upon the capitulation of Donelson, marched back to Fort Henry, and encamped about one month. On the 6th of March it embarked for Crump's Landing, where it remained for two weeks, and then, with the army, marched against A. S. Johnston's forces, then entrenched at Shiloh. The battles of Shiloh, or Pittsburg Landing, were fought on the 6th and 7th days of April, and in these the 57th participated, losing 187 officers and men killed, wounded and missing. After these battles the 57th remained on the field till the army took up the line of march on Corinth, and took part in that siege, and upon its evacuation went into camp in the town, and remained there till Van Dorn's rebels came up and assaulted the works on the 3d and 4th of October. The 57th, during these terrible days, stood the brunt of the battle, hurling back the enemy at the point of the bayonet whenever he came up. Forty-two men of the regiment were either killed or wounded in these engagements. In May, 1863, under General W. M. Dodge, the 57th marched in pursuit of Forrest, who had been committing depredations, and chased him, skirmishing with his rear guard, up to the Tuscumbia Valley, when, the object of the expedition being accomplished, the army returned to Corinth, and remained in garrison till the 4th of November, when the regiment marched to Louisville, Tennessee, and went into garrison, remaining till the 17th of January, when it re-enlisted for a further term of three years, and on the next day started for Chicago, to spend its thirty days' leave of absence, arriving on the 27th of January, 1864. While in Chicago the regiment was reinforced by 250 new recruits. On the 9th of March it quitted Chicago for the field, and reached Athens, Alabama,

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on the 15th, and was garrisoned there till the 1st of May, when it joined Sherman's army, then marching to the relief of Rosecrans' beleaguered army at Chattanooga, moving to the right and rear of Dalton, compelling its evacuation by the enemy, and then moved on with the Army of the Tennessee, commanded by the lamented McPherson, participating in the battle at Rome Cross Roads, and thence continued on to Rome, where it remained until about the middle of August. When Wheeler made his raid north toward Nashville, the 57th followed him to the Muscle Shoals, where he escaped, and then returned to its camp at Rome, and remained till the 2d of October, when it marched to Georgia, and assisted in repulsing the rebel French, who assaulted our works. The 57th lost in this tight fourteen killed and wounded, and returned to Rome. On the 13th of October it was engaged with the rear of Hood's army, which was on the march north, driving the rebels in confusion seven miles, losing seven men killed and wounded. On the 10th of November, with the 3d Brigade, 4th Division of the 15th Army Corps, the 57th took up the line of march from Rome for Atlanta, and from thence marched in conjunction with Sherman's great army for the Atlantic coast, arriving in front of Savannah on the 10th of December, skirmishing with the enemy until the 21st, when the army marched in and took formal possession of the city. On the 27th of January, the 4th Division started north through the Carolinas with the 14th and 20th Corps, and on the 19th, 20th and 21st days of February was engaged with the enemy at Bentonville. On the 22d the regiment started for Goldsboro, and was present at the capture of Joe Johnston's army, which ended the rebellion. After Johnston's surrender the 57th marched north, first to Raleigh, thence through to Richmond and Washington, and there participated in the grand review. From Washington the regiment took cars for Parkersburg, and there embarked on steamers, reaching Louisville on the 8th of June, 1865, and encamped till the 7th of July, when it took formal leave of the brave and glorious 15th Corps, and reached Chicago on the 10th of July, where it was mustered out and discharged.

FIFTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 58th regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, where nine companies were mustered into the service on the 24th

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and 25th of December, 1851. The remaining company (H) was not mustered in until February 7, 1862. The following is the original roster of the regiment:

Colonel, William F. Lynch; Lieutenant-Colonel, Isaac Rutishauser; Major, Thomas Newlan; Adjutant, Lewis H. Martin; Quartermaster, George Sawin; Surgeon, Henry M. Crawford; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Emory A. Merrifield.

Co. A — Captain, Robert W. Healy; 1st Lieutenant, Eugene Lynch; 2d Lieutenant, Hiram M. VanArman.

Co. B — Captain, Thomas D. Griffin; 1st Lieutenant, Abraham Vandenburgh; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Babbitt.

Co. C — Captain, George W. Kittell; 1st Lieutenant, Sanford W. Smith; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph G. Burt.

Co. D — Captain, Nicklaus Nicklaus; 1st Lieutenant, George Glassner; 2d Lieutenant, Gustav C. Kothe.

Co. E — Captain, Karl P. Rutishauser; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Kittel; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph Stauffer.

Co. F — Captain, Frederick Kurth; 1st Lieutenant, Julius Kurth; 2d Lieutenant, Lewis W. Pfeif.

Co. G — Captain, James A. Bewley; 1st Lieutenant, Loring P. Fuller; 2d Lieutenant, Robert H. Winslow.

Co. H — Captain, Lawrence Collins; 1st Lieutenant, John C. Lonergan; 2d Lieutenant, Danforth L. Scott.

Co. I — Captain, Philip R. Heelan; 1st Lieutenant, David J. Lynch; 2d Lieutenant, Job Moxom.

Co. K — Captain, Patrick Gregg; 1st Lieutenant, John Tobin; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Gregg.

The regiment left Chicago on the 11th of February, 1862, for Cairo, where it was immediately transferred to the steamer Fanny Bullitt, and proceeded to take part in the siege and capture of Fort Donelson. After the victory at that point, it was marched to Fort Henry, where it lay until March 6th, when it embarked for Crump's Landing, seven miles below Pittsburg Landing. At the battle of Shiloh, which soon followed, the greater portion of the regiment were taken prisoners. The captured men were transferred to various rebel prisons at Mobile, Cahawba, Selma, Montgomery and other points in Alabama, and Macon, Griffin and Madison, in Georgia, Here they suffered various vicissitudes of starvation, sickness and all the untold horrors of a Southern prison pen. On the 29th of May the privates and surgeons of the regiment were released on parole, by order of General Beauregard, but General O. M. Mitchell, commanding the Union forces, refused to receive them, and they

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were returned to the rebel prisons. On the 17th of October, 1862, the men were gathered in Libby Prison, at Richmond, where they were paroled and sent to Annapolis, Maryland, the officers being paroled two days previously. They left Annapolis in December, and arrived at Camp Butler on the 23d of that month.

That portion of the regiment not captured at Shiloh was organized into what was known as the "Union Brigade," composed of the remnants of the 58th Illinois and 8th, l2th and 44th Iowa, the 58th forming three companies out of the ten in the brigade. The Union Brigade participated in the siege of Corinth, and after the evacuation of that place joined in the pursuit of the enemy as far as Jonesville, Mississippi, returning to Corinth. At the battle of Iuka, one company of the 58th was engaged, losing 17 in wounded and prisoners. The Brigade was also engaged in the battle of Corinth, October 3d and 4th.

In December, 1862, the entire regiment was re-united at Camp Butler, where it remained, re-organizing, recruiting and guarding prisoners of war, until June 28, 1863, when it was ordered to Cairo. It garrisoned Cairo, Mound City, Union City, Columbus and Paducah until January 1, 1864, when it re-enlisted in the veteran service. It was then ordered to Vicksburg, and joined in General Sherman's Meridian raid, in which it was engaged in numerous skirmishes. It next participated in the Red River expedition, under General A. J. Smith. It was the first regiment to enter and plant its colors on Fort De Russey. At the battle of Pleasant Hill, April 9th, it was complimented with having made the charge which "changed the tide of battle," and lost heavily. Returning from the Red River expedition, it was engaged at Marksville Prairie, Cloutierville and Yellow Bayou. At the latter place its loss was very heavy, nine color bearers being shot in less than ten minutes — one of them, Fred. Mink, being wounded in each arm before he would give up the colors to another — and Colonel Lynch, commanding the brigade, being severely wounded. The regiment reached Vicksburg on the 24th of May, which it left for Columbia, Arkansas, on the 6th of June. At Memphis, on the 10th of June, the veterans were furloughed, and the non-veterans sent to Tupelo, Mississippi, at which place, on the 14th of July, and at Mill Springs, they met and whipped Forrest's guerrillas.

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The command then returned to Memphis, where the veterans rejoined the regiment on the 6th of August. On the following day it was sent out on the "Oxford raid," returning on the 30th. On the 5th of September it began a campaign against Price in Missouri, and finally reached Jefferson Barracks September 29th. October 2d it left St. Louis, marching through Missouri to Kansas, returning on the 18th of November, having had a very hard march, with a poorly supplied commissary. On the 1st of December it arrived at Nashville, Tennessee, and on the 15th and 16th was engaged in the battles at that place, and on the 17th joined in the pursuit of the retreating army of Hood, following them as far as Eastport, Mississippi. The term of the original organization expiring on the 6th of February, 1865, the non-veterans were ordered home on the 31st of January, and the veterans and recruits, numbering about 390, were consolidated into four companies and known as the "Battalion 58th Illinois Infantry," Major R. W. Healy being retained in command. The battalion left Eastport on the 9th of February for New Orleans, and in March joined General Canby's army in the operations against Mobile. It took part in the investment of Fort Blakeley from April 3d to the 9th. On the latter day it was in the front line when the charge was made which resulted in the capture of the fort. While at Mobile it was joined by one new company, and subsequently by five others, raising it to a full regiment. On the 27th of April it reached Montgomery, Alabama, where, in July, it received from the 81st and 114th Illinois the men not entitled to be mustered out with those regiments. It remained at Montgomery, doing garrison duty, until April 1, 1866, when it was mustered out. It was then sent to Camp Butler, Springfield, where it received payment and final discharge, after having been in the service over four years and a half. Its record during this time is one which will ever redound to the credit of the brave men of the 58th.

General William F. Lynch was born in Rochester, New York, March 12, 1839, of Irish parents, and moved to Cuba, Alleghany County, New York, where he lived four years. He came from there to Elgin, Illinois, which place he has since made his home. His father, who was a merchant, liberally educated his family, of whom William was educated at the University of Notre Dame, South Bend,

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Indiana. He first enlisted from Notre Dame on the 19th of April, 1861, and raised a company from among the students, which was the first company tendered to Governor Morton. Owing to the opposition of the parents of the students and the members of the Faculty, the company was broken up, and General Lynch went from South Bend as a private. The company in which he went was not received, and he returned to Elgin, and there joined the 23d Illinois (Irish Brigade), in which he served as Sergeant-Major till September 1, 1861. He was then authorized to raise the 58th Illinois, of which regiment he served as Colonel for nearly four years. General Lynch was wounded at Shiloh, and captured on the evening of Sunday, April 6th, and held a prisoner about seven months. After being exchanged he was placed in command of Camp Butler, Springfield, Illinois. He was also post-commander at Cairo, Illinois, during the summer and fall of 1863. He was with General Sherman on the Meridian trip, and commanded the 1st Brigade of General A. J. Smith's old division, as also during the Red River campaign. At Yellow Bayou he received a wound which crippled him for life. General Lynch was brevetted for gallant service in the field. At the time he was appointed Colonel of the 58th he was but 22 years of age — then the youngest Colonel in the service. He was wounded seven times while in the service, and has since made himself prominent as a Fenian leader, holding a commission as Major-General in the Fenian "forces."

FIFTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 59th regiment was organized at St. Louis on the 18th of September, 1861, as the 9th Missouri Volunteers. The men had previously been mustered into the United States service by companies, recruited and organized in Illinois. The following is the original regimental staff:

Colonel, John C. Kelton, Captain United States Army, and 1st Assistant-Adjutant General on General Fremont's staff; Lieutenant-Colonel, Calvin H. Frederick, St. Louis; Major, D. C. McGibbon, St. Louis; Adjutant, P. Sidney Post, Galesburg, Illinois; Surgeon, J. D. S. Hazlett, St. Louis; 1st Assistant Surgeon, H. J. Maynard, Illinois; Quartermaster, Frederick Brasher, St. Louis.

The various companies, previous to the organization of the regiment, were employed on guard and picket duty, building

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fortifications, &c., at Cape Girardeau and St. Louis. On the 22d of September the regiment embarked for Jefferson City, and was from that time engaged in active campaigning in Missouri till March 7th and 8th, 1862, when it took part in the battle of Pea Ridge [Vol. I., p. 222], where it fought bravely and successfully. On the 12th of February, while on the Missouri campaign, the designation of the regiment was changed from the 9th Missouri to the 59th Illinois Volunteers. The campaigning in Missouri was continued till May 22d, when the regiment arrived at Cape Girardeau, and immediately proceeded to Hamburg Landing, Tennessee, and took part in the siege of Corinth. It then pursued the enemy as far as Booneville, returning to camp at Clear Creek, near Corinth. August 6th it had a skirmish with the enemy at Big Springs, Mississippi, driving them from the town, and disabling a large cotton mill and capturing 200 bales of cotton. It arrived at Iuka on the 8th, and from here six companies of the 59th and detachments from the 3d Michigan cavalry and 7th Kansas cavalry, under Colonel Post, made a raid into Alabama and captured 190 bales of cotton. The regiment made various marches until it arrived at Murfreesboro, September 1st, and there joined General Buell's army. It accompanied Buell in his disastrous retreat to Louisville, where it remained till October 1st. It bore a gallant part in the battle of Perryville, October 7th and 8th, losing 113 in killed, wounded, &c., out of 361 men it took into action. It then pursued the enemy to Crab Orchard, and from thence marched to Nashville, where it arrived on the 7th of November, going into camp at Edgefield, eight miles from Nashville. On the 25th of December it started upon the Stone River campaign, taking part in the engagements at Franklin, Nolensville, Knob Gap, Murfreesboro and Liberty Gap. From July 3 to August 10, 1863, it was stationed at Winchester, Tennessee. It next marched to Chattanooga, where it arrived September 22d. During the siege of this point, from September 22d till October 25th, it was continually under fire. It was among the foremost at the glorious charges upon Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge, following the enemy to Ringgold, where it again attacked and defeated them. On the 1st of December it was engaged in burying the dead upon the battle field of Chickamauga. On the 12th of January, 1864, it was mustered in as a

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veteran regiment, and on the 6th of February left Chattanooga for Springfield, where it arrived on the 10th. On the 19th of March the regiment again left Springfield for Chattanooga and Cleveland, Tennessee. On the 3d of May the Atlanta campaign was begun, and the 59th bore its full share therein. It took part in the fights at Tunnel Hill, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Kingston, Dallas, Pine Top Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Atlanta, Rough and Ready and Lovejoy Station. September 6th it encamped at Atlanta, remaining till October 2d. On the 3d the 59th started in pursuit of Hood's army, to Nashville, participating in the battles of Spring Hill and Franklin. It bore a conspicuous and honorable part in the battle of Nashville, leading in the assault upon Overten's Hill. It then followed the enemy to the Tennessee River, camping at Huntsville, Alabama, January 3, 1865. On the 31st it again went to Nashville, returning to Huntsville on the 7th of February. March 15th it went to Strawberry Plains, and thence to Greenville. From here it made an expedition to Warm Springs, North Carolina, leaving on the 6th and returning on the 10th of April, returning to Nashville April 23d. On the 16th of June it went to New Orleans, and thence to Indianola, Texas. It was stationed at New Braunfels, Texas, till December 8, 1865, when it was mustered out of the service, and on the following day started for home, arriving at Springfield on the 6th of January, 1806, where it was paid off and discharged. During its term of service the 59th was never stationed in the rear on garrison or other duty, but was constantly in the front. During this time it marched 13,339 miles, and has inscribed on its colors, by order of the War Department, the names of nineteen battles in which it bore a victorious and meritorious part.

The following is the original roster of the 59th after it had been designated as an Illinois regiment:

Colonel, P. Sidney Post; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles H. Frederick; Major, Joshua C. Winters; Adjutant, Samuel West; Quartermaster, Frederick Brasher; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Charles Bunce.

Co. A — Captain, Clayton Hale; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel M. Jones; 2d Lieutenant, P. Sidney Post.

Co. B — Captain, Hendrick E. Payne; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Johnson; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew R. Johnson.

Co. C — Captain, Barzillai M. Veatch; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel W. Henderson; 2d Lieutenant, Heslip Phillips.

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Co. D — Captain, Orlando W. Frazier; 1st Lieutenant, Emanuel Mennet; 2d Lieutenant, Cherley A. Mossmans.

Co. E — Captain, James M. Stookey; 1st Lieutenant, James H. Knight; 2d Lieutenant, Robert Gooding.

Co. F — Captain, George E. Currie; 1st Lieutenant, Reuben Maddox; 2d Lieutenant, Henry C. Bonham.

Co. G — Captain, Joseph S. Hackney; 1st Lieutenant, Horace W. Starkey; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas B. Johnson.

Co. H — Captain, Albert Anthony; 1st Lieutenant, Hamilton W. Hall; 2d Lieutenant, Henry W. Wiley.

Co. I — Captain, Charles F. Adams; 1st Lieutenant, James A. Beach; 2d Lieutenant, Charles C. Doolittle.

Co. K— Captain, Henry N. Snyder; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Van Osdel.

SIXTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

On page 409 of the first volume of this work we have given the original roster of this regiment, and the history of its achievements up to the date of its march with Sherman to the relief of Knoxville. On the 26th of December, 1863, it went into winter quarters at Rossville, Georgia. On the 22d of February, 1864, it was mustered into the service as a veteran regiment. On the 26th it took part in the battle of Buzzard Roost, and on the 6th of March was sent home on veteran furlough. On the 18th of April it was again on the way to the front, arriving at Rossville on the 26th. It at once joined in the Atlanta campaign, taking an honorable part in the battles of Ringgold, Dalton, Resaca, Rome, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickojack, Peach Tree Creek, Jonesboro and Atlanta. It remained at Atlanta until the 29th of September, when it went to Florence, Alabama, where, on the 5th of October, it had a sharp skirmish with the enemy, and drove them across the river. On the 10th of October it returned to Chattanooga, and soon after joined in the grand march to the sea. It took part in the Carolina campaign, after which it marched to Washington and was present at the grand review before the President. From here it was sent to Louisville, Kentucky, where it was mustered out on the 31st of July, 1865. On the 2d of August it arrived at Springfield, where it was paid off and discharged.

SIXTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 63d regiment was organized at Camp Dubois, Anna, and mustered into the service on the 10th of April, 1862. The following is the original roster:

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Colonel, Francis Mora; Lieutenant-Colonel, Joseph B. McCown; Major, Henry Glaze; Adjutant, Charlie S. Chambers; Quartermaster, John M. Maris; Surgeon, William M. Gray; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Lyman Hall; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Alexander A. Lodge; Chaplain, Stephen Blair.

Co. A — Captain, Richard McClure; 1st Lieutenant, Charles E. Cartwright; 2d Lieutenant, Victor E. Phillips.

Co. B — Captain, George J. Johns; 1st Lieutenant, John C. Grayson; 2d Lieutenant, Arnot L. McCoy.

Co. C — Captain, William M. Boughan; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred Laws; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob Lewis.

Co. D — Captain, John W. Champion; 1st Lieutenant, James Isaminger; 2d Lieutenant, Benjamin M. Tabler.

Co. E — Captain, Henry Gilbert; 1st Lieutenant, Hiram H. Walser; 2d Lieutenant William C. Keen.

Co. F — Captain, Joseph Lemon; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred Davis; 2d Lieutenant, James M. Hunter.

Co. G — Captain, Joseph R. Stanford; 1st Lieutenant, Westford B. Russell; 2d Lieutenant, William P. Richardson.

Co. H — Captain, Sylvester G. Parker; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Davis; 2d Lieutenant, James Houselman.

Co. I — Captain, John B. Craig; 1st Lieutenant, George F. Glossbrenner; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph H. C. Dill.

Co. K — Captain, James H. Briggs; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew A. Ricketts; 2d Lieutenant, William Leamon.

The regiment left Camp Dubois on the 28th of April for Cairo. July 12th it was ordered to Henderson, Kentucky, to defend that place against a guerrilla attack. On the 22d it returned to Cairo, and remained there until August 4th, when it was ordered to Jackson. It then joined in the Yocna expedition, which forced the rebels to Grenada, Mississippi. The surrender of Holly Springs, by cutting off communications and supplies, forced the abandonment of the expedition, and the 63d returned to Memphis, reaching there January 20, 1863. On the 10th of May it was ordered to Vicksburg. On the 21st it crossed the Mississippi at Warrenton, and "closed the last link in the investment of the city, by silencing the guns of two forts on the extreme left," on the 24th. It took part in the destruction of Richmond, Louisiana, and other movements connected with the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and on the 5th marched into the city. On the 12th of September it arrived at Helena, Arkansas, and on the 28th was ordered to Memphis. October 6th it left Memphis for Chattanooga, arriving there on the 20th of November. It took part in the battles at Mission Ridge on the 23d and 24th, and joined

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in the pursuit of Bragg's forces to Ringgold. On the 26th of December it arrived at Huntsville, Alabama, where it went into winter quarters. On the 1st of January, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted in the veteran service, and on the 10th of April arrived at Centralia, Illinois, where it received veteran furlough. On the 21st of May it reported at Huntsville, Alabama, and on the 23d was ordered to Triune. On the 30th of June it arrived at Kingston, Georgia, where it was stationed to guard the line of railroad. It continued here until November 11th, when it was ordered to join General Sherman at Atlanta. On the 15th it left Atlanta on the march to the seashore. After the capture of Savannah, it participated in the Carolina campaign, and was in all its battles and skirmishes. At Columbia, South Carolina, it lost one officer and five men by the explosion of an arsenal. On the 24th of May, 1865, it took part in the grand review at Washington, and on the 3d of June started for Louisville. Here it was mustered out of the service on the 13th of July, and on the 16th arrived at Camp Butler, where it was paid off and discharged. During its term of service the 63d traveled 6,453 miles, of which 2,250 miles was on foot.

SIXTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

Recruiting for the 64th Illinois Infantry was commenced in September, 1861, under authority to raise a battalion of four companies of riflemen. By the 31st of December, however, six companies had been raised, and on that day the battalion was mustered into the service, taking the title of "Yates Sharpshooters." The following is the original roster:

Lieutenant-Colonel, David E. Williams; Major, Fred. W. Matteson; Adjutant, Aaron E. May; Quartermaster, A. T. Cameron; Surgeon, J. T. Stewart; Chaplain, Charles Cain.

Co. A — Captain, John Morrill; 1st Lieutenant, James C. Cameron; 2d Lieutenant, Charles J. Conger.

Co. B — Captain, George W. Stipp; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel B. Thompson; 2d Lieutenant, Robert R. Gibbons.

Co. C — Captain, C. B. Keasey; 1st Lieutenant, George E. Doran; 2d Lieutenant, George A. Caine.

Co. D — Captain, J. W. Stewart; 1st Lieutenant, Wm. N. Stewart; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Reid.

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Co. E — Captain, D. G. Grover; 1st Lieutenant, M. W. Manning; 2d Lieutenant, E. H. Moore.

Co. F — Captain, O. H. Payne; 1st Lieutenant, J. W. Baker; 2d Lieutenant, J. S. Reynolds.

The battalion left Camp Butler January 8, 1862, for Quincy, where it remained until February 4th, when it went to Cairo. On the 13th of March, with General Pope's command, it arrived before New Madrid, Missouri, in the reduction of which place it took an active part. [Vol. I., p. 216.] The 64th then joined the forces moving southward, and on the 3d of May had a severe skirmish with the rebels at Chambers' Creek. On the 8th it again met the enemy at the battle of Farmington, and on the 30th was among the first to enter Corinth. It also participated in the battle of Iuka on the 19th of September, in which it lost heavily. [Vol. I., p. 284-295.] From this date the battalion was engaged in various duties, with occasional skirmishes, until December 31, 1863, when it re-enlisted for another three years' service. On the 22d of January, 1864, the battalion arrived at Chicago, where it was given thirty days' furlough. A month later, the men rendezvoused at Ottawa, where a sufficient number of recruits were obtained to fill the six companies to the maximum. At this time Captain Manning brought to the battalion four new companies, making a full regiment, which was mustered in as the 64th Illinois Infantry, with the following roster:

Colonel, John Morrill; Lieutenant-Colonel, M. W. Manning; Major, S. T. Thomson; Adjutant, Wm. H. Hinckley; Quartermaster, L. S. Ames; Surgeon, J. T. Stewart; 1st Assistant Surgeon, W. D. Plummer; 2d Assistant Surgeon, H. A. Mix; Chaplain, Alphonso D. Wyckoff.

Co. A — Captain, Charles I. Conger; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Smith; 2d Lieutenant, D. M. Moore.

Co. B — Captain, R. R. Gibbons; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Bell; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Robinson.

Co. C — Captain, T. C. Fullerton; 1st Lieutenant, James H. Yates; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Horner.

Co. D — Captain, George W. Reid; 1st Lieutenant, Duncan M. Reid; 2d Lieutenant, Darius N. Myers.

Co. E — Captain Ed. H. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, George Bargus; 2d Lieutenant, John Baker.

Co. F — Captain, Joseph S. Reynolds; 1st Lieutenant, Ward Knickerbocker; 2d Lieutenant, Wm. W. Zuel.

Co. G — Captain, H. Logan; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin Snyder; 2d Lieutenant, Hanson H. Crews.

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Co. H — Captain, Henry J. Stoner; 1st Lieutenant, Robert S. Rives; 2d Lieutenant, Peter Bogardus.

Co. I — Captain, John J. Long; 1st Lieutenant, Ambrose H. Brown; 2d Lieutenant, Julius W. Brown.

Co. K — Captain, Charles Case; 1st Lieutenant, Harley Kingsbury; 2d Lieutenant, Howland Meeker.

On the 15th of March, 1864, the regiment left Ottawa for the front, arriving at Decatur, Alabama, on the 23d. Leaving this place to join in the movement upon Atlanta, it reached Resaca on the 9th of May, where for five days it held the front line. It next met the enemy at Dallas. In the grand charge on Kenesaw Mountain the regiment bore a conspicuous and honorable part, and for twelve hours lay on the ground under the very muzzles of the enemy's guns, finally planting its regimental flag on the rebel works. From this time until the fall of Atlanta the regiment was actively engaged. Soon after that event it took part in the pursuit of the rebels under Hood, after which it joined in the grand march to the sea, bearing its full share of the privations of that campaign and the one immediately succeeding it, in the Carolinas. After taking part in the national review at Washington, it was ordered to Louisville, Kentucky, where, on the 11th of July, 1865, it was mustered out of the service, and on the 18th received final payment and discharge at Chicago. The following is the roster of the 64th Illinois at the time of its final discharge:

Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General, John Morrill; Lieutenant-Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General, Joseph S. Reynolds; Adjutant, Robert Russell; Quartermaster, Edwin G. Lewis; Surgeon, Henry A. Mix; Assistant Surgeon, Otto E. Roesch; Chaplain, Alphonso D. Wyckoff

Co. A — Captain, Robert M. Woods; 1st Lieutenant, John Bunker; 2d Lieutenant, Theodore Gaylord.

Co. B — Captain, John L. Hack; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac Hindman; 2d Lieutenant, Edward Forward.

Co. C — Captain, William W. Zuel; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac W. Seaman.

Co. D — Captain, Darius N. Myers; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Miller; 2d Lieutenant, J. B. J. S. Evans.

Co. E — Captain and Brevet Major, Ed. H. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Feely.

Co. F — Captain, Hanson H. Crews; 1st Lieutenant, Rufus T. Sparks; 2d Lieutenant, Francis M. Frank.

Co. G — Captain, Henry Logan; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph H. Bishop; 2d Lieutenant, John Berow.

Co. H — Captain, L. S. Ames; 1st Lieutenant, Oliver H. Abbott.

Co. I — Captain, John J. Long; 1st Lieutenant, Julius W. Brown.

Co. K — Captain, Charles Case; 1st Lieutenant, Howland Meeker.

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Brevet Brigadier-General Joseph S. Reynolds was born at New Lenox, Will County, Illinois, February 3, 1839, where his parents still reside. At the age of sixteen young Reynolds came to Chicago, and attended the Scammon school, where he was awarded the highest prize — the Foster medal. He graduated in the High School in 1861. In the fall of that year he entered the 64th Illinois as 2d Lieutenant. By successive steps he rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Soon after the discharge of his regiment from the service, Colonel Reynolds was, on the recommendation of his superior officers, commissioned as Brigadier-General of Volunteers by brevet — a compliment he richly deserved.

Major Fred. W. Matteson, who died in the battalion hospital at Clear Creek, Mississippi, August 8, 1862, was a son of Ex-Governor J. A. Matteson, and a young man of superior ability and education. Graduating at Yale College, he spent a year in a military school in Vermont, and then went to Germany to complete his military education. Returning to his native land, he at once entered the service; but at the end of six months, worn out with the toils of war, he laid down his life for the flag he had so bravely defended.

SIXTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

In our first volume [p. 585] we have given the original roster of the "Scotch Regiment," and a brief resumč of its history to the time of its re-enlistment in the veteran service. At the expiration of its veteran furlough, the 65th rejoined Sherman's grand Army of the West, twenty-five miles below Kingston, Georgia. It was in the Atlanta campaign, participating in the battles of Kenesaw Mountain, Rough and Ready, Atlanta, Jonesboro, &c. It then went into camp at Decatur, and on the 5th of October broke camp and started in pursuit of Hood, who was operating on our rear against the line of supplies. The pursuit was changed to a retreat, in which the whole army joined. At Columbia, Tennessee, November 25th and 26th, the 65th had a sharp skirmish with the rebels, suffering severely. The tables were turned again at Franklin, where Hood received a check, which culminated at Nashville in his disastrous defeat. In these battles the 65th bore a most gallant part, and after the victory pursued the rebels to Clifton. On the 15th of January, 1865, the

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65th was sent, via Cincinnati, Washington and Annapolis, to Wilmington, North Carolina, arriving there on the 7th of February. Here it did excellent service until the city fell, on the 22d, when it went into camp until March 6th. On the 7th it marched to Kingston, where the non-veterans were detached and sent home for muster out. The regiment was then ordered to Goldsboro, and thence marched to Raleigh, where Sherman received the surrender of the rebel armies. It then went to Greensboro, into permanent camp. Here, in May, it received four companies of recruits, and in the latter part of June received four officers and 250 men from the 92d Illinois, two officers and 120 men from the 112th, and 25 men from the 107th. This filled its ranks to the maximum strength. On the 13th of July it was mustered out at Greensboro, and at once started for home. On the 24th it was paid off and discharged at Chicago.

THREE MONTHS' REGIMENTS OF 1862.

To preserve the uniformity of the record, mention should be made at this point of the enlistment of the three months' regiments of 1862. At a time of threatening peril, Governor Yates received a telegram from Mr. Stanton, bearing date May 25th, stating that the enemy was marching upon the National Capital in great force, and asking him to send forward without delay all the military force at his disposal, United States Volunteers and militia. On the 27th the call was revoked, but under it the three months' regiments below mentioned were organized and in camp in two weeks. The alacrity and enthusiasm were marvelous. With the exception of the 71st they remained on guard duty in the State, and did good service by releasing veteran troops for the field.

SIXTY-SEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 67th regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, June 13, 1862, where it remained during its term of service. The following is its roster:

Colonel, Rosell M. Hough; Lieutenant-Colonel, Eugene H. Oakley; Major, Wm. H. Haskell; Adjutant, Daniel T. Hale; Quartermaster, Isaac N. Buck; Surgeon, Brock McVicker; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Roscoe L. Hall; Chaplain, William H. Ryder.

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Co. A — Captain, Charles B. Hull; 1st Lieutenant, King H. Milliken; 2d Lieutenant, Judson Ellison.

Co. B — Captain, John F. Scanlon; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Caldwell; 2d Lieutenant, David F. Maloney.

Co. C — Captain, Hiram R. Enoch; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Kerr; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph S. Berry.

Co. D — Captain, Judson W. Read; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick W. Cole; 2d Lieutenant, William Sharp.

Co. E — Captain, Charles A. Heilig; 1st Lieutenant, James A. Sexton; 2d Lieutenant, Charles H. Vogel.

Co. F — Captain, William H. Frites; 1st Lieutenant, Abram D. Van Veckten; 2d Lieutenant, Horace E. Dyer.

Co. G — Captain, Charles K. Purple; 1st Lieutenant, Jeremiah Dockstater; 2d Lieutenant, Edward K. Valentine.

Co. H — Captain, James W. Crane; 1st Lieutenant, Stephen Allen; 2d Lieutenant, Alonzo Hilliard.

Co. I — Captain, Ruel G. Rounds; 1st Lieutenant, Kelsey Bond; 2d Lieutenant, John Murphy.

Co. K — Captain, S. W. McKown; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Bailey; 2d Lieutenant, James Wright.

SIXTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 68th regiment was organized at Camp Butler, June 20, 1862, where it spent its term of service. The following is its roster:

Colonel, Elias Stuart; Lieutenant-Colonel, Houston L. Taylor; Major, George W. Lackey; Adjutant, John S. Bishop; Quartermaster, Samuel F. True; Surgeon, Albert H. Lanphier.

Co. A — Captain, John W. King; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Harrison; 2d Lieutenant, Martin V. B. Parker.

Co. B — Captain, Daniel F. Coffey; 1st Lieutenant, Judson J. C. Gillespie; 2d Lieutenant, William Reynolds.

Co. C — Captain, John P. St. John; 1st Lieutenant, Elsey Blake; 2d Lieutenant, Green B. Davis.

Co. D — Captain, John C. Hall; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas K. Jenkins; 2d Lieutenant, Hugh B. McKnight.

Co. E — Captain, Henry Davey; 1st Lieutenant, George H. Whiteman; 2d Lieutenant, Isaac N. Coltrin.

Co. F — Captain, John W. Morris; 1st Lieutenant, John R. Larrimore; 2d Lieutenant, Lewis Ijamis.

Co. G — Captain, James P. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, Harvey C. DeMotte; 2d Lieutenant, John H. Stout.

Co. H — Captain, Leroy T. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Hamilton; 2d Lieutenant, Adam H. Bogardus.

Co. I — Captain, John W. Bear; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel B. Crisky; 2d Lieutenant, S. Wheaton West.

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Co. K — Captain, Edward J. Jones; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas L. Masters; 2d Lieutenant, Hiram L. Dunn.

SIXTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 69th regiment was organized at Camp Douglas, Chicago, and mustered into the service on June 14, 1862, with the following roster:

Colonel, Joseph H. Tucker; Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas J. Pickett; Major, George P. Smith; Adjutant, Abram H. Van Buren; Quartermaster, Charles W. Cringle; Surgeon, Isaiah P. Lynn; Assistant Surgeon, Azro E. Goodwin; Chaplain, William W. Everts.

Co. A — Captain, Abram Lash, Jr.; 1st Lieutenant, David Robinson Jr.; 2d Lieutenant, Edward R. Virden.

Co. B — Captain, Jonathan Kimball; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel H. Hunter; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas W. Tefft.

Co. C — Captain, Lansing B. Tucker; 1st Lieutenant, James O. McClellan; 2d Lieutenant, John S. Mabie.

Co. D — Captain, Frank J. Bush; 1st Lieutenant, Warfield B. Todd; 2d Lieutenant, Robert Irwin.

Co. E — Captain, Tidel Schlund; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Varges; 2d Lieutenant, August W. Willige.

Co. F — Captain, Frazer Wilson; 1st Lieutenant, Ezra M. Beardsley; 2d Lieutenant, George Schemerhorn.

Co. G — Captain, Joseph A. Vincent; 1st Lieutenant, E. S. Scribner; 2d Lieutenant, John Herbert.

Co. H — Captain, James W. Rearden; 1st Lieutenant, Eli B. Baker; 2d Lieutenant, Edwin F. Bennett.

Co. I — Captain, William C. Hale; 1st Lieutenant, Charles L. Peny; 2d Lieutenant, Alvah R. Jordan.

Co. K— Captain, John Coakley; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Tousley; 2d Lieutenant, Isaac H. Allen.

SEVENTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 70th regiment was organized and mustered into the service at Camp Butler, July 4, 1862, with the following roster:

Colonel, Owen T. Reeves; Lieutenant-Colonel, John D. Sage; Major, Joseph H. Scibird; Adjutant, James B. Breese; Quartermaster, John B. Burrows; Assistant Surgeon, Madison Reece; Chaplain, William C. Lacy.

Co. A — Captain, Gilbert Summe; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel E. Wishhard; 2d Lieutenant, Benjamin Hove.

Co. B — Captain, William Perce; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin G. Bills; 2d Lieutenant, John S. Clark.

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Co. C — Captain, John T. Maddux; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas G. Black; 2d Lieutenant, James G. Seward.

Co. D — Captain, George W. Fox; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac P. Wilson; 2d Lieutenant, William M. Lewis.

Co. E — Captain, Daniel D. Snyder; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Hinman; 2d Lieutenant, George Dempsey.

Co. F — Captain, Alfred Comings; 1st Lieutenant, Charles P. Fleshbein; 2d Lieutenant, William J. Allen.

Co. G — Captain, Newton Harlan; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Bevies; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel O. Martin.

Co. H — Captain, James O. Donald; 1st Lieutenant, John A. Robinson; 2d Lieutenant, Albert Braxton.

Co. I — Captain, James Hudson; 1st Lieutenant, George Wilderboor; 2d Lieutenant, William T. Hudson.

Co. K — Captain, George R. Brumlay; 1st Lieutenant, Robert W. Musgrave; 2d Lieutenant, Henry A. Club.

SEVENTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 7lst regiment was organized and mustered into the service at Camp Douglas, Chicago, July 26, 1862, with the following roster:

Colonel, Othniel Gilbert; Lieutenant-Colonel, James O. P. Burnside; Major, DeWitt C. Marshall; Adjutant, Henry G. Hicks; Quartermaster, James H. Moore; Chaplain, William C. Mason.

Co. A — Captain, Jerome B. Fuller; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Lafferty; 2d Lieutenant, Charles C. Jamison.

Co. B — Captain, Luther W. Black; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Snyder; 2d Lieutenant, Emanuel Stover.

Co. C — Captain, Charles A. Summers; 1st Lieutenant, Charles E. Hartman; 2d Lieutenant, Solomon N. Nebleck.

Co. D — Captain, Horatio G. Coykendall; 1st Lieutenant, James L. Smedley; 2d Lieutenant, Charles C. Huntley.

Co. E — Captain, Charles Parker; 1st Lieutenant, Aaron S. Hadley; 2d Lieutenant, William D. Lattimer.

Co. F — Captain, Pliny L. Fox; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin H. Towner; 2d Lieutenant, James N. Phillips.

Co. G — Captain, William H. Weaver; 1st Lieutenant, James C. Tice; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas B. Collins.

Co. H — Captain, Theodore M. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, James W. Heffington; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Pittman.

Co. I — Captain, Jesse P. M. Howard; 1st Lieutenant, David P. Murphy; 2d Lieutenant, John M. Loy.

Co. K — Captain, James Creed; 1st Lieutenant, Flavius J. Carpenter; 2d Lieutenant, Absalom A. Lasater.

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Chapter XVI. — From Atlanta to Millen.

TOWARD THE SEA — COMMUNICATIONS CUT — IMPEDIMENTA REMOVED — THE EAGLE'S WINGS — COMPOSITION — GENERAL ORDERS FOR THE CAMPAIGN — SOLDIERLY AND STATES-MANLIKE — SUPPLIES — SHERMAN AND THE ATLANTA AUTHORITIES — ATLANTA BURNT — "ON TO THE SEA" — ASTONISHMENT AT SHERMAN'S PLAN — REBEL READING — ENGLISH VIEWS — NORTHERN OPINIONS — HIS FAITH IN THOMAS — FOUR COLUMNS — ADVANCES — SKIRMISHES — MACON — WOLCOTT WOUNDED — IRWINTON — INTO MILLEDGEVILLE — NEW LEGISLATURE — THANKSGIVING — REBEL PRONUNCIAMENTOES — THE FOUR RIVERS — GRISWOLDSVILLE — SANDERSVILLE — KILPATRICK'S MARCH ON MILLEN — FALLS BACK — IS ASSAULTED — DEFENCE — LOUISVILLE — READY TO GO SOUTH.

WE resume the march toward the sea. Thomas was entrusted with holding Hood at Nashville until ready to crush him, and render his army no longer capable of mischief. Sherman was about to cut all connections between his army and Washington, between his men and their homes, between his Grand Army and the stores of the Government; his men were to march to the sea before they could send or receive messages from their families, and henceforth their living was to be drawn from the country they traversed. The 15th and 17th Army Corps were moved deliberately to the neighborhood of Smyrna, Kilpatrick's cavalry and the 20th were at Atlanta, and the 14th marched to Kingston, where Sherman arrived in person November 2d. Here he put his army in light marching order — extra baggage and artillery, the small army of refugees, the sick, wounded — in short all impedimenta were sent to Chattanooga. On the 11th Sherman sent his final dispatch to Halleck, and on the 12th his command was isolated. General Corse destroyed bridges, manufactories, etc., at Rome; Steadman gathered the garrisons northward from Kingston, and with the public property, rails and railway stock, backward from Resaca, went into Chattanooga. The railway between

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the Ostanaula and Etowah was not destroyed, as it seemed important to leave it for General Thomas should he find it necessary to occupy the country to the Etowah line.

Two huge wings were to envelop the rebellion. The right, under Howard, composed of the 15th Corps, commanded by Osterhaus, and the 17th under Blair; the left was under Slocum, with the 14th under Jeff. C. Davis, and the 20th commanded by General A. S. Williams. In the 15th Army Corps were the divisions of Woods, Hazen, John E. Smith and Corse. We meet in Hazen's command the scarred veterans organized by Sherman at Paducah, and led by him at Shiloh, and commanded afterward by David Stuart, Smith and Blair. The 17th Army Corps comprised the divisions of Mower, Leggett and Giles A. Smith. The 14th Army Corps comprised the divisions of Carlin, James D. Morgan and Baird. The 20th, to form which the 11th and 12th Army Corps of the Army of the Potomac had been consolidated, consisted of the divisions of Jackson, Geary and Ward. The aggregate of infantry was about 60,000. There was a division of cavalry under Kilpatrick, 5,500 strong; this was divided in two brigades commanded by Colonel E. H. Murray of Kentucky, and Colonel Smith D. Atkins of the famous 92d Illinois mounted Infantry. There was one field gun to each thousand men.

On the 14th the entire force was again grouped around the doomed city of Atlanta.

On the 9th, while at Kingston, the Commander-in-Chief issued the general orders for the great campaign. The first directed the grand march to be, whenever practicable, by four roads as nearly parallel as possible to converge under orders from head-quarters; the cavalry was to receive special orders from himself.

"III. There will be no general trains of supplies, but each corps will have its ammunition and provision train distributed as follows: Behind each regiment should follow one wagon and one ambulance; behind each brigade should follow a due proportion of ammunition wagons, provision wagons and ambulances. In case of danger each arm corps commander should change this order of march by having his advance and rear brigades unencumbered by wheels. The separate columns will start habitually at seven A. M., and make about fifteen miles a day, unless otherwise fixed in orders.

"IV. The army will forage liberally on the country during the march. To this end each brigade commander will organize a good and sufficient foraging party under the command of one or more discreet officers, who will gather, near the route

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traveled, corn or forage of any kind, meat of any kind, vegetables, corn, meat, or whatever is needed by the command; aiming, at all times, to keep in the wagon trains at least ten days' provision for the command, and three days' forage. Soldiers must not enter the dwellings of the inhabitants, or commit any trespass; during the halt or at camp they may be permitted to gather turnips, potatoes, and other vegetables, and drive in stock in front of their camps. To regular foraging parties must be entrusted the gathering of provisions and forage at any distance from the road traveled.

"V. To army corps commanders is entrusted the power to destroy mills, houses, cotton-gins, etc., and for them this general principle is laid down: In districts and neighborhoods where the army is unmolested, no destruction of such property should be permitted; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers molest our march, or should the inhabitants burn bridges, obstruct roads, or otherwise manifest local hostility, then army corps commanders should order and enforce a devastation more or less relentless, according to the measure of such hostility.

"VI. As for horses, mules, wagons, etc., belonging to the inhabitants, the cavalry and artillery may appropriate fully and without limit, discriminating however, between the rich, who are usually hostile, and the poor or industrious, usually neutral or friendly. Foraging parties may also take mules or horses to replace the jaded animals of their trains, or to serve as pack-mules for regiments or brigades. In all foraging of whatever kind, the parties engaged will refrain from abusive or threatening language, and may, when the officer in command thinks proper, give certificates of the facts, but no receipts; and they will endeavor to leave with each family a reasonable portion for their maintenance.

"VII. Negroes who are able bodied, and can be of service to the several columns, may be taken along; but each army commander will bear in mind that the question of supplies is a very important one, and that his first duty is to see to those who bear arms."

There were also orders to pioneer battalions to prepare roads, crossings, etc., and requiring Captain O. M. Poe, Chief Engineer, to assign each wing a pontoon train and require its protection.

These orders are the evidence alike of high military ability and statesmanship. The army of the Union must march to the sea. The enemy would not suffer uninterrupted communication with its base of supplies in the rear. Then the enemy's country should furnish the supplies. It had abundance; its soil was rich; its fields and gardens were full; its granaries freshly replenished, its barns plethoric — Sherman would compel the country which made the war support his army as well as that of Hood. All that was right. It was politic to say that private property should be treated according to the spirit of the owners. Houses, mills and cotton-gins might stand if there was quiet submission; if there was the contrary they should light the pathway of the grand march — the residents might choose.

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There was partial immunity and complete personal safety to such as acquiesced; as for others their "treason was made odious," and they must suffer. We had learned after a long discipline and a costly pupilage, that war was something terribly and deadly earnest, and that only when the interior South should feel its ravages could we hope to bring it to an end.

This came out more fully in Sherman's correspondence with the authorities of Atlanta. He ordered the city to be vacated by its inhabitants, and an earnest protest was sent in by the Mayor and council men. He answered in a letter worthy of preservation among the noted military documents of history. We can only give a few passages.

"I give full credit to your statements of the distress that will be occasioned, and yet shall not revoke my order, simply because my orders are not destined to meet the humanities of the case, but to prepare for the future struggle in which millions, yea hundreds of millions of good people outside of Atlanta have a deep interest. We must have peace not only in Atlanta, but in all America. To secure this we must stop the war that now desolates our once happy and favored country. To stop the war we must defeat the rebel armies that are now arrayed against the laws and constitution which all men must respect and obey.

"War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it; and those who brought war on our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out.

"You might as well appeal against the thunder storm as against the terrible hardships of war. They are inevitable, and the only way the people of Atlanta can hope once more to live in peace and quiet at home is to stop this war, which can alone be done by admitting that it began in error, and is perpetuated in pride. We don't want your negroes, nor your horses, or your houses, or your land, or anything you have; but we do want and will have a just obedience to the laws of the United States."

On the 15th of November, by his orders, Atlanta was wrapped in a general conflagration, and in the glow of its flames commenced the grand march

"From Atlanta to the sea."

The publication of Sherman's plan astonished the world. Rebel journals expressed their pleasure, and assured the world that it was what, above all things, they most desired. In the East Lee had Grant just where he wanted him, and now Sherman, abandoning

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supplies and defences, was marching his army straight into their power. An aroused people were to hang upon his flanks with fire and sword; before him would go destruction, and instead of making he would find destitution, while formidable combinations under great military leaders would confront and overwhelm his hunger-weakened troops. In the light of his march, such is now refreshing reading.

In Europe various opinions were expressed. The London Times said, "Since the great Duke of Marlborough turned his back upon the Dutch, and plunged heroically into Germany to fight the famous battle of Blenhiem, military history has recorded no stranger marvel than the mysterious expedition of General Sherman on an unknown route against an undiscoverable enemy;" and a military journal of England said, "He has done either one of the most brilliant or one of the most foolish things ever performed by a military leader."

At home, among loyal people, there was confidence mingled with serious apprehension. Thoughtful men said he will find the bulk of population largely made up of slaves, who will hail his coming as a deliverer, and there will be little bushwhacking, for the whites will not venture to provoke both an advancing army and a domestic force strong enough to crush them. Many feared that he would find it impossible to subsist his large force; others that he must fail in reducing strongly fortified places, and that his only success would be that of a raid on a gigantic scale. Others trembled lest Hood should crush Thomas, and then turn upon Sherman while armies from the coast should confront him, and secure his destruction. Sherman himself said, "If Thomas had not whipped Hood at Nashville, 600 miles away, all my plans would have failed, and I would have been denounced the world over, but I knew General Thomas, and the troops under his command, and never for a moment doubted a favorable result."

The army moved in four columns, on two general lines, Sherman being with Jeff. C. Davis' division. Howard with the right wing moved from Whitehall on the 15th. His force was in two columns, Osterhaus marching by Rough and Ready, and turning to the left toward McDonough, a short distance from Jonesboro, while Blair marched to McDonough via the direct road. Kilpatrick was with the right wing, and met the enemy's cavalry in force near East Point,

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and drove it to the crossing of Flint River, and Osterhaus met it at one or two points. Howard marched on the 16th by three routes to the vicinity of McDonough. At Cotton River Osterhaus barely saved the bridge, fired by the retreating cavalry. Kilpatrick crossed the Flint near Jonesboro at 7 A. M., and chased the foe to Lovejoy's, where they had taken position in the old rebel works with two pieces of artillery. Murray's brigade was dismounted, and carried the works. Atkins pursued them, overtook them, made a brilliant charge and captured their artillery.

On the 17th, the right wing, still in three columns, reached Jackson; on the succeeding day the Ocmulgee was crossed; on the 19th, with much difficulty, the trains mounted a steep and slippery hill, and it was not until the morning of the 20th the troops were all over the river. On the 20th the force moved on Gordon in two columns, Kilpatrick via the Clinton road and river road toward Macon; Osterhaus toward Clinton, and Blair by Blountsville. Kilpatrick waited at Clinton until the infantry arrived, and advanced toward Macon; met the enemy on the left hand road four miles from the city, drove them in, and charged their works though defended by artillery strongly supported. He forced the head of the column into the defences, but could not hold them. He struck the railway, destroyed a mile of track and a train of cars. On the 21st he took an advanced position covering all the roads leading from Macon. By the 22d the entire right wing closed up near Gordon. A demonstration was made toward Macon. The rebel cavalry made a dash and captured a cavalry picket post, but after a spirited encounter was driven from the ground in disorder. In the afternoon Wolcott's brigade met a sharp attack from rebel infantry and artillery, but repulsed it; General Wolcott being wounded. Howard ordered an advance forward to secure Oconee bridge, and prepare it for crossing. On the 23d the entire wing was in or about Gordon, and Hazen's division of the old 15th was marching on Irwinton, while Blair was wrecking the Macon and Savannah Railway.

Slocum's command, the left wing of Sherman's grand army, left Atlanta on the 13th and on the Decatur road, and encamped that night near the Augusta railway, south of Stone Mountain. It moved along the Augusta railway, destroying it as far as Madison. It then

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moved south upon Milledgeville, the capital of Georgia, which it reached on the 21st and 22d. Governor Brown and his legislature fled, forgetting the role of Rolla, which the people had been exhorted to play. The soldiers organized a legislature, and performed divers acts of legislation not precisely recognized by the Georgian Constitution or usual under its peculiar institutions.

Davis' 14th Army Corps moved from Atlanta on the 16th, via Decatur and Covington. On the 18th it crossed Yellow River on pontoon bridges; on the 19th crossed the Ulcofauhatchee and marched to Shady Dale; on the 20th was at Eatonton Factories; on the 23d it went into camp near Milledgeville.

After our boys had adjourned their legislature they celebrated thanksgiving day in the heart of the rebellion. They were merry, and sang and shouted to their hearts' content. Turkeys and chickens were at every mess fire, and the exercises were enlivened by such national songs as

"John Brown's body lies mouldering in the grave,"
and
"We'll rally round the flag, boys,"
while the army poets improvised stanzas adapted to the occasion.

The enemy was alarmed by the magnitude and celerity of these movements, and made frantic appeals to the people to resist. Beauregard appears once more, as witness:

"CORINTH, November 18th,
"via SELMA, November 18th.

"TO THE PEOPLE OF GEORGIA.

"Arise for the defence of your native soil! Patriotic Governor and gallant soldiers. Obstruct and destroy all the roads in Sherman's front, flank and rear, and his army will soon starve in your midst. Be confident! Be resolute! Trust in an overruling Providence and success will soon crown your efforts. I hasten to join you in defence of your homes.
"G. T. BEAUREGARD."

Then spoke out the Georgia delegation in Congress as follows:

"RICHMOND, November 19th.

"TO THE PEOPLE OF GEORGIA.

"We have had a special conference with President Davis and the Secretary of War, and are able to assure you that they have done and are still doing all that can be done to meet the emergency that presses upon you. Let every man fly to arms.

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Remove your negroes, horses, cattle and provisions from Sherman's army, and burn what you cannot carry. Burn all bridges and block up the roads in his route. Assail the invader in front, flank and rear, by night and day."

Safe advice given at the distance of Richmond, but not easy of execution to the "People of Georgia." Senator B. H. Hill issued his manifesto from Richmond also, addressed to the People of Georgia.

"You have now the best opportunity ever presented to you to destroy the enemy. Put everything at the disposition of our Generals, remove all provisions from the path of the invaders, and put all the obstructions you can in his way.

"Every citizen with his gun, and every negro with his spade and ax can do the work of a good soldier. You can destroy the enemy by retarding his march. Georgians, be firm! Act promptly, and fear not!"

And to this manifesto was appended

"I most cordially approve the above.
"JAMES A. SEDDEN, Secretary of War."

But in vain. The day had gone by when Beauregard's name was a tower of strength, or when the decree of Southern Congressional hotspurs could call armies into the field. Senator Hill was to see that the negroes could not be safely trusted either with spade or ax, as quasi soldiers of the C. S. A.

On the 27th and 28th both wings were temporarily encamped between Sandersville and Irwin's Cross Roads, in the vicinity of the Georgia Central Railway. Four large rivers lay at the outset in the line of Sherman's march, all tending southeasterly; viz., the Ocmulgee, Oconee, Ogeechee and Savannah, with smaller streams and much marshy ground between the last named two. The right wing passed the Oconee below the Oconee Bridge, and the left at Milledgeville. The Ogeechee was crossed at Finn's Bridge in the march from Sandersville, and the main army grouped about Louisville in Jefferson County, where it made a temporary halt, foraging, bringing in mules and horses, and "working on the railroad." A portion of the 15th Corps was left at Griswoldville to protect the rear in the march upon Milledgeville, which was furiously assaulted by three rebel brigades, which met a bloody repulse, leaving behind in killed and wounded nearly a thousand men. At Sandersville there was some skirmishing with Wheeler's cavalry.

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General Kilpatrick had marched from Milledgeville toward Millen on the 25th, hoping to liberate our brave prisoners held in torture disgraceful to humanity, and a message was received from him on the 29th that he was ten miles from Louisville hard pressed by Wheeler's cavalry. He had struck the railway on the 27th, and had been constantly skirmishing with Wheeler, but had continued to destroy the road. At Waynesboro he learned that the prisoners had been removed two days before, and as the object of the expedition was frustrated, he prudently resolved to fall back and await the infantry. Atkins moved his brigade to the intersection of the Waynesboro and Louisville roads, where he was to have halted until Murray should move into the rear, but from some misunderstanding he moved on, and the remainder of the force was attacked and partly surrounded, but gallantly cut their way out, and the two detachments united, crossed Buckhead Creek, burned the bridge, and halted for needed rest two miles beyond. Word came that Wheeler was crossing with his entire force, and coming on in hot pursuit. Our force assumed, the defensive with a strong position, the flanks thrown toward the rear, and such barricades as could be were provided. On came the rebel cavalry in fine style, making a desperate charge only to be repulsed and rolled back, inflicting slight loss upon Kilpatrick. Our force advanced a few miles, and again halted, and were not pursued. Reinforcements were sent, but were not needed, and on the 29th Kilpatrick joined the main army, taking position near the 14th Corps.

The rivers were crossed, the enemy had been beaten at every point, the army was enthusiastic — the way was open to the sea, and Sherman was ready to go.

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Chapter XVII. — To Savannah.

THE RIGHT WING — TWO COLUMNS — NO. 9 — MILLEN — THE PRISON PEN — "WORKING THE ROAD" — CAPTURED MAIL — CORDUROY — EDEN — JENK'S BRIDGE — TWELVE MILE POST — KING'S BRIDGE — ENEMY'S RIFLE PITS — BLAIR — IN SIGHT OF SAVANNAH — THE LEFT WING — ITS MARCH — MONTIETH SWAMP — "WATER WITCH" — JACKSONBORO — PONTOONS — KILPATRICK AND WHEELER — ATKINS — WAYNESBORO — THE NINETY-SECOND ILLINOIS — BEFORE SAVANNAH — CHARLESTON SEVERED — SAVANNAH INVESTED — REBEL DEFENSES — FORT MCALLISTER — HAZEN'S ASSAULT — SHERMANON A RICE HOUSE — ILLINOIS REGIMENTS ENGAGED — MEETS THE NAVY — DAHLGREN AND FOSTER — GUNS FROM PORT ROYAL — ASSAULT ORDERED — HARDEE LEAVES SAVANNAH — GEARY GOES IN — SHERMAN TO LINCOLN — TO THE SEA — BOWMAN'S RESUME — LINCOLN TO SHERMAN — CHATTANOOGA TO SAVANNAH — THE END NOT YET.

THE right wing swept down the Ogeechee. Osterhaus with its right, Sherman accompanying Blair, who with the 17th was on the left. November 30th Wood and Corse encamped near Deep Creek. Blair reached the Ogeechee at Barton, and crossed on a pontoon bridge. On the 1st of December the right wing moved in three columns, Hazen's and John E. Smith's divisions, the lower, on the Statesboro road; the middle, Wood's and Corse's divisions, on the Savannah road, and Blair's corps along the Georgia railroad, destroying as they went. At night the two columns on the right encamped opposite Station No. 8, where Wood secured and repaired a bridge, and sent over a detachment to break the railway and burn the depot both of which were done. Blair halted the 17th Corps at No. 9.

On the 2d Blair entered Millen, having destroyed the road and depots to that point, with a large stock of cross-ties, lumber. It required an effort to restrain our gallant men at the seat of one of the Southern bastiles, where their comrades had suffered day after day, wearily and painfully watching the delayed coming of the

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delivering host. The prison stockade was in a thick forest of pine, six miles from the town. It was a square of fifteen acres, enclosed by a high log fence. Within was the dead line, a rail-fence, and the huts in which brave men burrowed, sickened, starved and died! In the center was a brick kitchen — a quarter of a mile away was the hospital with accommodations for 300 patients, and without it were 650 graves, a single month's mortality! One unburied corpse, found in one of the huts received Christian burial.

Wood and Corse rested near Clifton's Ferry, where they spanned the river with a bridge, and Corse sent a brigade to assist the 17th in "working on the road." Scouts dashed on to Scarsboro and captured a Savannah mail, and read the morning papers of that day, thus again establishing communication with the outside world, through rebel sources. The 15th Corps remained in position the next day, sending additional forces to aid in destroying the railway between Millen and Scarsboro. The 17th Corps came up to No. 7, near Scarsboro and encamped. On the 4th Wood and Corse reached Wilson's Creek, and Blair, with part of Corse's men made Station 5 1/2; Hazen and Smith reached Scarsboro, Hazen having had a brush with rebel cavalry, and having been compelled to make a corduroy road through swampy ground. On the 5th advances were made with little opposition. On the 6th reconnoissances were made in various directions. Efforts to save the bridges for crossing were made, but the rebels had fired them. At Eden Station the bridge was partially burned, but Colonel Williamson constructed a foot-bridge, and threw over a small force, which went to the railway, one detachment going as far as Twenty-mile Station, fighting both ways. General Howard sent a Lieutenant to strike the Gulf railroad, but he found too strong a rebel force before the approaches to the burning bridge over the Cannonchee, and fell back. Wood's command rested at Wright's Bridge, except a brigade which crossed on the foot-bridge mentioned, and marched down the east bank toward Eden. At Jenk's Bridge a pontoon bridge was laid, in spite of bold resistance, and the troops began to cross. General Rice, of Corse's division, encountered the rebel force and drove them from behind rail barricades, receiving small loss. The other troops advanced as rapidly as possible.

General Howard resolved on the 8th to dislodge the enemy, reported

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to have a strong force at the Twelve-mile post, and sent two divisions of the 15th down the west bank of the Ogeechee, to force the crossing of the Cannonchee, cut the Gulf railway and take King's Bridge across the Ogeechee, and to reconnoiter between the Big and Little Ogeechee. The way was filled with trees, etc., which were removed; a burnt bridge over the Savannah Canal was replaced in a half hour; and the bridge near the mouth of the canal found sufficient for pontoon crossing, which was laid. A reconnoissance disclosed the rebels in force at the junction of the road upon which our troops were moving and the King's Bridge and Savannah road. Osterhaus got over the Cannonchee with two brigades, and the 17th Corps, corduroying much of the way, toiled up to Eden, or Station No. 2.

On the 9th Blair came upon the rifle-pits of the foe, three miles and a half from Station No. 2, and launched upon them a force which drove the occupants, but the pursuers were stopped by an entrenched line defended by guns in position. Blair's advance was through a thickly wooded swamp, full of undergrowth, but his three battle lines, preceded by hardy skirmishers made their way, driving the enemy, reaching Station No. 1, where he camped for the night. Savannah was near. Soon the ardent troops hoped to bathe their blistered feet in the waters of the sea!

The Savannah and Gulf railway was reached and cut by the 15th Corps. Corse confronted six hundred rebels with two pieces of artillery. A single brigade dislodged them, capturing one of their guns, and chasing them within twelve miles of the city. His advance crossed the Little Ogeechee and camped within eight miles of Savannah. King's Bridge was burnt, but pontoons spanned the Ogeechee, and thus, almost within sight of Savannah, Howard, under the eye of his chieftain, united the columns of his victorious army, and gave adoring praise to the God he worshiped.

Slocum was not idle, but was crowding forward his army, the left wing of the great Eagle swooping down upon the South.

Williams' 20th Corps left Louisville December 1st, marching until the 8th via the Louisville and Savannah road, down the Peninsula between the Ogeechee and Savannah rivers, and on the 8th encamping near Eden Cross-roads. His intermediate stops were Baker's Creek, Buckhead Church, Horse Creek, Little Ogeechee, Sylvania

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Cross-roads, Cowpens and Jack's Branch, near Springfield. From Eden the march was eastward toward Montieth Post-office, on the Charleston Railway. The Montieth Swamp, one of formidable extent, was to be crossed, and obstructions were anticipated, and found in the form of felled trees, two limited earthworks, one gun and a small infantry force, which soon gave way. The corps reached Montieth Station on the 10th, destroyed several miles of the railway, and marched to a point near the five-mile post on the Augusta and Savannah Railroad. A rebel dispatch-boat with Hardee's dispatches was overhauled. The boat was the Water Witch, formerly of our navy. Here our corps halted, finding a strong rebel line before them.

Carlin's division of the 14th Corps marched to Sebastopol, and on the 2d of December joined the corps, and the column encamped at the crossing of the Birdsville and Waynesboro roads. Morgan's division, in charge of the corps train, encamped two miles from Louisville. General Sherman indicated Jacksonboro as the next center for the 14th Corps. On the 3d General Davis crossed the creek with pontoon bridges, and ordered Baird and Kilpatrick to move from Reynold's toward Waynesboro, as though destined to Augusta. They halted near Thomas' Station in presence of a pretty strong rebel force. Carlin and Morgan made Lumpkin's Station at the crossing of the Jacksonboro road and the Augusta and Savannah railroad. On the 4th they moved with their corps trains, leaving a long stretch of wrecked railway (for in the hands of those Illinois operators Southern railway stocks declined) and made thirteen miles. Baird and Kilpatrick skirmished sharply with Wheeler's cavalry, driving it over Brier Creek, and Baird tore up several miles of track. On the 5th the corps converged near Jacksonville; on the next day it crossed the Beaver-dam and marched twenty miles to Hudson's Ferry on the Savannah River.

Onward through dense timber, pontooning streams, building corduroy, yet ever indomitable, the march continued, Atkins covering the rear, and on the 9th Morgan found the rebel force in a strong field work to contest the path. He placed his guns, opened fire, deployed his infantry, but night compelled inaction, and when morning came the enemy was gone. On the 10th Carlin and Morgan

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reached the Ten-mile House and camped, giving the road to the 20th Corps. Baird was covering the rear, tearing track and aiming at the destruction of the costly bridge over the Savannah.

The cavalry had met some experiences not yet recorded. After various skirmishes with Wheeler, the force of Kilpatrick was busily engaged on the 3d in the usual railway operation. Wheeler burst upon one of Atkins' regiments, expecting to crush it, but was repulsed. Sherman had ordered a reconnoissance toward Waynesboro, and that wherever Wheeler was found he should be fought, and Kilpatrick ordered all impedimenta out of his way, and early on the 4th moved out in the clear crisp air, with Atkins in advance. The enemy was found and his skirmish line driven in. Atkins advanced and assailed his works, but found the cavalry dismounted, and posted behind strong barricades, the flanks secured, and his first effort failed. The gallant 92d Illinois dismounted; the 10th Ohio and 9th Michigan cavalry were also dismounted, and in columns of four, by battalions sent on the right, and the 9th Ohio in the same order on the left. Then Captain Beebe brought up his 10th Wisconsin battery within six hundred yards and opened a terrific fire, silencing the rebel artillery. The charge was sounded and forward went the line, Illinois, Michigan and Ohio, going like an avalanche! No pause, no stay, the barricades were reached and carried, and the rebel force broken into fragments. Desperately they rallied, and more than once attempted counter charges, and at one time with some show of success, but were again broken, and fell back to Waynesboro. There Wheeler was found even more strongly protected, and his flanks secure. Kilpatrick ordered his center to be broken, and Murray hurled his men upon it, broke it, scattered the foe, Wheeler's famous cavalry was completely routed, and the town was ours.

After some unimportant skirmishing the division united ten miles south of Springfield, and moved to the rear of the 17th Corps.

Thus from Atlanta onward through bog and morass, over all obstacles had thundered our legions, now the enemy flying to the defence of Macon, now of Augusta, again trembling for Charleston, confident that Yankee pride would strike for the nest where treason broke its shell, but now the two wings, having marched more than

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three hundred miles in twenty-four days — feeding from rebel granaries and smoke houses — to the defences of Savannah, within which was the army of Hardee, stretched out across the peninsula between the two rivers, and Savannah was doomed!

Sherman, the crazy man of Kentucky was, already, well nigh the most famous man in the world, but his work was not done — strategy and heroism were yet to do more.

The investment of Savannah was made as complete as possible. On the 11th the left wing took position on the right and in front of the city; the left of the 20th Corps rested on the Savannah, its right on the Ogeechee. The 17th Corps was on the right center, and the 15th in reserve, ready to open communication with the fleet.

Slocum had struck the Savannah and Charleston railway, and severed communication between those two cities, and had erected breastworks and placed artillery; Baird's division protected the rear of the left wing from Wheeler's cavalry raids, and planted batteries on the river to check rebel gunboats. The Union line stretched ten miles from the Savannah, where Slocum's left lay within three miles of the city, to the Gulf railway, where Howard's right was posted, ten miles from Savannah. General Sherman was using every effort to open communication with the fleet in Tybee, Wassaw and Ossabaw Sounds, for its appearance at this time was part of the preconcerted scheme. Kilpatrick moved with alacrity through Sudbury to Kilkenny, and found the United States ship Fernandina, Captain West, in sight down the bay.

The enemy's defences were formidable, following substantially a swampy creek which empties into the Savannah about three miles from the city, and thence to another which debouches into the Little Ogeechee. Only by five narrow causeways could the city be entered, and these were commanded by heavy artillery, while the banks of the canal and dykes were broken and the ground flooded. Hence Sherman decided on a complete investment, and establishing communication with the fleet before any assault should be made.

On the 13th, however, Hazen, of the 15th Corps, was ordered to assault and carry Fort McCallister. King's Bridge, over the Ogeechee, was burned, but was reconstructed in brief space, although a thousand feet in length, and Hazen took over his division, with a

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detachment from the 17th Corps, and marched thirteen miles reaching the environs of the Fort at 1 P. M. He deployed his force about the place, both flanks resting upon the river, and posted his skirmishers judiciously behind the trunks of trees whose branches had been used for abattis, and about 5 P. M. made his assault. General Sherman says, "I witnessed the assault from a rice mill on the opposite side of the river, and can bear testimony to the handsome manner in which it was accomplished."

Captain Conyengham, in his "March through the South," thus narrates the assault:

"Hazen brought no artillery, as the ground was too swampy to move it, and he had decided on taking the fort by a bold dash, and at the point of the bayonet.

"As soon as the line commenced moving over the open space the fort opened all its guns upon them. Hazen moving in a single line did not suffer much.

"Their loss was mostly from torpedos, which now and then blew up, hurling piles of dirt on the column, and knocking some poor fellows over. The column was all this time rapidly closing up; not a man wavered; each resolved that the fort should be taken. As we got near enough we poured a steady fire in through the embrasures, knocking off a good many of the gunners. We afterward found their bodies lying beside their pieces. The first obstruction we met was a thick abattis, which our troops tore up and crawled through. The column had now closed in around the fort; the guns were silenced, as nothing could live near them, so deadly was our fire. Only a deep ditch, studded with spikes, now separated us from the enemy. Into this the men jumped, tearing away the palisade, climbed up the crest, and mingled in a fierce hand-to-hand conflict with the foe. Shouts, groans and curses, the whir of the bullet, and the clash of steel rang from the enclosure.

"The contest was of short duration, for our troops burst in on all sides, overpowering the enemy, who fought desperately, some of them being bayoneted at their pieces. The officers did all in their power to rally them; several of them preferring death to dishonor.

"The contest was over; the palmetto had trailed in the dust; the stars and stripes had floated in its place. The fort was ours — thus opening the navigation of the river — with its splendid guns, and large supply of arms, and a full cellar of rich old wines. This was one of the noblest exploits of the campaign, and proves how much quick, determined action can accomplish. Had Hazen sat down before this, to take it by regular siege, it would keep us days at work and cost us more lives. As it was our loss in killed and wounded scarcely amounted to one hundred.

"During the assault Generals Sherman and Howard and staffs occupied a Doctor Cheve's rice mill, opposite the fort, on the Ogeechee. Sherman was on the roof of the mill. He had signal officers Berkely and Cole there to communicate with Hazen. While anxiously looking out for Hazen's signals, Sherman's eagle eye descried smoke in the distance, seaward. As yet he had received no intelligence from the fleet, though Captain Duncan, chief of Howard's scouts had started on the hazardous enterprise of opening communication with them as early as the 9th.

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"Sherman looked; his bronze features lighted up as he exclaimed — ‘Look, Howard; there is the gunboat!’

"Soon after the guns of the fort opened one fierce fire, while puffs of smoke curled along Hazen's line, showing that they were replying. Hazen signaled —

"‘I have invested the fort, and will assault immediately.’

"Berkely announces a signal from the gunboat. All anxiously look out for it. The signals inform us that Foster and Dahlgren are within speaking distance, and ask —

"‘Can we run up? Is Fort McAllister ours?’

"‘No, Hazen is just ready to storm it. Can you assist?’

"‘Yes; what shall we do?’

"Another moment, the thunder from the fort grew fiercer, the metallic rattle of small arms increase, and are borne clearly across the three miles of intervening marsh. Sherman looks toward the fort intensely with his glass, and exclaims,

"‘How grandly they advance! Not a waver!’

"Again — ‘Look, Howard, Look! Magnificent! See that flag how steadily it advances! Not a man falters! Grand, grand!’ Again he looks, and turns to Howard;

"‘They are closing in; there is faltering there; no flinching. Stop; it has halted — they are wavering — No, heavens! it's over the parapet! There, they go right over it! See, see, there is a flag, and another, and another on the works — Hurrah, it's ours! The fort's taken!’"

The excitement of the great Captain was natural. He was about to take the key to Savannah; the fleet with its heavy guns and stores was at hand, and, beside, Hazen was leading his own old division, and he felt his old pride and soldierly affection all aglow. Turning to an aid he ordered a boat that he might go to the captured fort, from which a half dozen flags were already flying.

Illinois was fully represented in this brilliant assault. On the right of the attacking line was the 116th, under Lieutenant-Colonel Maddox, on the left, Colonel Martin commanded the 111th, in the center the old 48th was led by Major Adams, and the 90th by Colonel Stuart. Logan was not at the head of his old division, but it won that day laurels as unwithering as any with which his daring or genius had ever crowned it.

Sherman went down to the fort, and gave cordial greeting to Hazen and his men, and entering another boat was rowed down the Ogeechee until he met the tug Dandelion, Captain Williamson, and learned that his scout, Captain Duncan, had reached Dahlgren and General Foster, and that they were expected every hour in Ossabaw Sound He returned to the fort and wrote the Secretary of War:

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"The weather has been fine, and supplies were abundant. Our march has been most agreeable, and we were not at all worsted by guerrillas. We have not lost a wagon on the trip, but have gathered in a large supply of negroes, mules etc., and our trains are in much better condition than when we started.

The quick work made with Fort McAllister, and the opening of communication with our fleet, and the consequent independence for supplies dissipates all their boasted threats to head me off and starve the army. I regard Savannah as already gained."

Major Strong, of Major-General Foster's staff, arrived at the fort before daybreak, and informed General Sherman that General Foster was in the Ogeechee on the steamer Nemaha. Sherman went to him, and after some time they proceeded down the sound in search of Dahlgren, whom they found about noon in Wassau Sound. Conference was held; Foster was to send some heavy artillery from Hilton Head; Dahlgren informed Sherman as to the fleet, the rebel forts guarding channels, etc., while Sherman informed the Admiral that with the exception of the plank-road on the South Carolina shore, Savannah was invested, and that he hoped to reach from his left flank across the Savannah River. He asked the fleet to engage the attention of the forts along the Wilmington Channel at Beaulieu and Rosedew, and he would take Savannah with his men as soon as his heavy guns could arrive from Hilton Head.

Returning to his lines in the rear of Savannah, on the 15th, General Sherman considered with care the reports of his subordinates, and formed his plan for assaulting the city on the arrival of the guns to be sent by General Foster. Several thirty-pounder Parrotts reached King's Bridge on the 17th, and he sent to Hardee, by flag of truce, a formal demand for the surrender of the city, and as a suggestion, enclosed a copy of Hood's demand for the surrender of Dalton, with its sanguinary alternative, "No prisoners being taken in case of a refusal." Hardee answered coolly that the investment was incomplete; that he had men and means to hold out, and that he should not surrender.

General Sherman decided after careful and scientific reconnoissance from the left flank that it was not prudent to push any considerable force across the Savannah River, under fire from the rebel ironclad gunboats, which could destroy our pontoons, and isolate any force which might cross from Hutchinson's Island to the South Carolina

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shore. Arrangements were made for Slocum to assault, while he went in person to Port Royal, and arranged with Foster to reinforce a division placed in the point between the Coosawhatchie and Tullifenney rivers, at the head of Broad River, where he could bring his artillery. There was a chivalrous strife among division commanders who should first enter the city.

Preparations for the assault were nearly complete, when Hardee decided to retreat. Accordingly he opened a fierce fire of shot and shell on the Union lines, from gunboats and batteries. On the night of the 20th he decamped, pontooned the river, and marched toward Charleston on the only open road. General Geary, suspecting the movement, pushed his division up to the city, and on the morning of the 21st received the surrender of Savannah from the hands of the Mayor, and sent the tidings to his superior, General Slocum.

Sherman sent to President Lincoln this note, dated December 22d:

"I beg to present you as a Christmas gift with one hundred and fifty heavy guns, and plenty of ammunition, and also about twenty-five thousand bales of cotton."

The sea was reached. The wonderful march was made — the conquering army had established its base — tons of letters from home were received, and eagerly read; and the army of the Union had made another grand stage toward its final goal.

Colonel Bowman, in his valuable work, "Sherman and his Campaigns," thus sums up:

"The army marched over three hundred miles in twenty-four days, directly through the heart of Georgia, and reached the sea with its subsistence trains almost unbroken. In the entire command, five officers and fifty-eight men killed, thirteen officers and two hundred and thirty-two men wounded, and one officer and two hundred and fifty-eight men missing; making a total list of casualties of but nineteen commissioned officers and five hundred and forty-eight men, or five hundred and sixty-seven of all ranks. Seventy-seven officers and twelve hundred and sixty-one men of the Confederate army, or thirteen hundred and thirty-eight in all, were made prisoners. Ten thousand negroes left the plantations of their former masters, and accompanied the column when it reached Savannah, without taking note of thousands more who joined the army, but from various causes had to leave it at different points. Over 20,000 bales of cotton were burned beside the 25,000 captured at Savannah. 13,000 head of beef-cattle, 9,500,000 pounds of corn, and 10,500,000 pounds of fodder were taken from the country, and issued to the troops and animals. The men lived mainly on the sheep, hogs, turkeys, geese, chickens, sweet potatoes and rice gathered by the foragers from the plantations along the route of each day's march. Sixty thousand, taking merely of the surplus which fell in their way as they marched rapidly

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over the main roads, subsisted for three weeks in the very country where the Union prisoners at Andersonville were starved to death or idiocy. Five thousand horses and four thousand mules were impressed for the cavalry and trains; three hundred and twenty miles of railway were destroyed, and the but remaining links of communication between the Confederate armies in Virginia, and the West effectually severed by burning every tie, twisting every rail while heated red hot over the flaming piles of ties, and laying in ruin every depot, engine-house, repair-shop, water-tank and turn-table."

This wonderful march, made in four great columns, was from first to last a mystery to the rebel authorities, who knew not at what point the cloud they saw would launch its vengeful bolt. Their old vantage of interior lines was gone.

Mr. Lincoln was overjoyed. From the time the army leaped from its base at Atlanta until the head of the conquering column was before Savannah the Government was in suspense, hearing nothing except through rebel journals. Sherman's brief dispatch brought unutterable gladness to the patriot President. He immediately replied:

"EXECUTIVE MANSION,
"WASHINGTON, D. C., Dec. 26, 1864.

"MY DEAR GENERAL SHERMAN:

"Many, many thanks for your Christmas gift, the capture of Savannah.

"When you were about to leave Atlanta for the Atlantic coast, I was anxious, if not fearful; but feeling you were the better judge, and remembering that ‘nothing risked, nothing gained,’ I did not interfere. Now, the undertaking being a success, the honor is all yours, for I believe none of us went further than to acquiesce. And taking the work of General Thomas into the count, as it should be taken, it is, indeed, a great success.

"Not only does it afford the obvious and immediate military advantages, but in showing to the world that your army could be divided, putting the stronger part to an important new service, and yet leaving enough to vanquish the old opposing forces of the whole — Hood's army — it brings those who sat in darkness to see a great light.

"But what next? I suppose it will be safe if I leave General Grant and yourself to decide.

"Please make my grateful acknowledgments to your whole army, officers and men.

"Yours, very truly,
"A. LINCOLN."

From Chattanooga to Savannah, and the end not yet.

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Chapter XVIII. — The Close of 1864 — The Opening of 1865.

MR. STANTON'S SUMMARY OF 1864 — RESUME — BANKS — SHERMAN — STANTON AND THOMAS — HOOD'S ARMY DESTROYED — JOHN MORGAN — OTHER OPERATIONS — IN THE EAST — THE VALLEY OF THE SHENANDOAH — SHERIDAN — THE LOST BATTLE SAVED — OPENING YEAR — GRANT REPORTS THE SITUATION — STANTON'S ENUMERATION — REDUCTION OF FORT FISHER — SCHOFIELD'S CORPS — BATTLE AT KINGSTON — CANBY'S DEPARTMENT — MOBILE — DEFENCES — THE FORTS — FARRAGUT — THE PLAN — LASHED VESSELS — PASS THE FORTS — GUNBOATS — RAM TENNESSEE — TERRIFIC FIGHT — TRIUMPH — MOBILE BAY OURS — FORTS SURRENDER — THE CITY INVESTED — CARR'S BRIGADES ASSAULT AND CARRY THE SPANISH FORT — FORT BLAKELEY TAKEN — OUR LOSSES — MOBILE OURS — LOSSES — CAPTURES — WILSON'S GIGANTIC ALABAMA RAID — ANDERSONVILLE — RECORD OF ITS HONORED DEAD.

THE year was closing with grand achievements to the cause of the Union. The Secretary of War reported the forces under arms at the opening of the spring campaigns as follows:

Department of Washington 42,124
Army of the Potomac 120,380
Department of Virginia and North Carolina 59,139
Department of the South 18,165
Department of the Gulf 61,866
Department of Arkansas 23,666
Department of the Tennessee 74,174
Department of the Missouri 15,770
Department of the Northwest 5,295
Department of Kansas 4,798
Head-quarters military division of the Mississippi 476
Department of the Cumberland 119,948
Department of the Ohio 35,416
Northern Department 9,546
Department of West Virginia 30,782
Department of the East 2,828
Department of the Susquehanna 2,970

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Middle Department 5,627
Ninth Army Corps 20,780
Department of New Mexico 3,454
Department of the Pacific 5,141
Total 662,345

The spring operations of the West began in March with the ill-fated expedition of Banks against Kirby Smith, costing our State so heavily in the loss of men. Sherman began his brilliant campaigns in May. Atlanta gained, Hood was bated with the golden apple of West Tennessee, and clutched eagerly at the tempting lure. We have seen the result. Secretary Stanton, in his report, thus introduces and quotes from General Thomas:

"While General Sherman's army was marching south from Atlanta to the sea coast, the rebel army under Hood, strongly reinforced, was moving north, threatening Tennessee. The task of encountering this formidable foe, and defending the border states from invasion, was entrusted to Major-General George H. Thomas, who was ably assisted by his second in command, Major-General Schofield. In his report, General Thomas says:

"‘I found myself confronted by the army which, under General J. E. Johnston, had so skillfully resisted the advance of the whole active army of the military division of the Mississippi, from Dalton to the Chattahoochee, reinforced by a well-equipped and enthusiastic cavalry command of over 12,000 men, led by one of the boldest and most successful cavalry commanders in the rebel army. My information, from all sources, confirmed the reported strength stated of Hood's army to be from forty to forty-five thousand infantry, and from twelve to fifteen thousand cavalry. My effective force, at this time, consisted of the 4th Corps, about 12,000, under Major-General D. S. Stanley; the 23d Corps, about 10,000, under Major-General Schofield; Hatcher's division of cavalry, about 4,000; Croxton's brigade, 2,500, and Capron's brigade, of about 1,200. The balance of my force was distributed along the railroad, and posted at Murfreesboro, Stevenson, Bridgeport, Huntsville, Decatur, and Chattanooga, to keep open our communications, and hold the posts above named, if attacked, until they could be reinforced, as up to this time it was impossible to determine which course Hood would take, advance on Nashville, or turn toward Huntsville. Under these circumstances, it was manifestly best to act on the defensive until sufficiently reinforced to justify taking the offensive. On the 12th of November communication with General Sherman was severed, the last dispatch from him leaving Cartersville, Georgia, at 2:25 P. M. on that date. He had started on his great expedition from Atlanta to the sea board, leaving me to guard Tennessee, or pursue the enemy if he followed the commanding General's column. It was, therefore, with considerable anxiety that we watched the force at Florence, to discover what course they would pursue with regard to General Sherman's movements, determining thereby whether the troops under my command, numbering less than half those under Hood, were to act on the defensive in Tennessee, or take the offensive in Alabama.’"

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The battles of Franklin and Nashville, and the subsequent pursuit destroyed Hood's army, and the organization which wrought so fearfully at Shiloh, Stone River and Chickamauga passed out of existence. In the battle of Franklin, alone, it lost six general officers killed, six wounded and one captured, and a further loss in killed, wounded and prisoners of 6,239. At Nashville the final blow was given, and it was crumbled into fragments, and the host led by Bragg, the two Johnstons and Hood was no more. It had been ably commanded, and gallantly had it fought. It was only beaten by superior ability, and a better cause.

John Morgan made, in June, another invasion upon the quasi-loyal state of Kentucky, was beaten by Burbridge on the 12th, and killed by General Gillam's command in the following September. "In the month of November, a rebel expedition, under Breckinridge, Duke and Vaughn, was repulsed by General Ammon, and driven from East Tennessee. An expedition, under General Stoneman and General Burbridge, penetrated to Saltville, in Southwestern Virginia, destroyed the works at that place, broke up the railroads, and inflicted great destruction upon the enemy's supplies and communications.

"After the withdrawal of our troops from the Red River, a large rebel force advanced under Sterling Price into Kansas, and penetrated thence into the department of the Missouri. But they were at length driven back with heavy loss.

"Other military operations, of greater or less magnitude, occurred during the year — some attended with disaster, some with brilliant success. Of the former class were Kilpatrick's raid against Richmond, the capture of Plymouth and its garrison, at the commencement of the year, by the rebels under Hoke; the defeat of the expedition from Memphis, under General Sturgis; the capture of Fort Pillow by Chalmers and Forrest, and Stoneman's expedition to Andersonville. On the other hand, the raids of Grierson from Memphis, in December, of Stoneman and Burbridge into Virginia, of Wilson into Alabama, inflicted sore distress upon the enemy, and brought the rebels to a solemn sense of the sufferings caused to themselves by the war they had undertaken against their Government. — Secretary Stanton's report.

Eastward, momentous events were transpiring. In Vol. I., the

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movements of Giant and Mead were outlined down to the siege of Petersburg, June 16th. There, the army of the great leader, Robert E. Lee, was held before the defences of the rebel capital, chafing furiously, as the armies of the West melted before Sherman and Thomas, and city after city opened its gates to the triumphant conquerors of the Union.

The valley of the Shenandoah had been the theater of adverse contests throughout the war, relieved by partial victories and half successes. This was to change. Says the Secretary of War:

"Active operations were also going on in the valley of the Shenandoah. On the 1st of May an expedition, under Generals Crook and Averill was sent out by General Sigel, which reached Wytheville, and accomplished the destruction of much rebel property. General Sigel advanced, on the 8th day of May, with his force, from Winchester to New Market, where, met by the enemy under General Breckinridge, he was defeated, and fell back to Cedar Creek. General Hunter was then placed in command of the department. He marched with a strong force toward Staunton, and in a brilliant engagement at Piedmont defeated the enemy with severe loss. Advancing to Staunton, he was joined there by Crook and Averil, and moved against Lynchburg. Reinforcements from the enemy having arrived before him, General Hunter retired by way of the Kanawha. Meanwhile, in order to repair the losses of the Army of the Potomac, the chief part of the force designed to guard the middle department and the department of Washington was called forward to the front. Taking advantage of this state of affairs, in the absence of General Hunter's command, the enemy made a large detachment from their army at Richmond, which, under General Early, moved down the Shenandoah Valley, threatening Baltimore and Washington. Their advance was checked at Monocacy, where a severe engagement was fought by our troops under General Wallace, reinforced by a part of the 6th Corps under General Ricketts. After this battle the enemy continued to advance until they reached intrenchments around Washington. Here they were met by troops from the Army of the Potomac, consisting of the 6th Corps, under General Wright, a part of the 8th Corps, under General Gillmore, and a part of the 19th Corps, just arrived from New Orleans, under General Emory. By these troops the enemy was driven back from Washington, and retreated hastily to Virginia, pursued by our forces under General Wright.

"On the 7th of August, 1864, General Sheridan was placed in command of the military division comprising the department of Washington, the department of West Virginia, the department of the Susquehanna, and the middle department. In two great battles, at the crossing of the Opequan on the 19th of September, and at Fisher's Hill on the 22d of September, the rebel army under Early was routed, and driven from the valley with immense loss of prisoners, artillery and stores. A desperate effort was made by the enemy to recover their position. Early was strongly reinforced, and on the morning of the 19th of October, in the absence of General Sheridan, his lines were surprised, his position turned, and his forces driven back in confusion. At the moment when a great disaster was impending, Sheridan

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appeared upon the field, the battle was restored, and a brilliant victory achieved. The routed forces of the enemy were pursued to Mount Jackson, where he arrived without an organized regiment of his army. All his artillery, and thousands of prisoners fell into Sheridan's hands. These successes closed military operations in the Shenandoah Valley, and a rebel force appeared there no more during the war."

The campaigns of Sheridan have the charm and glitter of romance and yet were substantial realities. History has no parallel to his appearance upon the lost field at Middletown. Five hours of disaster had crushed hope; defeat was ordered, and grave peril was upon our cause, for the doors of the Shenandoah were to be thrown wide open for the descent upon the capital.

Sheridan had been to Washington and, returning, had slept at Winchester, where the booming artillery informed him that a battle was raging without him. Attended by his orderly he galloped to the field, and as he met the retreating troops swung his cap and shouted, "Face the other way, boys. We are going back to our camps. We are going to lick them out of their boots." Reaching the army, he countermanded the order for retreat; rode for two hours along his lines, arranging them for an assault upon the flushed foe, saying, "Boys, if I had been here this never should have happened. I tell you it never should have happened. And now, we are going back to our camps. We are going to get a twist on them. We are going to lick them out of their boots." Not very Ciceronic was the speech, but it had effect, and was followed by loud huzzahs, and enthusiastic cheers. And when ready, he swept Early from the field. A defeated army was reinforced simply by its General and his orderly — not by flesh troops — and a disastrous defeat was converted into a glorious victory. The campaigns of the Shenandoah placed Sheridan as only below Grant and Sherman, and as the equal of Meade and Thomas; the subsequent battle of Five Forks assured the justice of the verdict. The country approved when he was promoted Major-General of the regular army in place of George B. McClellan, resigned.

The new year opened with notes of preparation for the final struggle. Volunteers were being raised, State executives were bestirring themselves, a draft for 500,000 had been ordered, and the people were responding, as ever, to the calls upon them. All eyes were turned upon the movements in Virginia, and Sherman's contemplated

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march through the Carolinas, in preparation for which he was resting and clothing his half-naked troops at Savannah.

Lieutenant-General Grant thus states the situation:

"In March, 1865, General Canby was moving an adequate force against Mobile, and the army defending it, under General Dick Taylor; Thomas was pushing out two large and well appointed cavalry expeditions — one from Middle Tennessee, under Brevet Major-General Wilson, against the enemy's vital points in Alabama; the other from East Tennessee, under Major-General Stoneman, toward Lynchburg — and assembling the remainder of his available forces, preparatory to offensive operations from East Tennessee; General Sheridan's cavalry was at White House; the armies of the Potomac and James were confronting the enemy under Lee in his defences of Richmond and Petersburg; General Stoneman with his armies, reinforced by that of General Schofield, was at Goldsboro; General Pope was making preparations for a spring campaign against the enemy under Kirby Smith and Price, west of the Mississippi, and General Hancock was concentrating a force in the vicinity of Winchester, Virginia, to guard against invasion, or to operate offensively, as might prove necessary."

The Secretary of War thus states the force in military service:

"Official reports show that on the 1st of March, 1865, the aggregate national military force of all arms, officers and men, was nine hundred and sixty-five thousand five hundred and ninety-one, to wit:
Available force present for duty 602,598
On detached service in the different military departments 132,538
In field hospitals, or unfit for duty 35,628
In general hospitals, or on sick leave at home 143,419
Absent on furlough, or as prisoners of War 31,695
Absent without leave 19,683
Grand aggregate 965,591

"This force was augmented on the 1st of May, 1865, by enlistments, to the number of one million five hundred and sixteen of all arms, officers and men, (1,000,516 ).

"The aggregate available force present for duty on the 1st of March was distributed in the different commands as follows:

Army of the Potomac 103,273
Head-quarters military division of the Mississippi 17
Department of the Cumberland 62,626
Department of the Tennessee 45,649
Left wing, Army of Georgia 31,644
Cavalry corps military divisions of the Mississippi 27,410
Head-quarters military division of West Mississippi 24
Reserve brigades military division of West Mississippi 13,748
Department of the Gulf 35,625
Department of Arkansas 24,509

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Department of the Mississippi 24,151
Sixteenth Army Corps 14,395
Head-quarters military division of the Missouri 12
Department of the Missouri 18,557
Department of the Northwest 4,731
Head-quarters middle military division 841
Cavalry forces middle military division 12,980
Nineteenth Army Corps 6,612
Middle Department 2,089
Department of Washington 26,056
Department of West Virginia 15,517
Department of Pennsylvania 820
Department of the East 7,462
Department of Virginia 45,986
Department of North Carolina 34,945
Department of the South 11,510
Department of Kentucky 10,655
Northern Department 11,229
Department of the Pacific 7,024
Department of New Mexico 2,501
Grand Total 602,598

The reduction of Fort Fisher was the first important occurrence of the new year. The Secretary of War says:

"The active operations of 1865 began with the reduction of Fort Fisher, by a combined expedition of land and naval forces. The port of Wilmington, North Carolina, during the whole war, has been a principal point of foreign trade with the rebels. The advantage of its position defied the most rigorous blockade, and, after the fall of Savannah, it was the only gate through which foreign supplies could pass to the rebels. The strong works and garrison of Fort Fisher, at the mouth of Cape Fear River, were the main defence of Wilmington. On the 13th of December a force of about 6,500 men, under Major-General Butler, started from Fortress Monroe to operate in conjunction with a naval force under Admiral Porter, against Fort Fisher. General Butler effected a landing on the 25th of December, but re-embarked on the 27th, and returned with his troops to Fortress Monroe. The Lieutenant-General ordered the enterprise to be renewed by General Terry, who, on the 2d of January, was placed in command of the same troops, with a reinforcement that made the whole number about 8,000. On the morning of the 13th of January the troops were disembarked, under cover of a heavy, effective fire from the fleet. An assault was made in the afternoon of the 15th of January, and after desperate hand-to-hand fighting for several hours, the works were carried, the enemy driven out, and about midnight the whole garrison, with its commander, General Whiting, surrendered. The fall of Fort Fisher carried with it the other defenses of Cape Fear River. Fort Caswell and the works on Smith's Island fell into our hands on the 16th and 17th, Fort Anderson on the 19th, and, General Schofield advancing, the enemy were driven from Wilmington on the 21st of February."

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This indicates the presence of Western troops. After the victory of Nashville, General A. J. Smith was ordered to report to General Canby, while Schofield was assigned to the command of the military department of North Carolina, and ordered to report to General Sherman, and his corps, the 23d, was taken East, and sent to Fort Fisher and Newbern, without the loss of a man or an animal. Early in March he pushed inland, to meet Sherman at Goldsboro. Near Kingston, on the 10th, his advance was struck by the enemy, who captured two or three guns and a line of skirmishers. Flushed with this success, they came on in force, attempting to carry his entrenchments, and cut his center. They met the stern, steady fire, and cool courage of the veterans of Franklin and Nashville, and after several repulses, retreated, leaving their dead and wounded on our hands, with several hundred prisoners. They made another stand at Kingston, but were compelled to retreat. Schofield made his way to Goldsboro.

After the Red River disaster, a change was made in the military organization west of the Mississippi. The departments of Arkansas and the Gulf, including Louisiana and Texas, were placed in one military division, called West Mississippi, and Major-General Canby placed in command. Within it transpired events of much importance, which only the magnitude of our movements elsewhere prevented from being famous. In July, 1864, Mobile was attacked by the land and naval forces. Three lines of strong earthworks extended five or six miles in the rear of the city; along the east coast of Mobile Bay was a line of formidable batteries of thirty-two pound rifled cannon, mounted in earthworks. Forts Morgan and Gaines commanded the entrance to the bay, while between them and the city the channels were obstructed by piles, deeply driven, sunken stone-boats, etc., while in the Mobile River, above the city, four wooden gunboats and an iron-clad ram kept watchful custody.

Farragut came with his fleet, and a land force, under Gordon Granger, was sent by General Canby, who came in person. July 8th a consultation between the Admiral and the two Generals decided upon investing Fort Gaines. The fleet was to cover the landing of a force on Dauphin's Island, and the 4th of August was finally fixed as the time.

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On that day our fleet, twenty-six sail, including three monitors — two double and one single turrets — and an iron-clad double-ender commenced closing in their lines southeast of Fort Morgan, as if intending to gather about Fort Gaines. Under the darkness of the preceding night Granger's force of about 4,000 having been placed on Dauphin's Island, kept up a fire upon Gaines as though it was meant to be assailed by land and sea. The Admiral lashed his vessels two abreast, and on the morning of the 5th steamed up the main channel, opening fire forty-seven minutes past six. Then ensued a fearful fight. The heavy guns of the forts opened upon the ships — the Tecumseh was torn by a torpedo, reeled, staggered and went down, carrying into the depth most of her gallant crew. The fleet pressed steadily onward, and passed the forts a little before 8 o'clock. The rain Tennessee made a fruitless attack upon the flag-ship Hartford, and our vessels rushed upon the rebel gunboats. The Selma was captured by the Metacomet, and the Morgan and Gaines compelled to seek shelter under the guns of Fort Morgan, the latter was run down and destroyed, while the Morgan got into Mobile. The iron ram, the Tennessee, now made a rush for the flag-ship. Commander Strong struck it with the full weight of the Monongahalia, carried away the iron prow and cut-water of his ship, doing the rebel no perceptible harm. Captain Marchand dashed the Lackawanna upon it full speed, crashing planking and timbers, but only raising the rebel craft slightly. The Hartford now drove upon the Tennessee, but the wary pilot shifted the helm, and the blow was a glancing one, but as the vessels crashed past each other the Hartford delivered her port-broadside of nine-inch solid shot within ten feet of her adversary's casemate. Our monitors came up, and worked slowly, delivering their fire as they could, while a shot from the Manhattan broke the rebel armor, and penetrated the wooden backing. The Hartford and Lackawanna, making for the enemy, came in contact, seriously injuring the former, but they soon cleared, and again bore down upon the Tennessee, which was in a strait place. The Chickasaw was striking constantly upon the stern, the Ossipee was coming up under full head of steam, three other huge ships were bearing down upon her, her smoke-stack and steering chains were gone, compelling the resort to her relieving tackles, and several of her port-shutters were badly

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jammed. From the time she received the desperate rush of the Hartford she had not fired a gun. Longer resistance was vain, the white flag was raised; the Ossipee stopped her engines, but could not be checked so as to prevent striking a glancing blow.

It was a severe and sanguinary fight, and Farragut lost more men from the Tennessee and the gunboats than from the heavy fire of the batteries. It was another demonstration of the strength of vessels of that class. Admiral Buchanan was wounded in the leg, and himself and Commodore Johnston surrendered. Admiral Farragut lashed himself to the mast, and thus directed the fight.

Fort Powell surrendered oh the 7th; Fort Gaines followed, and the channel was ours. Fort Morgan held out, and on the 21st Granger notified Admiral Farragut that he would be ready to open fire early the next morning. Accordingly the fleet took position in order of battle, a rain of shot and shell poured upon the fort. During the shelling the citadel was fired, and the enemy unable to extinguish the flames was compelled to flood his magazine with water, to throw vast quantities of powder into the wells.

The following morning General Page sent a flag of truce to Granger asking for terms of capitulation. After consulting with the Admiral unconditional surrender was demanded and conceded. General Page acquired deserved odium by destroying property after the surrender. By this important and brilliant success we virtually secured the important city of Mobile and its harbor, a large number of excellent guns, 1,500 prisoners, and sealed Mobile Bay against the blockade runners of "neutral powers."

A number of minor expeditions were successfully undertaken in this department.

Mobile was not taken, but its time was at hand. We will anticipate somewhat its order, and give the account of its capture. Grant ordered a demonstration against Mobile to keep occupied a large rebel force in Alabama, and prevent it moving to reinforce General Lee. Canby commenced his operations March 20th. Light-draft vessels had been gathered in Mobile Bay to assist the troops. A. J. Smith took his veterans from Gaines' Fort to Fish River, where he was joined by Granger with the old scarred 13th Corps, brought

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from Fort Morgan. Two forts obstructed the passage of the gunboats to the city — the Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. The Spanish Fort was to be first attacked, the navy to engage the water batteries, the land forces the rear works. Heavy siege guns were brought, and the bombardment opened on the 4th of April.

On the 8th a furious bombardment was made, and continued for three hours, our fire telling with fearful precision. At 3 P. M. two of Carr's brigades made their way rapidly to the ramparts, scaled them amid shouts of exultation, carried 300 yards of the works, made themselves secure, and waited for daylight to "go in," but the admonished garrison capitulated at 1 A. M., the same day that Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia.

These brigades comprised some of the best regiments from Illinois. Says Colonel Howe, "The 81st and 124th were in the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 16th Army Corps. Their guns were first to wake up the enemy at Mobile, and it was this brigade that led in the desperate charge on Spanish Fort on the 8th of April."

The scarred 72d was in the other brigade. The 33d was also engaged.

On the same day General Steele assaulted Fort Blakely. As the orders for the assault were being read a dispatch announced Lee's surrender. The effect was magical. The gallant men went forward gaily, removed obstructions under a galling fire, and among bursting torpedoes. The way clear, they crossed the ditch, scaled and carried the works in front, while Rinnekin and Gilbert turned the right, and entered the fort about the same time. White and colored troops vied in this assault. Our loss was near 1,000; the enemy suffering much less. We captured 3,300 prisoners, 4,000 stand of arms and 32 pieces of artillery.

The navy worked its way toward the city, through a channel sown with torpedoes. On the 12th, as our column moved to invest the city, its evacuation was announced.

To the 8th Illinois Infantry, as having been first to mount the works of Fort Blakeley, and plant upon them our national colors, it was accorded the honor of marching first into Mobile. A soldier's letter from that regiment says, "Which was done on the 12th of April, about 3 P. M. We were greeted with cheers and welcome

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at every point by a majority of the citizens. They all express surprise and satisfaction at the marked good behavior of the Union troops. The 8th and 28th Illinois, and 29th Wisconsin, are on duty in and around the city." The 58th Illinois and 117th participated in the same charge.

Our loss in capturing the city was 2,000 men, two heavy ironclads, one tin-clad, and one transport. Admiral Thatcher, who commanded the fleet, reported 400 guns captured.

A raid of much importance was almost overlooked in the excitement of the great events of the closing months of the war. We give it in the language of the Lieutenant-General's official report. It refers to General Wilson's raid:

"The expedition, consisting of 12,500 mounted men, was delayed by rains until March 22d, when it moved from Chickasaw, Alabama. On the first of April General Wilson encountered the enemy in force, under Forrest, near Ebenezer Church, drove him in confusion, captured 300 prisoners, and three guns, and destroyed the Central Bridge over the Cahawba river. On the 2d he attacked and captured the fortified city of Selma, defended by Forrest, with 7,000 men and thirty-two guns, destroyed the arsenal, armory, navy foundery, machine shops, vast quantities of stores, and captured 3,000 prisoners. On the 4th he captured and destroyed Tuscaloosa. On the 10th he crossed the Alabama river, and after sending information of his operations to General Canby, marched on Montgomery, which place he occupied on the 14th, the enemy having abandoned it. At this place many stores and five steamboats fell into our hands. Then a force marched direct on Columbus, and another on West Point, both of which places were assaulted and captured on the 16th. At the former place we got 1,500 prisoners and fifty-two field guns, destroyed ten gun-boats, the navy yard, founderies, arsenal, many factories, and much public property. At the latter place we got 300 prisoners, four guns, and destroyed nineteen locomotives and three hundred cars. On the 20th he took possession of Macon, with sixty field guns, 1,200 militia, and five generals, surrendered by Howell Cobb."

This is one of the most successful and gigantic raids known to history, and had it not happened at a time when great victories

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were of constant occurrence, it would have set the nation ablaze with excitement.

A few weeks later, May 11th, Wilson's command captured the arch-rebel, Jeff. Davis, attempting to escape; Colonel Pritchard, of the 4th Michigan Cavalry, surprising his encampment and seizing him and Postmaster General Reagan.

We close this chapter with a sad record. The fact that our captured soldiers were subjected to the grossest indignities, and most unheard of sufferings, was early brought to the attention of our government, but all efforts to right the cruel wrong were abortive. It seemed to be the cool, fiendish policy of the rebel authorities to render our men unfit for duty when exchanged. They were reduced by slow starvation to the verge of death — some, alas many, beyond it. Andersonville, Millen, Columbia, Florence, Salisbury, Danville, Libby Prison, &c., have ghastly records, and thousands yet living can never remember them without a sickening shudder. At Andersonville, Georgia, the treatment was diabolical. Sherman's march demonstrated that the land abounded with food, and yet our brave men died there by thousands for want of food, rotten with scurvy, prey to venom, shot, beaten — but we will not write the enormities only too clearly proven. The camp, near dense forests, yet no shelter from the Southern sun, was permitted either to strong or weak. Twenty acres were enclosed within the stockade, and in the center was a "dismal swamp," and here a score and a half thousand of our citizens, sons and brothers, were shut in at once. Some courted death by crossing the dead line, some sank into idiocy or went raving mad, some attempted escape, and were hunted down with bloodhounds. The depraved villain, Captain Wirz, was tried, and upon sentence of a military court, hanged for his barbarism in coolly torturing prisoners to death. That was well, but the "Southern gentlemen" who sat in the Presidential and Cabinet chairs of the Confederacy, and commanded its armies, were far more guilty than Wirz, their miserable tool.

We append a record of the soldiers from this state, known to have died in this horrible prison — died true to their country, for they would not have life at the cost of the loss of truth and fealty. The list comprises those who died from March 7, 1864, to January 1,

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1865, and was carefully copied from the death-register, by N. Rice Grevelle, of Company I, 6th Illinois Cavalry, while he was in the hospital at that place. The list comprises all the Illinois men who died there within the dates named. The name, company, regiment, date of death, and number of grave of each is given:
MARCH.
DATE. NAME AND REGIMENT. NO. OF GRAVE.
7th. Corporal M. R. Kell, D, 49th infantry 18
8th. Charles W. Prestoy, M, 8th cavalry 23
15th. William Tunlee, D, 16th cavalry 46
16th. Charles Myres, B, 16th cavalry 50
17th. Thomas McLarry, L, 16th cavalry 56
17th. W. Hake, E, 16th cavalry 63
19th. David Hill, A, 36th infantry 67
19th. Philip Zolam, I, 44th infantry 72
19th. James Kimball, L, 2d artillery 82
21st. William Horseman, I, 16th cavalry 89
21st. Gustavus Will, E, 16th cavalry 90
25th. John Kunkle, G, 16th cavalry 158
26th. A. P. Polk, G, 112th infantry 161
27th. H. Hannah, C, 107th infantry 187
28th. Levi Eadley, H, 26th infantry 209
28th. C. Errickson, M, 16th cavalry 214
30th. William Collin, G, 93d infantry 257
APRIL.
1st. Joseph Neal, K, 16th cavalry 283
2d. William Newbury, M, 2d artillery 299
2d. John Cole, E, 112th infantry 300
2d. Sergeant Erastus Rudd, K, 100th infantry 306
2d. Jaf. Sipple, E, 107th infantry 309
3d. John Harlee, E, 65th infantry 318
4th. George W. Devars, B, 21st infantry 352
4th. Audrew Davis, A, 112th infantry 356
4th. George B. Sweet, L, 7th cavalry 362
5th. A. Metcham, E, 92d infantry 381
6th. James Penny, D, 14th cavalry 393
6th. John Kign, E, 22d infantry 396
6th. Corporal W. Phillips, L, 16th cavalry 410
7th. J. Belisky, D, 16th cavalry 411
8th. Sergeant A. D. Matheny, I, 79th infantry 429
8th. Louis Frass, E, 16th cavalry 432
8th. Edward Nashen, A, 65th infantry 438
9th. Albert Cault, A, 116th infantry 446
11th. George B. Fuller, D, 123d infantry 497
12th. George Taylor, M, 16th cavalry 502

300

12th. A. E. Clark, I, 16th cavalry 504
12th. William Sweet, E, 89th infantry. 505
13th. W. B. Barr, E, 112th infantry 526
13th. E. J. Rolla, G, 103d infantry 528
13th. John Fowler, D, 49th infantry 531
14th Martin Van Buren Trailer, I, 16th cavalry 549
16th. Hospital Steward, John Garvin, 57th infantry 579
19th. George Byres, B, 65th infantry 626
20th. Thomas Jones, E, 112th infantry 644
20th. John Krebs, K, 16th cavalry 652
22d. J. Carroll, H, 5th cavalry 666
23d. David Kirnchans, G, 65th infantry 685
23d. B. McShane, K, 80th infantry 692
23d. D. Kinderman, D, 82d infantry 696
25th. N. Hilderbrand, G, 24th infantry 725
26th. Benjamin Weeks, L, 16th cavalry 742
26th. O. Podoers, A, 12th infantry 747
26th. L. Trowbridge, M, 16th cavalry 751
28th. George Greaves, K, 16th cavalry 783
30th. Joseph Taylor, F, 4th cavalry 809
30th. J, Morris, K, 15th infantry 816
MAY.
3d. S. L. Stine, G, 41st infantry 855
3d. Thomas B. Mason, B, 93d infantry 863
8th. Sergeant P. Manty, E, 16th cavalry 953
8th. Thomas Lee, E, 8th infantry 963
9th. C. Basting, B, 47th infantry 977
10th. Louis Wink, C, 16th cavalry 989
10th. A. Wheelock, H, 96th infantry 992
10th. J. C. Ramsey, B, 27th infantry 1,011
11th. Frank Lowry, E, 65th infantry 1,017
11th. J. Stegall, L, 16th cavalry 1,018
11th. Ross Voriss, I, 16th cavalry 1,026
11th. Thomas Bales, M, 2d artillery 1,064
12th. R. Woodcock, L, 16th cavalry 1,042
13th. James Freemont, B, 7th cavalry 1,055
13th. H. C. Maxen, H, 19th infantry 1,061
14th. James Vaughn, I, 16th cavalry 1,078
14th. W. Hicks, D, 85th infantry 1,102
15th. C. Dorwin, I, 16th cavalry 1,103
15th. John Wimer, I, 16th cavalry 1,130
16th. D. Herbert, C, 84th infantry 1,136
16th. Fred. Purcer, A, 27th infantry 1,143
17th. W. P. Henry, A, 23d infantry 1,162
18th. W. Coddington, I, 93d infantry 1,198

301

19th. M. Keefe, M, 2d artillery 1,214
20th. George Bender, C, 12th cavalry 1,230
20th. Henry Laws, G, 93d infantry 1,233
20th. William Hallay, H, 92d infantry 1,241
21st. J. Aldrich, L, 16th cavalry 1,264
23d. T. Rudd, L, 16th cavalry 1,294
23d. Corporal W. E. Lee, I, 16th cavalry 1,297
23d. J. M. Dobin, H, 3d cavalry 1,314
23d. J. McCluskey, K, 16th cavalry 1,315
23d. J. Morris, K, 66th infantry 1,320
24th. G. H. Setters, 38th infantry 1,333
24th. W. W. McMullen, 112th infantry 1,337
24th. P. German, G, 24th infantry 1,340
24th. J. Dowdiss, K, 16th cavalry 1,343
24th. P. Galiger, C, 21st infantry 1,347
27th. P. Myers, F, 24th infantry 1,407
27th. J. S. Johnson, C, 7th infantry 1,412
27th. N. D. Gibson, K, 93d infantry 1,416
28th. R. C. Allen, I, 17th infantry 1,423
28th. W. H. Massey, D, 111th infantry 1,428
28th. H. H. Doran, I, 78th infantry 1,441
28th. Sergeant A. Martin, L, 16th cavalry 1,444
29th. J. Luty, H, 23d infantry 1,456
31st. J. Gillgers, I, 16th cavalry 1,499
31st. B. Whitmore, D, 16th cavalry 1,496
31st. W. B. Pierce, H, 8th cavalry 1,506
JUNE.
1st. H. J. O'Daniels, A, 9th infantry 1,533
3d. Victor Scitz, L, 16th cavalry 1,573
3d. H. Bruternier, M, 7th cavalry 1,578
4th. H. C. Budwell, D, 38th infantry 1,603
4th. H. Richards, I, 79th infantry 1,616
4th. William McCreadey, C, 96th infantry 1,617
4th. Sergeant C. Pranock, K, 79th infantry 1,619
4th. B. McLaughlin, I, 90th infantry 1,634
4th. John Stillwell, I, 38th infantry 1,640
4th. J. V. Giles, H, 39th infantry 1,652
6th. Ed. Shawbach, E, 44th infantry 1,661
6th. Corporal L. Blanchard, D, 16th cavalry 1,665
6th. M. Springer, E, 112th infantry 1,667
6th. Sergeant H. F. Brewer, C, 24th infantry 1,669
6th. B. Linday, H, 57th infantry 1,685
6th. L. Whitmore, I, 104th infantry 1,699
8th. F. Stark, H, 79th infantry 1,718
8th. J. W. Dowd, G, 38th infantry 1,727

302

8th. A. J. Remore, H, 112th infantry 1,729
9th. B. W. Jordon, D, 84th infantry 1,764
9th. John Sitter, I, 16th cavalry 1,777
10th. Charles Seeley, G, 44th infantry 1,787
10th. Silas Rogers, D, 65th infantry 1,807
10th. John Kyser, I, 32d infantry 1,809
10th. F. Brandeger, K, 24th infantry 1,815
10th. Corporal J. Linebarger, F, 16th infantry 1,818
10th. J. Temple, H, 100th infantry 1,825
10th. D. W. Darling, B, 23d infantry 1,826
11th. F. Castle, E, 103d infantry 1,844
11th. E. H. Jenning, F, 79th infantry 1,845
11th. F. Glidewell, K, 73d infantry 1,850
11th. W. Hegenbeig, F, 24th infantry 1,852
12th. T. Pollard, H, 127th infantry 1,862
12th. J. Gillmore, I, 16th cavalry 1,868
12th. J. Beal, F, 78th infantry 1,870
13th. E. D. T. Sharp, A, 89th infantry 1,899
13th. P. P. Casey, G, 13th infantry 1,902
13th. J. Hester, C, 38th infantry 1,906
14th. E. Trout, F, 21st infantry 1,915
14th. F. O'Dean, F, 78th infantry 1,921
15th. J. E. Boyd, B, 84th infantry 1,971
15th. W. W. Crandell, A, 93d infantry 1,974
16th. F. Miller, M, 2d artillery 1,975
15th. E. Hartness, B, 39th infantry 1,980
15th. P. Blors, A, 21st infantry 1,983
15th. M. Sadler, G, 27th infantry 2,000
16th. W. Bought, H, 24th infantry 2,015
16th. A. Furlough, B, 23d infantry 2,021
16th. J. Crewin, D, 79th infantry 2,032
16th. H. Coalman, M, 16th cavalry 2,048
16th. W. Martmay, K, 16th cavalry 2,051
17th. W. W. Roberts, I, 16th cavalry 2,074
17th. J. French, B, 129th infantry 2,080
17th. J. R. Meissres, C, 116th infantry 2,097
17th. J. J. Hook, E, 98th infantry 2,098
18th. H. Fitzgerald, I, 16th cavalry 2,129
18th. F. Jewitt, A, 14th infantry 2,135
19th. W. Grace, D, 21st infantry 2,164
19th. C. Sows, A, 82d infantry 2,165
19th. C. Neher, F, 16th cavalry 2,177
19th. George Kreamer, C, 24th infantry 2,179
19th. W. Hart, K, 16th cavalry 2,002
20th. P. Fitz, C, 38th infantry 2,210
20th. William Erich, H, 9th infantry 2,211

303

20th. F. Farmer, A, 27th infantry 2,230
20th. W. Deetreman, E, 44th infantry 2,231
20th. A. Joyce, D, 90th infantry 2,241
20th. T. Colborn, G, 16th cavalry 2,224
21st. J. Elston, E, 112th infantry 2,245
21st. W. Crawford, K, 16th cavalry 2,253
21st. J. H. Miller, I, 3lst infantry 2,257
21st. L. Lowden, F, 65th infantry 2,258
21st. Christensian, I, 16th cavalry 2,287
22d. W. G. Heaward, I, 16th cavalry 2,329
22d. M. Crane, E, 23d infantry 2,329
23d. John Lusk, B, 29th infantry 2,342
23d. Hy. Dincks, C, 89th infantry 2,365
23d. Sergeant M. Brinkuf, L, 16th cavalry 2,367
24th. J. Zimmerman, 1st artillery 2,391
24th. Allison, B, 21st infantry 2,400
24th. A. Thomas, H, 16th infantry 2,425
24th. John Thompson, L, 16th cavalry 2,453
26th. W. Deuhart, K, 16th cavalry 2,497
26th. William Grogan, B, 66th infantry 2,501
26th. R. Filer, K, 11th infantry 2,502
26th. H. Stansfield, H, 90th infantry 2,532
26th. H. Morey, M, 16th cavalry 2,539
27th. M. Ryan, A, 89th infantry 2,057
27th. D. Forney, G, 93d infantry 2,564
27th. Thomas J. Jones, I, 16th cavalry 2,567
27th. A. C. Sharp, A, 22d infantry 2,570
28th. Corporal N. Slosher, E, 96th infantry 2,585
28th. N. Rodenbarger, C, 96th infantry 2,596
28th. Corporal F. Babcook, G, 44th infantry 2,598
28th. P. Hanna, C, 21st infantry 2,605
28th. A. E. Perkins, A, 89th infantry 2,621
28th. J. W. Wright, C, 35th infantry 2,634
29th S M. Harrington, A, 112th infantry 2,633
29th. Sergeant F. Meritt, F. 89th infantry 2,637
29th. J. Morehead, E, 9th infantry 2,646
29th. I. Shaw, E, 89th infantry 2,467
29th. H. Jackson, C, 51st infantry 2,658
29th. P. Durrand, E, 35th infantry 2,666
30th. George Hart, K, 16th cavalry 2,677
JULY.
1st. M. Colburn, I, 73d infantry 2,753
2d. O. O. Curry, D, 106th infantry 2,758
2d. A. Marshall, H, 96th infantry 2,762
3d. Thomas Hames, M, 14th cavalry 2,825

304

3d. D. Mulkey, D, 89th infantry 2,834
3d. Corporal Charles Rictor, H, 82d infantry 2,836
4th. James Dooley, L, 16th cavalry 2,867
4th. J. E. Bagley, D, 21st infantry 2,890
4th. John Baker, B, 89th infantry 2,892
5th. J. H. Black, E, 21st infantry 2,906
6th. J. Brockhiller, M, 4th cavalry 2,927
5th. D. Coovert, F, 78th infantry 2,933
6th. G. W. Evans, C, 103d infantry 2,936
6th. H. Guadley, A, 24th infantry 2,942
6th. B. V. Joy, I, 16th cavalry 2,972
6th. M. Wahl, I, 16th cavalry 2,964
7th. W. Jones, D, 27th infantry 2,990
7th. W. R. Mulford, 23d infantry 2,993
7th. O. Boorem, B, 64th infantry 3,008
8th. E. Tucker, B, 38th infantry 3,032
8th. J. M. Ralston, I, 79th infantry 3,039
8th. H. McCume, C, 13th infantry 3,050
9th. I. Bartrinder, G, 65th infantry 3,056
9th. D. Powell, K, 16th cavalry 3,058
9th. A. Topp, C, 19th infantry 3,064
9th. M. Whalin, B, 23d infantry 3,067
9th. C. H. Myres, F, 24th infantry 3,080
9th. D. McCampbell, B, 104th infantry 3,100
9th. B. Greenwall, L, 16th cavalry 3,111
10th. J. W. Dudley, F, 89th infantry 3,123
10th. H. Miller, F, 92d infantry 3,139
11th. Benjamin McLin, E, 23d infantry 3,169
12th. W. Chinniworth, G, 9th infantry 3,205
12th. J. W. Howell, F, 78th infantry 3,211
13th. E. Williams, D, 49th infantry 3,254
13th. B. Morris, F, 8th cavalry 3,263
13th. George Votter, C, 9th infantry 3,271
14th. J. Bathrick, A, 1st cavalry 3,275
14th. G. Mead, H, 19th infantry 3,279
14th. Thomas Baker, M, 16th cavalry 3,308
14th. J. Iverson, I, 16th cavalry 3,312
14th. John Bensteel, H, 27th infantry 3,345
15th. R. Erssdrower, F, 74th infantry 3,373
15th. O. Carron, H, 38th infantry 3,393
15th. F. F. Parsley, E, 120th infantry 3,408
16th. J. Powers, C, 44th infantry 3,422
17th. L. McEntyre, K, 16th cavalry 3,470
17th. C. Schnoler, H, 24th infantry 3,490
18th. D. Reed, H, 26th infantry 3,496
18th. N. Perry, B, 1st cavalry 3,553

305

DATE. NAME AND REGIMENT. NO. OF GRAVE.
18th. C. Carl, H, 38th infantry 3,556
19th. F. Barssley, E, 16th cavalry 3,603
19th. W. Odown, G, 9th infantry 3,609
20th. J. V. Corwin, L, 6th cavalry 3,677
21st. J. Jarvis, K, 73d infantry 3,680
21st. James Workman, G, 7th infantry 3,696
21st. John Babbitt, K, 7th infantry 3,709
21st. J. E. Brookman, I, 44th infantry 3,717
21st. P. Gulk, B, 79th infantry 3,730
21st. J. Werner, G, 74th infantry 3,743
22d. G. Place, F, 44th infantry 3,764
22d. P. Bailey, B, 38th infantry 3,783
23d. W. Beckhold, G, 16th infantry 3,809
23d. J. Hoffman, I, 7th cavalry 3,825
23d. P. Barclay, I, 42d infantry 3,829
23d. G. W. Dodd, F, 21st infantry 3,834
23d. John Adlet, K, 119th infantry 3,840
23d. M. O'Coner, F, 2d cavalry 3,847
24th. F. M. Fruck, G. 21st infantry 3,854
24th. J. Corwin, K, 7th cavalry 3,850
24th. A. Curtis, D, 16th infantry 3,877
24th. R. J. Charles, M, 5th cavalry 3,907
25th. F. S. Whamer, G, 21st infantry 3,910
25th. J. R. Malcolm, K, 38th infantry 3,935
25th. James Brett, K, 88th infantry 3,940
25th. N. Mills, K, 11th infantry 3,955
26th. D. Freeman, L, 16th cavalry 4,031
26th. H. Davis, A, 38th infantry 4,048
26th. J. Martin, K, 9th infantry 4,071
27th. E. Haggard, K, 16th cavalry 4,694
28th. D. Ottway, A, 8th cavalry 4,125
28th. S. A. Jackards, E, 29th infantry 4,132
28th. John Shuby, G, 42d infantry 4,135
28th. W. Davis, M, 16th cavalry 4,150
28th. A. Lee, B, 112th infantry 4,172
29th. S. F. Gibson, I, 78th infantry 4,201
29th. H. F. Gooles, B, 47th infantry 4,203
29th. R. B. Dodson, B, 6th cavalry 4,207
29th. J. Branch, C, 38th infantry 4,259
30th. H. Spangler, L, 16th cavalry 4,283
30th. J. Burrows, L, 9th cavalry 4,299
30th. H. Kappel, H, 30th infantry 4,318
30th. J. Black, A, 31st infantry 4,316
30th. S. C. Chitwood, M, 16th cavalry 4,319
31st. C. Wentworth, D, 27th infantry 4,353
31st. H. Rosecrans, A, 113th infantry 4,389

306

31st. Ed. Dennis, B, 79th infantry 4,422
31st. P. Swanson, K, 9th cavalry 4,442
AUGUST.
1st. H. B. Robinson, B, 6th cavalry 4,460
1st. J. Terry, M, 16th cavalry 4,466
1st. Sergeant J. Getcham, G, 16th cavalry 4,485
1st. J. Hill, G, 9th cavalry 4,489
1st. T. Ewery, K, 22d infantry 4,502
1st. M. Miller, C, 16th cavalry 4,575
2d. H Scuisser, G, 64th infantry 4,524
2d. J. Monreal, G, 21st infantry 4,526
2d. J. Greathouse, I, 6th cavalry 4,560
2d. J. Peck, G, 21st infantry 4,573
2d. B. F. Heistand, D, 92d infantry 4,583
3d. W. Spragan, H, 8th cavalry 4,598
3d. J. B. Decker, C, 119th infantry 4,608
3d. M. Batdorf, H, 93d infantry 4,618
3d. H. Medler, I, 38th infantry 4,678
3d. W. Smith, M. 16th cavalry, 4,659
3d. James Dalby, H, 73d infantry 4,663
4th. S. B. Mixell, F, 38th infantry 4,680
4th. J. Covey, I, 38th 4,683
4th Ira Krahl, H, 16th cavalry 4,700
4th. S. W. Stopes, E, 89th infantry 4,724
4th. M. McMahon, E, 93d 4,725
4th. D. Wilson, M, 16th cavalry 4,737
4th. J. O. Keefe, M, 2d artillery 4,743
5th. A. Kreigge, C, 13th infantry 4,766
6th. A. McCray, D, 103d infantry 4,850
6th. George Ferry, G, 89th infantry 4,853
6th. R. B. Severn, I, 112th infantry 4,872
6th. T. H. Stillwell, E, 79th infantry 4,878
6th. G. P. Cook, — , 16th — 4,879
6th. C. Pierce, H, 16th cavalry 4,887
6th. P. Jows, G, 41st infantry 4,889
6th. J. Knight, H, 9th infantry 4,908
7th. J. Winemiller, G, 56th infantry 4,941
7th. C. D. Edwards, K, 51st infantry 4,962
7th. Buckman, H, 16th cavalry 4,952
7th. J. Emerson, L, 16th cavalry 4,979
7th. C. A. Farnham, D, 51st infantry 4,991
8th. S. Huchins, A, 104th infantry 5,019
8th. William Guyer, E, 72d infantry 5,025
8th. F. Myers, L, 16th cavalry 5,038
8th. A. O. Boum, C, 113th infantry 5,045

307

8th. R. R. Drake, H, 34th infantry 5,053
8th. James Hagarman, E, 16th cavalry 5,074
9th. William Clark, K, 14th cavalry 5,143
9th. F. Wiley, M, 7th cavalry 5,158
9th. J. W. DeRue, E, 16th infantry 5,163
9th. W. Wise, H, 16th cavalry 5,183
10th. F. Hayworth, I, 7th cavalry 5,192
10th. A. Bennett, B, 16th infantry 5,242
10th. M. Wright, E, 57th infantry 5,255
11th. William McGee, D, 30th infantry 5,283
11th. C. Y. Scybert, A, 39th infantry 5,350
12th. L. Madden, D, 96th 5,390
12th. S. Johnson, B, 100th infantry 5,395
12th. Corporal S. Myres, C, 25th infantry 5,432
12th. G. Burdiss, A, 89th 5,457
13th. W. Bouden, F, 9th infantry 5,475
13th. M. Sutten, M, 9th cavalry 5,515
13th. M. Kennedy, C, 38th infantry 5,518
13th. C. Puden, F, 12th infantry 5,541
14th. W. Colburn, G, 16th cavalry 5,597
14th. — Meyer, K, 24th infantry 5,608
14th. P. Wildberger, B, 6th cavalry 6,613
14th. W. Vox, E, 24th infantry 5,038
15th. J. Kerby, H, 96th infantry 5,701
15th. R. McComb, K, 16th cavalry 5,724
15th. C. Heede, F, 24th infantry 5,741
15th. E. Newby, A, 123d infantry 5,778
15th. A. Powell, C, 122d infantry 5,783
15th. J. Cline, I, 12th cavalry 5,787
16th. D. H. Howard, 79th infantry 5,812
16th. C. F. Barber, I, 112th infantry 5,848
16th. C. Akins, F, 78th infantry 5,876
16th. J. Pittijohn, F, 21st infantry 5,889
16th. William Watts, L, 16th cavalry 5,898
16th. W. A. Lanner, E, 9th cavalry 5,906
17th. J. M. Brown, B, 29th infantry 5,924
17th. K. Franklin, F, 81st infantry 5,933
17th. H. Burns, D, 10th cavalry 5,936
17th. E. Bourman, F, 123d infantry 5,943
17th. George Smith, E, 53d infantry 5,960
17th. F. Gruder, B, 16th cavalry 5,961
17th. John Redment, H, 112th infantry 5,968
17th. J. Brown, B, 73d infantry 5,978
17th. W. Eastman, F, 36th infantry 5,992
17th. J. F. Whitney, G, 89tb infantry 5,998
17th Isaac M. Price, D, 79th infantry 6,007

308

18th. W. H. Hudson, C, 107th infantry 6,035
18th. W. Winters, H, 24th infantry 6,079
18th. J. B. Robison, A, 79th infantry 6,080
18th. R. Huntley, F, 89th infantry 6,085
18th. J. Cotton, H, 100th infantry 6,091
18th. S. Payne, B, 88th infantry 6,095
18th. J. Olson, D, 89th infantry 6,098
18th. A. Schwartz, M, 7th cavalry 6,105
18th. E. L. Chase, C, 23d infantry 6,109
18th. J. Garng, F, 78th infantry 6,111
19th. J. Hanell, K, 120th infantry 6,113
19th. Peter Hoen, H, 112th infantry 6,117
19th. G. Weaver, L, 16th cavalry 6,173
20th. Thomas Lewis, L, 2d cavalry 6,238
20th. W. C. Bryant, A, 107th infantry 6,256
20th. W. Mee, H, 51st infantry 6,266
20th. O. Fagan, G, 23d infantry 6,268
20th. F. Steward, I, 78th infantry 6,292
20th. John Likin, I, 112th infantry 6,295
20th. J. M. Paschall, A, 114th infantry 6,301
20th. W. J. Partrage, F, 30th infantry 6,303
21st. H. Mariett, L, 16th cavalry 6,333
21st. C. Callagan, F, 39th infantry 6,356
21st. R. Mountz, B, 6th cavalry 6,402
22d. J. Rening, G, 6th cavalry 6,412
22d. A. Lindsay, D, 113th infantry 6,414
22d. H. Brewer, F, 78th infantry 6,421
22d. G. W. Henson, C, 31st infantry 6,489
22d. F. Thompson, B, 10th infantry 6,491
22d. J. M. Campbell, G, 120th infantry 6,505
22d. J. McCreary, C, 119th infantry 6,513
22d. O. B. Obevier, C, 112th infantry 6,519
23d. M. J. Graham, E, 44th infantry 6,617
23d. D. Bear, B, 93d infantry 6,644
24th. J. C. Harlan, L, 9th cavalry 6,684
24th. R. Cavit, D, 113th infantry 6,693
24th. A. Anderson, K, 19th infantry 6,710
24th. G. B. Jernagan, E, 30th infantry 6,730
24th. J. Cornelions, H, 9th cavalry 6,738
24th. Sergeant J. Crouse, I, 16th cavalry 6,749
25th. J. Waddle, C, 122d infantry 6,767
25th. — Oss, D, 89th infantry 6,774
25th. W. Kelley, I, 94th infantry 6,795
25th. T. Thompson, M, 2d cavalry 6,831
25th. W. Brown, G, 1st cavalry 6,836
25th. J. Christianson, F, 82d infantry 6,945

309

26th. L. C. Nichols, F, 14th infantry 6,945
26th. John J. Coliers, B, 6th cavalry 6,971
26th. A. Floyde, A, 9th cavalry 6,972
27th. W. E. Day, H, 111th infantry 7,013
27th. J. R. Carroll, I, 78th infantry 7,037
27th. J. Burns, K, 100th infantry 7,055
28th. F. Nugent, E, 108th infantry 7,086
28th. G. G. Thompson, M, 1st cavalry 7,128
28th. B. F. Demos, F, 78th infantry 7,150
29th. C. Lambert, D, 38th infantry 7,155
29th. John Scheider, K, 44th infantry 7,163
29th. John Kelley, F, 7th 7,183
29th. J. F. Hall, C, 9th infantry 7,194
29th. N. H. Cole, A, 112th infantry 7,210
29th. George Rodgers, G, 16th cavalry 7,228
30th. J. A. Shields, E, 6th cavalry 7,270
30th. J. Ladrew, H, 110th infantry 7,299
30th. Joseph Shaw, D, 98th infantry 7,315
30th. K. Armstrong, A, 89th infantry 7,339
3lst. B. D. Westbrook, B, 6th cavalry 7,426
3lst. W. Moran, C, 11th infantry 7,428
SEPTEMBER.
1st. L. H. Needham, K, 42d infantry 7,489
1st. F. Merz, K, 44th infantry 7,464
1st. E. K. Center, K, 115th infantry 7,502
1st. Joseph Denning, D, 31st infantry 7,514
2d. P. Schuam, A, 23d infantry 7,558
2d. J. H. Kearney, B, 6th cavalry 7,604
2d. C. Simpson, D, 14th infantry 7,630
3d. H. M. Peeter, C, 107th infantry 7,700
3d. B. B. Foster, G, 112th infantry 7,720
3d. D. Ritter, D, 14th artillery 7,748
3d. A. O'Donell, I, 34th infantry 7,751
4th. C. Clark, K, 51st infantry 7,760
4th. L. D. Vincent, G, 7th cavalry 7,765
4th. H. A. Linderman, B, 99th infantry 7,768
4th. J. Kingham, G, 38th infantry 7,807
4th. M. Green, C, 9th infantry 7,836
4th. G. A. Wilhelm, K, 11th infantry 7,840
4th. R. H. Kicholson, B, 128d infantry 7,847
5th. J. Olderfield, B, 6th cavalry 7,850
5th. J. W. Clancey, E, 38th infantry 7,868
5th J. Wartuck, C, 93d infantry 7,895
5th. J. M. Lacost, E, 89th infantry 7,927
5th. F. Gore, I, 36th infantry 7,958

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6th. John Puck, D, 122d 7,972
6th. J. G. Cross, D, 21st infantry 7,882
6th. S. P. Giles, A, 112th infantry 7,988
6th. D. Mund, D, 8th infantry 7,989
7th. M. Eisenbach, D, 7th infantry 8,048
7th. J. Augustine, I, 100th infantry 8,049
7th. G. W. Hicks, F, 65th infantry 7,868
7th. W. Somers, F, 40th infantry 7,079
7th. Ed. Elliont, B, 92d infantry 8,084
7th. W. Funks, F, 26th infantry 8,114
8th. B. Alexander, B, 123d infantry 8,127
8th. H. Newlan, A, 25th infantry 8,129
8th. H. Newbury, F, 22d infantry 8,166
8th. C. Dock, H, 9th cavalry 8,187
8th. B. Berkiser, F, 16th cavalry 8,188
8th. J. Lyman, D, 100th infantry 8,196
9th. B. Guides, B, 6th cavalry 8,220
9th. A. J. Foster, M, 16th cavalry 8,230
9th. F. Adrian, E, 9th cavalry 8,249
9th. J. Lidey, I, 113th infantry 8,295
10th. H. Hicks, G, 11th infantry 8,303
10th. A. Williams, H, 22d infantry 8,310
10th. E. Klage, G, 20th infantry 8,348
10th. D. Albury, D, 22d infantry 8,381
10th. J. F. Sherwood, I, 16th cavalry 8,386
11th. H. F. Adams, E, 17th infantry 8,402
11th. E. H. Robinson, A, 30th infantry 8,410
11th. C. Owens, 120th infantry 8,414
11th. W. Herell, K, 14th cavalry 8,428
11th. A. Storm, D, 89th infantry 8,451
11th. J. Barnett, I, 120th infantry 8,458
11th. W. Leaven, B, 115th infantry 9,464
12th. P. Lee, A, 16th infantry 8,524
12th. J. Striker, K, 11th infantry 8,539
12th. C. Davis, E, 112th infantry 8,533
12th. A. Reed, I, 98th infantry 8,571
12th. M. A. Rankin, I, 3d cavalry 8,578
12th. J. W. Hawkins, I, 79th infantry 8,608
13th. John Sullion, I, 16th cavalry 8,615
13th. G. Dake, D, 100th infantry 8,626
13th. J. Ripley, B, 9th infantry 8,632
14th. Charles Whipp, E, 9th cavalry 8,713
14th. P. Harshman, H, 84th infantry 8,715
14th. Henry Hill, 11th infantry 8,721
14th. M. Cleggitt, I, 36th infantry 8,750
14th. D. Winning, C, 125th infantry 8,755

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DATE. NAME AND REGIMENT. NO. OF GRAVE.
14th. A. Barrett, D, 25th infantry 8,762
14th. J. Butten, A, 89th infantry 8,776
15th. G. Helch, K, 77th infantry 8,798
15th. A. Wood, G, 21st infantry 8,815
15th. A. Hill, C, 115th infantry 8,830
15th. F. J. Clark, B, 6th cavalry 8,834
15th. J. D. Cross, I, 14th cavalry 8,859
15th. S. F. Shark, D, 113th infantry 8,861
15th. J. Thorne, H, 16th cavalry 8,863
16th. D. Brathers, H, 48th infantry 8,911
16th. W. Brown, C, 16th infantry 8,962
16th. J. Jones, E, 117th infantry 8,971
17th. J. H. Brown, F, 12th infantry 9,011
17th. E. M. Strong, B, 95th infantry 9,013
17th. J. C. Dyer, D, 30th infantry 9,037
17th. F. Puckett, E, 30th infantry 9,059
17th. C. Decker, M, 7th cavalry 9,073
18th. W. Spindler, F, 113th infantry 9,092
18th. J. Chattenay, H, 82d infantry 9,095
18th. O. S. Otey, I, 21st infantry 9,106
18th. A. Marser, H, 24th infantry 9,145
18th. M. Jourdan, C, 38th infantry 9,153
18th. J. Whalen, F, 61st infantry 9,184
18th. K. Moram, C, 89th infantry 9,187
18th. F. Miller, B, 16th infantry 9,188
19th. J. Homer, F, 38th infantry 9,214
19th. G. Walker, K, 31st infantry 9,218
20th. S. Craig, I, 38th infantry 9,307
20th. J. F. Graber, D, 81st infantry 9,312
20th. J. Perry, G, 9th cavalry 9,318
20th. A. Weaver, A, 93d infantry 9,318
20th. G. H. Shadrack, C, 7th cavalry 9,322
20th. B. F. Boyd, D, 6th cavalry 9,323
20th. C. Sene, D, 8th cavalry 9,325
20th. J. B. Sales, F, 14th infantry 9,345
21st. A. F. Brown, C, 73d infantry 9,350
21st. J. Graber, H, 24th infantry 9,398
21st. J. Johnson, H, 125th infantry 9,458
22d. J. Nelson, K, 93d infantry 9,531
23d. C. Clark, B, 29th infantry 9,560
23d. W. J. Bridges, F, 122d infantry 9,570
24th. L. G. Lawrence, G, 89th infantry 9,633
24th. G. Drum, F, 89th infantry 9,678
25th. W. Ellis, G, 26th infantry 9,703
25th. J. Craig, B, 23d infantry 9,704
25th. W. McWorthrup, G, 92d infantry 9,710

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25th. J. Erbs, C, 9th infantry 9,717
25th. J. Atkinson, D, 14th cavalry 9,733
25th. W. Ellison, F, 14th cavalry 9,734
25th. C. Hix, C, 22d infantry 9,753
25th. W. B. McNiel, D, 78th infantry 9,763
26th. J. Will, B, 36th infantry 9,785
26th. M. Miller, A, 92d infantry 9,795
27th. J. Butts, F, 22d infantry 9,824
27th. G. W. Jones, E, 27th infantry 9,827
27th. J. Thurman, E, 89th infantry 9,833
27th. J. F. Fisher, F, 123d infantry 9,845
27th. A. F. Howson, F, 38th infantry 9,880
27th. J. Olson, K, 112th infantry 9,885
27th. W. Bowls, K, 89th infantry 9,899
28th. B. Sawyer, C, 36th infantry 9,915
28th. M. Cleaves, H, 3d cavalry 9,924
28th. C. Gains, B, 20th infantry 9,925
28th. A. Chingburg, G, 89th infantry 9,935
28th. W. Anderson, C, 89th infantry 9,946
28th. A. Doun, A, 75th infantry 9,947
28th. D. L. Hews, H, 125th infantry 9,962
29th. J. Flanigan, H, 42d infantry 9,992
29th. J. Welch, E, 1st cavalry 10,001
29th. H. M. May, I, 89th infantry 10,019
29th. C. Capell, D, 82d infantry 10,026
29th H. Tayder, I, 7th cavalry 10,036
29th. A. Olens, K, 108th infantry 10,042
30th. H. Flanesly, D, 14th infantry 10,069
30th. C. H. Haley, H, 22d infantry 10,061
30th. William Skinner, B, 16th infantry 10,082
30th. G. Welch, A, 95th infantry 10,085
30th. T. Craig, K, 9th infantry 10,087
30th. J. P. Fink, F, 53d infantry 10,090
OCTOBER.
1st. J. W. Dowde, K, 112th infantry 10,143
1st. J. B. Sickley, F, 96th infantry 10,148
1st J. Sape, A, 125th infantry 10,178
1st. J. Q. Rofferty, H, 6th cavalry 10,184
3d. A. Anderson, E, 98th infantry 10,242
3d. E. Anthony, E, 3d cavalry 10,271
3d. D. J. Omerie, E, 9th cavalry 10,279
4th. M. Jackson, F, 123d infantry 10,287
4th. Hans Godard, G, 89th infantry 10,307
4th. C. Dresser, G, 24th infantry 10,384
5th. N. C. Thornburg, A, 79th infantry 10,347

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5th. W. Schwartz, F, 44th infantry 10,359
5th. Corporal N. Butler, D, 89th infantry 10,362
6th. S. B. Lord, B, 112th infantry 10,406
6th. D. Thompson, K, 24th infantry 10,411
6th. T. Pyner, D, 89th infantry 10,412
6th. W. H. Lansdon, A, 78th infantry 10,419
6th. J. Straud, H, 9th cavalry 10,440
7th. G. W. Harris, G, 9th cavalry 10,447
7th. Samuel Cheney, K, 79th infantry 10,459
7th. H. Grower, K, 42d infantry 10,466
7th. J. W. Osbourn, H, 9th cavalry 10,469
7th. T. Barnes, F, 135th infantry 10,480
8th. A. Downer, H, 24th infantry 10,496
8th. R. Lewis, K, 7th cavalry 10,508
8th. W. Farmingham, K, 14th cavalry 10,509
8th. L. Sandler, D, 19th infantry 10,512
8th. H. Justice, H, 7th cavalry 10,513
8th. I. Tanner, A, 7th cavalry 10,515
8th. J. Killbraith, A, 42d infantry 10,520
8th. G. Quinn, A, 52d infantry 10,531
9th. W. Choat, D, 6th cavalry 10,551
10th. A. A. Worthy, K, 21st infantry 10,582
10th. J. Butler, D, 88th infantry 10,586
10th. J. Gross, B, 20th infantry 10,594
10th. G. Davis, D, 113th infantry 10,603
10th. G. Hathaway, B, 15th cavalry 10,606
11th. B. Morbley, H, 48th infantry 10,645
11th. C. W. Benton, B, 29th infantry 10,653
11th. P. Slick, E, 9th infantry 10,663
11th. William Best, E, 88th infantry 10,681
11th. S. Stevens, D, 44th infantry 10,737
11th. L. Furguson, K, 115th infantry 10,740
12th. F. Rodes, G, 16th cavalry 10,751
12th. H. Alf, A, 89th infantry 10,762
12th. E. Breiden, E, 35th infantry 10,763
12th. C. Yagle, B, 24th infantry 10,766
12th. C. F. Randall, I, 124th infantry 10,772
12th. J. W. Weidman, I, 38th infantry 10,785
12th. J. Bowman, D, 108th infantry 10,791
13th. A. Stine, H, 14th infantry 10,828
13th. J. S. Tucker, G, 8th cavalry 10,832
13th. J. Smith, C, 14th cavalry 10,849
13th. D. O'Brien, C, 89th infantry 10,851
13th. N. P. Smith, G, 28th infantry 10,836
13th. N. J. Ford, I, 17th infantry 10,881
14th. J. Buckmaster, C, 79th infantry 10,882

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14th. D. Price, K, 103d infantry 10,893
14th. M. Leatherman, E, 98th infantry 10,896
14th. G. W. Williams, B, 15th infantry 10,899
14th. W. A. Earley, G, 21st 10,909
14th. C. W. Crelly, B, 29th 10,912
14th. S. Mills, F, 14th cavalry 10,921
15th. J. J. Darren, I, 112th infantry 10,961
15th. P. Smith, H, 114th infantry 10,975
15th. E. Atkins, C, 6th cavalry 10,979
15th. A. Madrill, A, 12th infantry 10,982
16th. J. Boyer, n, 14th infantry 10,984
16th. S. Farmer, A, 120th infantry 10,988
16th. J. Graal, C, 51st infantry 10,998
17th. H. Scott, G, 28th infantry 11,077
18th. E. L. Bodkin, D, 103d infantry 11,085
18th. D. Underwood, E, 11th infantry 11,091
19th. N. Hungerford, I, 108th infantry 11,140
19th. John Green, H, 23d infantry 11,155
19th. D. Hanson, E, 39th infantry 11,188
20th. C. Layson, C, 89th infantry 11,222
21st. C. Lewis, A, 79th infantry 11,258
22d. W. Ochley, K, 24th infantry 11,274
22d. M. Sargeant, K, 14th infantry 11,289
23d. G. R. Ward, E, 7th cavalry 11,345
23d. J. W. Maddock, A, 79th infantry 11,358
23d. J. Sheerlock, E, 89th infantry 11,359
24th. J. Grinan, F, 78th infantry 11,449
26th. V. Linch, C, 38th infantry 11,467
26th. W. Ross, F, 45th infantry 11,473
26th. G. W. Williams, F, 15th infantry 11,497
26th. J. Horpe, A, 100th infantry 11,506
27th. Fiske, G, 65th infantry 11,541
27th. J. J. Frask, B, 7th cavalry 11,850
27th. G. H. Hall, B, 7th cavalry 11,592
29th. J. R. Mitchell, G, 89th infantry 11,617
29th. L. Waterman, D, 95th infantry 11,619
29th. J. McGivens, A, 119th infantry 11,623
30th. J. Beard, K, 14th infantry 11,652
30th. A. R. Butten, E, 79th infantry 11,668
31st. H. B. Boyle, I, 14th infantry 11,678
NOVEMBER.
1st. W. Williams, C, 89th infantry 11,712
1st. H. H. Compton, K, 21st infantry 11,719
1st. J. Miller, C, 22d infantry 11,721
1st. E. K. Harris, C, 79th infantry 11,725

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1st. W. Aron, M, 7th cavalry 11,727
1st. F. Boyle, B, 4th cavalry 11,729
2d. T. Welch, F, 24th infantry 11,751
3d. A. Alvord, G, 23d infantry 11,777
3d. Green George, D, 120th infantry 11,778
3d. G. S. Howard, K, 127th infantry 11,782
4th. U. P. Button, B, 100th infantry 11,795
4th. B. F. Sutler, L, 4th cavalry 11,808
5th. Peter Hall, D, 105th infantry 11,833
5th. R. Hoffman, C, 35th infantry 11,847
6th. O. L. Burton, I, 35th infantry 11,858
7th. P. Knoble, E, 108th infantry 11,891
7th. P Munz, I, 14th infantry 11,900
8th. M. Beaver, B, 29th 11,917
8th. G. Bonser, F, 89th infantry 11,921
10th. B. McLaven, A, 89th infantry 11,952
11th. W. Haginus, G, 89th infantry 11,959
15th. S. See, G, 11th infantry 12,034
16th. V. Lance, D, 59th infantry 12,044
16th. H. C. Siebert, M, 7th cavalry 12,046
16th. F. Clines, E, 15th infantry 12,051
16th. H. Kane, A, 95th infantry 12,052
17th. C. Highland, C, 14th infantry 12,070
18th. R. S. Ward, C, 15th infantry 12,072
18th. F. Horn, A, 86th infantry 12,090
22d. C. Green, A, 79th infantry 12,116
23d. Stalholt, H, 92d infantry 12,132
24th. A. Sharp, B, 7th cavalry 12,149
27th. J. B. Peterson, I, 112th infantry 12,179
28th. C. Stonn, C, 96th infantry 12,190
DECEMBER.
4th. J. L. Hall, G, 89th infantry 12,223
12th. G. Langley, K, 14th infantry 12,270
19th. S. Delaney, D, 2d artillery 12,311
20th. H. C. Hall, D, 41st infantry 12,314
23d. F. Richardson, E, 34th infantry 12,324
27th. J. C. Cadding, B, 89th infantry 12,348
28th. F. Parkhurst, H, 14th infantry 12,356
29th. B. Buffington, F, 74th infantry 12,362
Number of patients admitted 17,460
Number of deaths 12,854
Remaining in hospital 886
Returned to quarters 3,730

Highest number of deaths, 127, August 23, 1864.

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Chapter XIX. — Regimental Sketches.

THE SEVENTY-SECOND — BATTLES OF FRANKLIN AND NASHVILLE — GENERAL JOSEPH STOCKTON — THE SEVENTY-FOURTH — WHAT HOOD GOT — THE SEVENTY-FIFTH — ITS BATTLES — THE SEVENTY-SIXTH — ITS ROSTER AND HISTORY — THE SEVENTY-NINTH — THE EIGHTIETH — ITS BATTLES AND MARCHES — THE EIGHTY-FIRST — PURSUIT OF PRICE — THE EIGHTY-SECOND — GETTYSBURG — COLONEL FREDERIC HECKER — GENERAL E. S. SALOMON — THE EIGHTY-THIRD — DEFENCE OF FORT DONELSON — THE EIGHTY-FOURTH — THE EIGHTY-SIXTH — THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN — THE EIGHTY-NINTH — A BRILLIANT RECORD — THE NINETIETH — "THE IRISH LEGION" — THE NINETY-FIRST — SERVICE IN TEXAS.

SEVENTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

THE following is the original roster of this (the First Board of Trade) regiment:

Colonel, F. A. Starring; Lieutenant Colonel, Joseph C. Wright; Major, Henry W. Chester; Adjutant, Ebenezer Bacon; Quartermaster, Benjamin W. Thomas; Surgeon, Edwin Powell; 1st Assistant Surgeon, B. Durham, Jr.; 2d Assistant Surgeon, E. A. Beers; Chaplain, Henry Barnes.

Co. A — Captain, Joseph Stockton; 1st Lieutenant, George B. Randall; 2d Lieutenant, William B. Gallaher.

Co. B — Captain, Jacob S. Curtis; 1st Lieutenant, David W. Perkins; 2d Lieutenant, D. W. Whittle.

Co. C — Captain, William James, Jr.; 1st Lieutenant, Glen C. Ledyard; 2d Lieutenant, Clifford Stickney.

Co. D — Captain, James A. Sexton; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin C. Underwood; 2d Lieutenant, Nathan C. Underwood.

Co. E — Captain, W. B. Holbrook; 1st Lieutenant, H. C. Mowry; 2d Lieutenant, Porter E. Ransom.

Co. F — Captain, Isaiah H. Williams; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Colby; 2d Lieutenant, Richard Pomeroy.

Co. G — Captain, H. D. French; 1st Lieutenant, J. H. Smith; 2d Lieutenant, J. H. Bingham.

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Co. H — Captain, Edwin C. Prior; 1st Lieutenant, J. W. Murray; 2d Lieutenant, Hezekiah Stout.

Co. I — Captain, J. W. Harvey; 1st Lieutenant, Abner E. Barnes; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Abbott.

Co. K — Captain, John Reid; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Gladding; 2d Lieutenant, Edwin Small.

This regiment was organized by the Board of Trade of Chicago. Its enlistment rolls were first opened on the 23d of July, 1862, and on the 23d day of August — just one month from the first enlistments — 1862, the regiment embarked on board the Illinois Central Railroad cars for Cairo, where it remained until September 8th. It then took boats to Paducah, Kentucky, where it arrived September 9th, and was employed in post duty until the 17th, when it again embarked for Columbus, Kentucky, and remained there on post and picket duty until November 21st.

On that day the regiment started on the march for Vicksburg, but, with the rest of the army, was obliged to retrace its steps, the capture of Holly Springs, Mississippi, having cut off the supplies. On the 13th of March, 1863, the regiment again embarked to join in the movement against Vicksburg. On the 16th of May, after marching all day, it reached the battle-field of Champion Hills, just in time to help turn the enemy's left flank, and send him flying from the field. On the next day (17th) it was engaged at Black River bridge, and on the 19th it was the first to bring on the engagement of that day at Vicksburg. May 22d it took part in the general assault on the enemy's line around Vicksburg, and suffered severely. From that time until July 4, 1863, the regiment took an active part in the siege of Vicksburg, and was among the first troops to enter the city after its surrender.

Subsequently, the 72d participated in the capture of Natchez, the battle of Benton, Mississippi, and General Slocum's expedition to Port Gibson and Grand Gulf. On the 30th of November, 1864, the regiment was engaged in the battle of Franklin, in which it suffered severely, losing, in killed, wounded and taken prisoners, nine officers and one hundred and fifty-two enlisted men, and where Lieutenant-Colonel Stockton was severely wounded. On the 15th of December it bore a conspicuous part in the battle of Nashville.

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From this point it moved to Eastport, Tennessee, and, a month later, to New Orleans, where it arrived February 21st, 1865.

Then followed the movement upon Mobile, in which it bore a not unimportant part, sharing in the capture of Spanish Fort, and in the subsequent capture of Blakeley.

From Mobile the regiment marched to Montgomery, Alabama. Remaining in camp at that place until the 23d of May, it was ordered on post duty at Union Springs, Alabama, forty-five miles east of Montgomery, where it continued until July 19, 1865. Having received orders to muster out of the service, it proceeded to Vicksburg, Mississippi, via Montgomery and Selma, Alabama, Meridian and Jackson, Mississippi, arriving there on the 1st of August, and was mustered out on the 13th, having participated in the following engagements: Champion Hills, Big Black, Siege of Vicksburg, Benton, Franklin, Nashville, Spanish Fort, Fort Pillow, Clarkson, Horn Lake Creek, Fort Pemberton, St. Catherine's Creek, Cross Bayou, Grand Gulf, Columbia, Spring Hill, Iuka and Cedar Point.

General Joseph Stockton was born at Pittsburg, August 10, 1833. He was educated at Sewickley, Pa., and removed to Chicago in 1851. Here he was engaged in mercantile pursuits until the breaking out of the rebellion. He was mustered into the service as First Lieutenant, and was the second man to sign the rolls of the Board of Trade regiments — Adjutant Heafford being the first. General S. rose by successive steps to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the regiment, which post he held when the regiment was mustered out, previous to which time he was brevetted a Brigadier-General for meritorious service.

SEVENTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

On page 397 et seq. of the first volume of this work, we have given the roster of this regiment, and followed its record till the 1st of September, 1864. After the retreat of the rebels from Jonesboro, the 74th marched to Lovejoy's Station, and from thence went to Atlanta and camped. On the 25th of September, Hood having commenced his campaign north, the 2d division moved back to Chattanooga,

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where it remained till the 22d of November, when the army began its retreat to Nashville, pursued by Hood, who, in an order to his soldiers, said he was bound for h—l or Nashville. At Spring Hill his advance cavalry came upon the 74th and 88th Illinois, who were in the rear guard of Thomas' army, and was sent back reeling. At Franklin, when the enemy broke our lines, these two regiments charged forward and saved the day. On the 15th and 16th of December, at the battle of Nashville, the 74th nobly did its duty, the boys saying Hood got h—l, but not Nashville. The 74th reached Chicago on the 14th of June, 1865, and was then mustered out. When it left Rockford for the field, it numbered 936 men and officers. It returned with 279, one-third of whom were recruited during the last year of its service.

SEVENTY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

In the first volume of this work [p. 402] we have given the original roster of this regiment, and followed its fortunes as far as the commencement of Sherman's memorable march to the sea. At this date (November 6, 1864), the 75th was attached to the 4th Corps, which Sherman left at Gaylesville, when it proceeded to Pulaski, Tennessee. The regiment was in the battle of Franklin, and suffered severely. Then it went back to Nashville, where, on the second day of the siege, it charged through an open cornfield on the double quick for the distance of half a mile, driving out the rebels. A second charge was made by the whole corps, by brigades in echelon. The 75th was in the first charging line, and captured 223 prisoners, and large quantities of arms and camp equipage. This was the last of its fighting. It went into quarters at Huntsville on the 14th of April, moving via Rollin to Knoxville, and thence to Greenville, where the news of the surrender was received, and the regiment returned to Nashville. On the 15th of June, 1865, it arrived at Chicago, where it was paid off and discharged.

The 75th started out with 868 men, and during its service recruited nearly 200. It returned with 266 men and non-commissioned officers, leaving 85 behind. Its Colonel was justly complimented with a commission as Brevet Brigadier-General, and the regiment could point to the following battles and skirmishes in which it had borne an

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honorable part: Perryville, Lancaster, Nolesville, Stone River, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ringgold, Buzzard's Roost, Franklin, Nashville, Rocky Face, Resaca, Dallas, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, North Marietta, Siege of Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy.

SEVENTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 76th regiment was raised in Kankakee, Iroquois, Champaign, Morgan and Grundy counties, organized at Kankakee, and mustered into the service on the 22d of August, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Alonzo W. Mack; Lieutenant-Colonel, Samuel T. Busey; Major, William A. Dubois; Adjutant, John F. Huntoon; Quartermaster, George J. Hodges; Surgeon Franklin Blades; 1st Assistant Surgeon, William A. Babcock; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Edmund Ridgeway; Chaplain, John W. Flower.

Co. A — Captain, George C. Harrington; 1st Lieutenant, Abraham Andrea; 2d Lieutenant, James R. Elliott.

Co. B — Captain, Homer W. Ayers; 1st Lieutenant, Ning A. Riley; 2d Lieutenant, James E. Smith.

Co. C — Captain, Charles C. Jones; 1st Lieutenant, William Reardon, Jr.; 2d Lieutenant, Richard Hughes.

Co. D — Captain, Francis Seguin; 1st Lieutenant, Charles O. Savoil; 2d Lieutenant, Noel Brosseau.

Co. E — Captain, Abram Irvin; 1st Lieutenant, Peter J. Williams; 2d Lieutenant, Cornelius L. Hoyle.

Co. F — Captain, George Cooper; 1st Lieutenant, William P. Mitchell; 2d Lieutenant, David Palmer.

Co. G — Captain, Joseph Park; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Ingersoll; 2d Lieutenant, James R. Dunlap.

Co. H — Captain, Daniel Plummer; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Nichols; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob Ruger.

Co. I — Captain, Walter W. Todd; 1st Lieutenant J. B. Durham; 2d Lieutenant, Warren R. Hickox.

Co. K — Captain, Joseph Davis; 1st Lieutenant, Charles R. Ford; 2d Lieutenant, John B. Dille.

On the 26th of August the regiment was sent to Columbus, Kentucky, remaining there till October 3d, when it was sent to Bolivar, Tennessee. On the 24th of November it joined in General Grant's Yocna expedition. February 23, 1863, it returned to Memphis, and from there was ordered to Vicksburg, arriving May 20th. The great

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charge of the 22d, in which it bore a prominent part, was the first real fight in which it was engaged, but the men behaved with the steadiness and gallantry of veterans. After this charge the regiment was placed on the extreme left of the besieging line, where it remained, with the exception of the last week of the siege, when it was stationed at Hall's Ferry, until the place surrendered. On the 5th of July it proceeded to Jackson, taking part in the siege and capture of that place. It then returned to Vicksburg, and from thence went to Jackson. It participated in Sherman's famous Meridian raid, but took no part in any great battles. In February and May, 1864, it was on the expedition up the Yazoo, and participated in the battles of Benton, Vaughn's Station and Deasonville, with credit, but, fortunately, with no serious losses. With the exception of one pretty severe conflict between Clinton and Jackson, Louisiana, the time was filled up with an uneventful routine of skirmishes and reconnoissances in Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas and Tennessee, until the time of General Steele's expedition from Pensacola to Blakeley, Alabama, reaching the latter place April 1, 1864. On the line of march it had but one engagement of any note, that at Pollard's Station. On the 9th of May it assaulted and carried the enemy's position at Blakeley. The assault lasted only about fifteen minutes, but in that time the regiment lost 17 killed and 81 severely wounded. Its colors were the first to be planted on the rebel works. Long and uneventful marches and tedious waiting in camp at Selden, Mobile and Galveston occupied the rest of the time until the 22d of July, 1865, when it was mustered out at Galveston. On the 29th it started for home, arriving at Chicago August 3d, where it was paid off and discharged. During its term of service, the 76th traveled over 10,000 miles. It received but 156 recruits, and transferred all left of these to the 37th Illinois, bringing back 471 officers and men. It will thus be seen that it was very fortunate in the chances of war, having lost only about one half its original members by battle and disease.

SEVENTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

In Vol. I of this work [p. 391] we have given the original roster of this regiment, and its history to the time of its marching to the

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relief of Burnside at Knoxville. It previously participated in the Atlanta campaign, bearing itself gallantly at Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station. At the battles of Franklin and Nashville it fought bravely and suffered severely. It then followed the rebels till they were driven out of the State. Its time was afterward occupied in uneventful marches and tedious waiting in camp at various points in Tennessee, until June 12, 1865, when it was mustered out of the service at Nashville, Tennessee, the veterans being transferred to the 42d regiment. It arrived at Camp Butler on the 14th, and was there paid off and discharged.

EIGHTIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 80th regiment was organized at Centralia, and mustered into the service on the 28th of August, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Thomas G. Allen; Lieutenant-Colonel, Andrew F. Rogers; Major, Erastus N. Baker; Adjutant, James C. Jones; Quartermaster, Robert J. Harmer; Surgeon, Nathan W. Abbott; Assistant Surgeon, Ebenezer Rodgers; Chaplain, John W. Lane.

Co. A — Captain, James L. Manu; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel T. Jones; 2d Lieutenant, Goodwin Scudmore.

Co. B — Captain, George W. Carr; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Wright; 2d Lieutenant, Henry C. Smith.

Co. C — Captain, Henry Zeis; 1st Lieutenant, Herman Steinscke; 2d Lieutenant, Benjamin Kohln.

Co. D — Captain, Carter C. Williams; 1st Lieutenant, James Neville; 2d Lieutenant, Alexander Van Kendle.

Co. E — Captain, Stephen T. Stratton; 1st Lieutenant, Newton C. Pace; 2d Lieutenant, Charles W. Pavey.

Co. F — Captain, Edmund R. Jones; 1st Lieutenant, John Woods; 2d Lieutenant, Albert Foster.

Co. G — Captain, Andrew Wilson; 1st Lieutenant, John W. McCormack; 2d Lieutenant, William H. McDill.

Co. H — Captain, James Cunningham; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel G. Andrews; 2d Lieutenant, John R. Cunningham.

Co. I — Captain, Daniel Hay; 1st Lieutenant, James Adams; 2d Lieutenant, Richard M. Davis.

Co. K — Captain, Alexander Hodge; 1st Lieutenant, Edmund D. Kiersey; 2d Lieutenant, John A. Miller.

The regiment left camp on the 4th of September for Louisville, receiving arms at New Albany. On the 1st of October it started

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with Buell's army in pursuit of Bragg, participating in the battle of Perryville, where it suffered severely. It continued with the army in pursuit to Mumfordsville, where it arrived on the 24th. On the 31st it marched to Cove City, and returned on the 6th of November. On the 11th of December it arrived at Bledsoe Creek, Tennessee, and on the 26th started in pursuit of John Morgan. January 2, 1863, the pursuit of Morgan was discontinued, and the regiment marched to Nashville and Murfreesboro, arriving at the latter place on the 10th. It remained here till April 7th, foraging and scouting. On the 20th of March, the brigade, while on a scout, was attacked by a largely superior force of rebels, who were repulsed with a heavy loss. On the 7th of April the regiment left Murfreesboro for Nashville, where it prepared to go upon "Straight's expedition." On the 10th all was ready, and it embarked. On the 30th, the expedition was attacked at Day's Gap and Sand Mountain, repulsing the rebels on both occasions. On the 3d of May the expedition met with its disastrous defeat, and the forces were surrendered to Forrest. On the 17th, after great suffering, the private soldiers who had been captured were landed at Annapolis on parole (the officers being retained in Libby Prison), and were at once sent to Camp Chase, Ohio. June 23d, having been exchanged, the regiment was sent to Nashville, arriving on the 29th. September 8th it moved to Stevenson, Alabama, where it was placed on guard duty along the railroad. On the 16th of October it moved to Battle Creek, and thence to Bridgeport. On the 27th it moved up Lookout Valley to open the road to Chattanooga, and was present at the battle of Wauhatchie on the night of the 28th, but, being in the reserve, was not actually engaged. November 24th and 25th it participated in the battle of Mission Ridge. On the 27th it made a forced march to Red Clay, and destroyed several miles of the track of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad. On the 20th it started to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, encamping within fourteen miles of the city on the 5th of December. On the 7th, Longstreet having retreated from Knoxville, the regiment returned to its former camp in Lookout Valley, capturing and destroying a large amount of Confederate stores on the march. On the 24th of December it moved to Whiteside, Tennessee, where it remained till January 27, 1864, when it went to Blue Spring,

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Tennessee. Here it encamped till May 4th. From the 22d to the 28th of February it was engaged in a reconnoissance toward Dalton, Georgia, skirmishing considerably with the enemy. On the 3d of May it started on the Atlanta campaign, participating in the battles of Dalton, Resaca, Adairsville, Cassville, Dallas, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station, and pursuing the rebels until September 5th, when it returned to Atlanta. October 3d, marching orders were received, and the regiment started in pursuit of Hood, halting at Pulaski November 3d. On the 23d it began the famous retreat to Nashville. It was present at the battle of Franklin, but did not participate. It did its full share, however, at the battle of Nashville, and pursued Hood till he was driven out of the State. It then returned to Huntsville, arriving January 5, 1865. March 12th it moved to Chattanooga and Knoxville. Here it was sent out to Strawberry Plains, Morristown, Bull's Gap, Shields' Mills, &c., to Greenville, to guard a signal station, returning to Nashville April 23d. It remained in camp near Nashville till June 10th, when it was mustered out and sent home, arriving at Camp Butler on the 13th, where it was paid off and discharged. During its term of service it marched over 6,000 miles, was engaged in more than twenty pitched battles, and the conduct of its members was such as to reflect honor on the regiment, the State and the nation.

EIGHTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 81st regiment was mustered into the service at Anna on the 26th of August, 1862, 915 strong. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, James J. Dollins; Lieutenant-Colonel, Franklin Campbell; Major, Andrew W. Rogers; Adjutant, Zebedee Hammock; Quartermaster, Logan H. Roots; Surgeon, Lewis Dyer; Chaplain, William S. Post.

Co. A — Captain, James P. Cowan; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Payne; 2d Lieutenant, William McNeill.

Co. B — Captain, Thomas Hightower; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Grammar; 2d Lieutenant, Josiah Goodwin.

Co. C — Captain, John C. Armstrong; 1st Lieutenant, Mortimer C. Edwards; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas B. McClure.

Co. D — Captain, Cornelius S. Ward; 1st Lieutenant, Logan Wheeler; 2d Lieutenant, Isaac Rapp.

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Co. E — Captain, Marmaduke F. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, John P. Reese; 2d Lieutenant, David R. Sanders.

Co. F — Captain, Samuel L. Campbell; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob W. Sanders; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Kelly.

Co. G — Captain, George W. Sisney; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Russell; 2d Lieutenant, William L. Farmer.

Co. H — Captain, Albert F. Crane; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Stewart; 2d Lieutenant, James V. Pierce.

Co. I — Captain, John W. Felt; 1st Lieutenant, James Bartleson; 2d Lieutenant, Charles J. Minnick.

Co. K — Captain, Samuel Pyle; 1st Lieutenant, Lycurgus Rees; 2d Lieutenant, William Needham.

On the 7th of September, 1862, the 81st left Anna for the front, under James J. Dollins, its first Colonel, who fell at the charge upon the enemy's fortifications at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. It was in that splendid series of battles, under General Grant: Port Gibson, Mississippi, May 1, 1863; Raymond, Mississippi, May 12, 1863; Jackson, Mississippi, May 14, 1863; Champion's Hill, Mississippi, May 16, 1863; investment of and charge on Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 19 and 22, 1863, and marched in triumph into the city, July 4, 1863; Brownsville, Mississippi, October 16, 1863. On the death of Colonel Dollins, Lieutenant-Colonel F. Campbell succeeded to the office of Colonel, but being absent under orders, Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Rogers was in command of the regiment while on the celebrated Red River expedition, under Banks. During that arduous expedition it participated in the battle and capture of Fort De Russey, Louisiana, spring of 1864; two battles of Cloutierville, Old River, Marksville, Yellow Bayou, and in numerous skirmishes while aboard the transports in their attempt to ascend the river to Shreveport. The 81st was in the disastrous Guntown expedition, under General Sturgis, and this was the first and only time it was ever driven from the field of conflict. On the 3d of August, 1864, the division to which it belonged was ordered to St. Charles, Arkansas, on White River. The 81st, with some other troops, having been sent up to Augusta, to drive away the enemy, who were concentrating there, returned for a few days, after accomplishing this work, to Duvall's Bluff, and from thence went to Brownsville, on the Little Rock Railroad, where the expedition under General Mower was organized and sent with all haste after the rebel General Price,

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who was moving toward Missouri. This little army, with twelve days' rations, marched over the mountains, through swamps, fording and bridging streams, to Cape Girardeau, a distance of 325 miles, in nineteen days. Colonel Campbell having resigned in consequence of protracted ill health, Lieutenant-Colonel Rogers assumed its entire command, which he retained, having the commission of Colonel from Governor Yates. At Cape Girardeau the troops were sent by river to St. Louis and Jefferson City, and from thence by rail and land marches to Warrensburg, in Western Missouri. General Price having been driven from the country, the 81st was now assigned to General A. J. Smith's command, and hurried to oppose General Hood, who was about to invest Nashville. It participated in the celebrated fights of the 15th and 16th of December before that city, and bore a noble part in the pursuit of that discomfited General to Pulaski, eighty miles south, and thence to Clifton, on the Tennessee River, eighty miles west. Here it took boats for Eastport, making the reconnoissance of Corinth, and on the 8th day of February, 1865, it started on its way to New Orleans, making brief stops at Cairo, Memphis and Vicksburg. Remaining for some three weeks in camp, it commenced its movement toward Mobile, by way of Forts Gaines and Morgan; landing on the eastern shore of the bay, the approaches to Spanish Fort, the most formidable of the defenses of Mobile and the key to all the rest, were at once pushed forward. The 3d division of the 16th Army Corps was ordered, on the 26th of March, to make a reconnoissance in force into the immediate vicinity of the enemy's fortifications. Locating him with sufficient accuracy, the 81st Illinois being in the advance, and deploying one half the regiment as a skirmish line, it received a heavy musketry fire from the enemy, when, in pursuance of orders, the siege was commenced by the whole division. On the thirteenth day of the siege the 3d Brigade of the 3d Division was ordered to charge upon the fortifications — the 8th Iowa leading the charge, closely supported by the 81st Illinois, led by Colonel Rogers in person. The charge was a complete success. In a day or two after, Fort Blakeley was successfully charged by General Steele and the 2d Division of the 16th Army Corps, after which Mobile quickly surrendered. The 81st Illinois was now moved up to Montgomery, where it remained on provost

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duty until ordered home for discharge, arriving at Chicago on the 7th of August, 1865.

EIGHTY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 82d Infantry — named the "Second Hecker Regiment," in honor of its first Colonel — was almost exclusively a Chicago organization, and was also as exclusively made up of Germans, except Co. I, which was composed of Scandinavians. Its original roster was as follows:

Colonel, Frederick Hecker; Lieutenant Colonel, Edward S. Salomon; Major, Ferdinand Rolshanson; Adjutant, Eugene F. Weigel; Quartermaster, Herman Panse; Surgeon, George Schloetzer; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Emil Brendel; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Oscar Julius Bergk; Chaplain, Emanual Julius Richhelm.

Co. A — Captain, Anton Bruhn; 1st Lieutenant, Edward Kafka; 2d Lieutenant, Charles E. Stueven.

Co. B — Captain, Augustus Bruning; 1st Lieutenant, George Heinzman; 2d Lieutenant, Charles Lanzendorfer.

Co. C — Captain, Jacob Lasalle; 1st Lieutenant, Mayer A. Frank; 2d Lieutenant, Frederick Bechstein.

Co. D — Captain, Matthew Marx; 1st Lieutenant, William Warner; 2d Lieutenant, Frank Kirchner.

Co. E — Captain, Robert Lender; 1st Lieutenant, Rudolph Mueller; 2d Lieutenant, John Brech Celler.

Co. F — Captain, Frederick L. Weber; 1st Lieutenant, Erich Hoppe; 2d Lieutenant, Lorenz Spoenmann.

Co. G — Captain, William Neussel; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Gottlob; 2d Lieutenant, Conrad Schonder.

Co. H — Captain, Emil Frey; 1st Lieutenant, Johann Sporre; 2d Lieutenant, Jos. Riegert.

Co. I — Captain, Ivar Alexander Weid; 1st Lieutenant, John Hillborg; 2d Lieutenant, Peter Hanson.

Co. K — Captain, Joseph P. Greenhut; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Fuchs; 2d Lieutenant, Dominicus Krutsen.

The 82d was mustered into the service on the 26th of August, 1862, at Camp Butler, and left for the field on the 3d of November, 900 strong, and joined Sigel on the Potomac, and fought under him in the 11th Army Corps. The first fight was at Chancellorsville, where the regiment had a hard trial, doing some splendid work, and fighting bravely; it was the last to quit the field. The Colonel and Major were wounded, and two line officers killed; the regiment lost

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157 men killed and wounded, among which were ten commissioned officers.

At Gettysburg the regiment particularly distinguished itself, and was the only Illinois infantry regiment present there. On the first day of the battle it occupied the center of our line, and when both wings of the army began the retreat, it remained to cover the movement, and was the last regiment to leave the field. On the second day it was again placed in the center, on the cemetery hill, which was one of the most exposed positions in the entire line. On the second day, the rebels obtained possession of our rifle pits, on the right, when Colonel Salomon with the 82d made a charge upon them, driving them back and taking more prisoners than the number of his own command. On the third day it occupied the same position as on the preceding, and took part in the winning of the glorious victory. During the three days' battle, Colonel Salomon had two horses shot under him. The regiment lost 131 men out of 312 engaged, and was highly complimented by Generals Schurz, Howard and Meade.

The regiment took an effective part in the campaign in Northern Georgia. It left Whiteside, Tenn., where it had been stationed to guard the railroad, on the 3d day of May, 1864, arriving at Triune on the 7th, marching thence to Resaca, arriving there on the 13th. On the 14th the regiment marched with the brigade to the rear of the center of their line of battle before Resaca, and subsequently moved to the extreme left, on the double quick. The brigade formed on the high bank of a little creek, with an open field in the front. Before the line had been perfectly formed, the brigade on the right gave way, being closely pressed by the enemy, leaving the 5th Indiana battery in imminent danger of being taken. At this critical juncture the 82d charged in double quick across the open field, and with a full volley into the rebel ranks drove them back. The battery was saved, and the brigade occupied the field for the night. On the 15th this regiment again gallantly repulsed a severe attack, relieving the 150th New York amid a perfect hailstorm of bullets. It then pressed the enemy for three days, losing one man in a skirmish on the 19th. At Dallas the regiment advanced in the face of a heavy fire to within one hundred and fifty yards of the enemy's

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line, and remaining there till its ammunition was exhausted, and then, till more came, took the cartridges from the dead and wounded. Out of 245 muskets going into that fight, 11 men were killed and 69 wounded. At Kingston, during the first few days of June, the regiment kept up a lively skirmish with the rebels, throwing up breastworks; on the 4th and 5th a continuous fire was kept up during the day and night. On the 6th of June it marched and struck the pickets of the rebels near Lost Mountain, about twelve miles west of Marietta, and skirmished till the 15th of June, when at Pine Hill the regiment had a severe conflict with the enemy, losing five men. On the 17th it lost one man killed and three wounded, out of a skirmish line of fifteen. At Peach Tree Creek the regiment behaved most gallantly, each man firing from 135 to 140 rounds of ammunition, keeping up a brisk fire for over three hours at short range. At Atlanta, too, the 82d did noble service working in the trenches, and was in the first brigade that entered the city. Then began the march to the sea followed by the Carolina campaign, in which the 82d bore a prominent part.

At Averysboro and Bentonville, it engaged the enemy with great bravery, losing about fifteen men at the former place and about twenty-five men at the latter. It arrived at Raleigh, N. C., on the 16th of April, 1865, where the news was received that hostilities had ceased. Fatiguing marching still remained, but there was no more fighting, and after a long delay the boys set their faces toward home, after the grand review at Washington, arriving in Chicago on the 17th of June, when they were mustered out. The regiment returned with 310 men; it marched on foot 2,503 miles, traveled by railroad 2,385 miles, crossed 43 rivers and waded through innumerable creeks and swamps. It has inscribed upon its record the story of gallant deeds at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mission Ridge, Resaca, Cassville, Dallas or New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Savannah, Columbia, Averysboro and Bentonville. With its members love of liberty has been shown in deeds more than in words.

Colonel Frederic Hecker was born in Baden, Germany, September 28, 1811. He took a leading part in the revolution of 1848, and on the defeat of the revolutionary forces fled to America. On the

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second outbreak, under the lead of Lorenz Brentano (now one of the editors of the Illinois Staats Zeitung in Chicago), in 1849, Colonel Hecker returned to his native land, but arrived there too late to take part in the struggle for liberty. He then returned to America and purchased a farm near Lebanon, St. Clair County, Illinois. In 1850, he was a candidate for Presidential Elector on the Fremont ticket — the only official position in civil life for which he has ever consented to be a candidate, though often pressed to do so. At the outbreak of the rebellion, he enlisted as a private in the 3d Missouri infantry, from which he was called to the Colonelcy of the 24th Illinois, his commission dating June 17, 1861. He resigned in December, and accepted the same position in the 82d Illinois. He commanded his regiment in the bloody battle of Chancellorsville, and afterward commanded a brigade till he resigned, in March, 1864, and retired to his farm, where he now resides. Colonel Hecker is a gentleman of splendid abilities and education, and is an orator of no mean degree. He is brave even to rashness, very fiery and impulsive.

General Edward S. Salomon was born in Schleswig-Holstein, on the 25th of December, 1836, of Jewish parents, and is, we believe, the only individual of that faith who rose to the rank of Brigadier-General. He removed to this country in 1854, settling in Chicago one year later. Here he was first employed as a clerk in a wholesale hat and cap house, then studied law with Davis and Buell, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. In the following year he was chosen Alderman from the sixth ward, which position he occupied when the war broke out. In 1861, he entered the service in the 24th Illinois infantry (First Hecker regiment) as Second Lieutenant, and was promoted successively to First Lieutenant, Captain and Major. When Colonel Hecker resigned, Major Salomon resigned also, as did a number of other officers, and with Colonel H. set about the formation of "the Second Hecker regiment," of which he was chosen Lieutenant-Colonel. His career was then with his regiment. On Colonel Hecker's resignation in 1864, he was promoted to the Colonelcy, and in March, 1865, was commissioned Brigadier-General by President Lincoln, for gallant service. When the 82d was mustered out, General Salomon returned to Chicago, and in the

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fall of 1865, was elected County Clerk of Cook County, a position he still holds.

EIGHTY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY

The 83d regiment was mustered into the service at Monmouth, on the 11th of August, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Abner C. Harding; Lieutenant-Colonel, Arthur A. Smith; Major, Elijah C. Brott; Adjutant, Wesley B. Casey; Quartermaster, John B. Cotton; Surgeon, Esaias S. Cooper; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John P. McClanahan; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Richard Morris; Chaplain, Adam C. Higgins.

Co. A — Captain, Philo C. Reid; 1st Lieutenant, George H. Palmer; 2d Lieutenant, Davis M. Clark.

Co. B — Captain, John McClanahan; 1st Lieutenant, James Moore; 2d Lieutenant, William W. Turnbull.

Co. C — Captain, Lyman B. Cutler; 1st Lieutenant, John C. Gamball; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel L. Stephenson.

Co. D — Captain, Joshua M. Snyder; 1st Lieutenant, Hugh M. Robb; 2d Lieutenant, Francis M. Sykes.

Co. E — Captain, James M. Gilson; 1st Lieutenant, Erastus H. Pierce; 2d Lieutenant, John L. Parsons.

Co. F — Captain, John T. Morgan; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph A. Boyington; 2d Lieutenant, James W. Morgan.

Co. G — Captain, James G. Hammick; 1st Lieutenant, Horace Jones; 2d Lieutenant, John Jones.

Co. H — Captain, William G. Bond; 1st Lieutenant, Walter N. Bond; 2d Lieutenant, James C. Johnson.

Co. I — Captain, Joseph B. Dowley; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel D. Shoop; 2d Lieutenant, William S. Latimer.

Co. K — Captain, George W. Reynolds; 1st Lieutenant, Richard D. Russell; 2d Lieutenant, John S. Garrett.

On the 25th of August, 1862, the 83d left Monmouth for Cairo, 938 strong. From Cairo it proceeded to Fort Donelson, where it was placed on garrison duty. In October the regiment was ordered out, with other forces, in pursuit of rebel cavalry under General Morgan and Colonel Woodard. A fight took place at Garrettsburg, Kentucky, in which the rebels were completely routed. On the 3d of February, 1863, Colonel Harding made his heroic defence of Fort Donelson, of which we have given an extended account in Vol. I (p. 496 et seq.) of this work. For gallantry in this fight Colonel Harding was promoted to Brigadier-General, and

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Lieutenant-Colonel Smith to the Colonelcy of the regiment. General H. soon after left the service to take a seat in Congress. During 1863 and 1864, the regiment was almost constantly engaged in skirmishes with detached rebel commands and guerrillas — in the latter year participating in the campaign which expelled Wheeler and his forces from Tennessee, and afterward in the pursuit of Forrest. It was the fortune of the 83d to fight almost always against superior numbers, and no body of men could have exhibited more determined courage than did this regiment. It arrived in Chicago on the 30th of June, 1865, where it was mustered out and disbanded. The 83d went out 1,050 strong, and returned with 640 men.

EIGHTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 84th regiment was organized at Quincy, and mustered into the service on the 1st of September, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Louis H. Waters; Lieutenant Colonel, Thomas Hamer; Major, Charles H. Morton; Adjutant, Charles E. Waters; Quartermaster, Samuel L. Roe; Surgeon, James B. Kyle; 1st Assistant Surgeon, David McDill; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Elijah L. Marshall; Chaplain, Ralph Harris.

Co. A — Captain, John P. Higgins; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas G. Wisdom; 2d Lieutenant, William F. Stearns.

Co. B — Captain, Vincent M. Grewell; 1st Lieutenant, Lemuel L. Scott; 2d Lieutenant, James A. Russell.

Co. C — Captain, William Erwin; 1st Lieutenant, Epaphroditus C. Coulson; 2d Lieutenant, William P. Pearson.

Co. D — Captain, Moses W. Davis; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas D. Adams; 2d Lieutenant, Walter Scaggan.

Co. E — Captain, Miron G. Tousley; 1st Lieutenant, Hiram P. Roberts; 2d Lieutenant, Henry V. Lewis.

Co. F — Captain, Caleb B. Cox; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Nelson; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel Frost.

Co. G — Captain, Frederick Garternicht; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Fuller; 2d Lieutenant, Russell W. Caswell.

Co. K — Captain, John C. Pepper; 1st Lieutenant, Luther T. Ball; 2d Lieutenant, Henry E. Abercrombie.

Co. I — Captain, Albert J. Griffith; 1st Lieutenant, William Scott; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas F. Kendrick.

Co. K — Captain, John B. McGaw; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander P. Nelson; 2d Lieutenant, Hiram H. Mills.

The regiment left camp for Louisville, September 22d, and was assigned to the "Fighting Fourth" Corps. On the 29th it marched

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in pursuit of Bragg, and was present at the battle of Perryville, though not engaged. It then made the march to Nashville, being on half rations for a considerable portion of the time. From thence it started for Murfreesboro, and was engaged at the battle of Stone River, December 31, 1862, and January 1, 1863, losing 228 men. From Manchester it started across the Cumberland Mountains to Chickamauga, where it engaged in the battle of September 19th and 20th, and lost 172 men. On the 24th, 25th and 26th of November, it was engaged in the battles of Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge and Ringgold. February 22, 1864, it took part in the battle at Dalton. It then joined in the Atlanta campaign, and engaged in the battles of Buzzard's Roost, May 10th; Dalton, May 13th; Resaca, May 14th; Burlet Hickon, May 26th to June 3d; Kenesaw Mountain, Smyrna, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station. During this campaign it lost 125 men. Then began the retreat to Nashville. At Franklin and Nashville the 84th did excellent service. During the spring of 1865 the regiment was stationed at Nashville, where it was mustered out on the 8th of June. On the 12th it arrived at Camp Butler, where it was paid off and discharged. During its term of service the 84th lost 558 men in battle; had but one man taken prisoner; lost but ten men by desertion; had but one man sent to military prison, and but four tried by court martial. On going to the front, in 1862, it crossed the Ohio with 936 men. On its return, in 1865, it crossed that river with 326 men — making a total loss, from all causes, of 610 men. It was constantly in the front, in the Department of the Cumberland.

EIGHTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 86th Illinois Infantry was mustered into the service on the 27th of August, 1862, at Camp Lyon, Peoria, Illinois, at which time it numbered 923 men, rank and file. The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, David D. Irons; Lieutenant Colonel, David W. Magee; Major, James S. Bean; Adjutant, James E. Prescott; Quartermaster, Charles H. Dean; Surgeon, Matsena M. Hooton; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John Gregory; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Israel J. Gruth; Chaplain, George W. Brown.

Co. A — Captain, William S. Magarity; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Major; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel T. Rogers.

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Co. B — Captain, Elias C. Breasley; 1st Lieutenant, Jonathan C. Kingsley; 2d Lieutenant, Nelson McVicker.

Co. C — Captain, Joseph F. Thomas; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Bachelder; 2d Lieutenant, Reuben B. Beebe.

Co. D — Captain, Frank Hitchcock; 1st Lieutenant, William D. Faulkner; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Hall.

Co. E — Captain, Orlando Fountain; 1st Lieutenant, Malchi Grave; 2d Lieutenant, Solomon H. Williams.

Co. F — Captain, James L. Buckhalter; 1st Lieutenant, Nelson D. Combs; 2d Lieutenant, John Hall.

Co. G — Captain, William B. Bogardus; 1st Lieutenant, Solomon L. Zinser; 2d Lieutenant, Martin Kingman.

Co. H — Captain, John H. Hall; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin E. Peters; 2d Lieutenant, Davilla W. Merwin.

Co. I — Captain, Allen L. Fahnestock; 1st Lieutenant, Abner A. Lee; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob L. Fahnestock.

Co. K — Captain, John F. French; 1st Lieutenant, James B. Feet; 2d Lieutenant, Henry F. Irvin.

On the 7th of September, the regiment embarked for Louisville, Kentucky, where it remained till the 1st of October, when it joined in the pursuit of Bragg, under the command of General Buell. On the 8th of October, was fought the battle of Perryville, in which the 86th had the advance. In December the brigade was stationed at Nashville, Tennessee, where it remained, with a brief interim, until August 20th, 1863. The regiment was assigned to the Reserve Corps, Gordon Granger's, and on the 19th and 20th of September participated in the battles of Chickamauga, without sustaining any very material loss. After garrisoning Columbia, Tennessee — General Rosecrans at this time being in command of the Army of the Tennessee — the 86th marched to Huntsville and Bridgeport, and thence to Chattanooga. From this time until November 26th, the regiment was engaged in marching and skirmishing, at which date it had a sharp fight with Bragg at Sheppard's Run. It next accompanied Sherman in his march to relieve Burnside, at Knoxville. When near that place, it was ordered to retrace its steps to its former camping-ground, on the North Chickamauga. On the 26th of December it moved down to McAfee Church, seven miles from Chattanooga, where it went into winter quarters. In February it joined in a reconnoissance, going as far as Buzzard's Roost, where it took part in the engagement of

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that name. On the 4th of May the 86th marched to Ringgold, where General Sherman was concentrating his grand army for the march upon Atlanta. In this memorable campaign it bore an honorable part, being engaged in the battles at Rome, Dallas, Lost Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, &c., and in the siege of Atlanta.

The 86th took part in "Sherman's March to the Sea," sharing in all its perils and privations, reaching Savannah with the loss of one man wounded and six captured. Then followed the Carolina campaign, in which the 86th gave the rebels exhibitions of Illinois pluck at Averysboro and Bentonville.

On the 1st of May, 1865, the 86th left Raleigh, North Carolina, for Richmond, and participated in the grand review of the national armies at Washington. On the 21st and 22d of June, the regiment was paid off and disbanded at Chicago.

The number of miles marched on foot by the 86th is 3,500; number of miles traveled by rail, 2,000; number of commissioned officers killed in battle, 1; number of officers who died from wounds, 2; number of officers wounded in battle, 6; number of officers who died from disease, 1; number of officers who resigned, 17; number of officers discharged, 5; number of officers dismissed, 1. The number of men killed in battle is 52; number died of wounds, 25; number died of disease, 85; number wounded in battle, 160; number accidentally wounded, 16; number captured, 33; number deserted, 28. The number of men who returned is 359, and 29 officers, making a total of 388.

EIGHTY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 89th regiment was organized at Chicago, under the auspices of the several trunk railroads centering there, from which it received its well-known cognomen of "The Railroad Regiment of Illinois." The first company was mustered into the United States service on August 25th, and the last on August 27, 1862. The early organization of the regiment was under the care and supervision of Robert Forsyth, Esq., of the Illinois Central Railroad, and W. D. Manchester, Esq., of the Michigan Southern Railroad. On the 4th of September, the officers of the nine companies then composing the regiment elected the field officers, and completed the following muster-in roster:

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Captain John Christopher, of the 16th U. S. Infantry, Colonel; Captain Charles T. Hotchkiss, formerly of the 11th Illinois Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel; Duncan J. Hall, Major; S. F. Hance, Surgeon; H. B. Tuttle, Assistant Surgeon; Ed. F. Bishop, Adjutant; Fred. L. Fake, Quartermaster; Rev. J. H. Dill, Chaplain.

Co. A — Captain, E. A. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Rice; 2d Lieutenant Jacob N. Hopper.

Co. B — Captain, T. O. Spencer; 1st Lieutenant, Henry W. Smith; 2d Lieutenant, Horace W. Adams.

Co. C — Captain, Henry L. Rowell; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel A. Ellis; 2d Lieutenant, John L. Dorsey.

Co. D — Captain, John W. Spink; 1st Lieutenant, George F. Robinson; 2d Lieutenant, W. D. Clark.

Co. E — Captain, Bruce H. Kidder; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Walking; 2d Lieutenant, George W. White.

Co. F — Captain, William D. Williams; 1st Lieutenant, Ebenezer T. Wells; 2d Lieutenant, L. F. Dimick.

Co. G — Captain, Thomas Whiting; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac Copley; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Howell.

Co. H — Captain, Henry S. Willett; 1st Lieutenant, Franklin M. Hobbs; 2d Lieutenant, William Harkness.

Co. I — Captain, Samuel Comstock; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Phelps; 2d Lieutenant, Jesse Hale.

Co. K — Captain, Herbert M. Blake; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Sampson; 2d Lieutenant, James A. Jackson.

The regiment left Camp E. H. Williams, Chicago, on September 4th, and arrived at Louisville September 7th. In and near there it remained on outpost duty, in General Woodruff's brigade, Crufts' division, until October 1st, at which date it was assigned to the 6th brigade (Willich's), 2d division (R. W. Johnson's), right wing, Army of the Ohio, General Buell commanding. It took part in all the wearisome marches and skirmishes in pursuit of Bragg's army, from Lawrenceburg to Bowling Green, where it arrived October 31st. Here Company F, Captain Williams, joined the regiment. Here also the joyful tidings reached the army that Buell had been superseded by the hero of West Virginia and Iuka, General Rosecrans. A few days later, at Tyree Springs, Tennessee, "Old Rosie" became the guest of the regiment, and from that time onward he was held in high esteem by the boys of the 89th.

The regiment remained eleven days at Tyree Springs, with a section of Goodspeed's (A, 1st Ohio) Battery, doing picket and forage duty, when, being relieved by Rousseau's command, it rejoined McCook's corps at Nashville, November 17th. A few days afterward,

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General August Willich assumed command of the brigade, which consisted of the 32d Indiana (German), 15th and 49th Ohio, 39th Indiana, and 89th Illinois. Brigaded with what were then considered veteran troops — for all the other regiments had come out of Shiloh with brilliant records, especially the 32d Indiana, which had, under Willich's orders, gone through the manual of arms under heavy volley fire on that fatal field — the associations of the 89th with its sister regiments were anything but harmonious and friendly during the first three months. To Colonel Hotchkiss, the ablest drill master and shrewdest disciplinarian in the division, is due the honor of keeping up the spirits of his men and perfecting them in that drill which afterward made them an honor to their state and the pride of their several commanding generals.

On the 31st of December, 1862, the regiment took a prominent part in the blundering disaster to the right wing of Rosecrans' array in the decisive battle of Stone River. On the opening day of the battle, Willich's brigade occupied the extreme right of the line, its front slightly refused from the main line. The 89th lay in double column, en masse, in immediate rear of the 49th and 15th Ohio. The rebel General McCown (Kirby Smith's corps), in his advance, drove in the pickets of Kirk's and Willich's brigades, while hardly firing a shot, and both brigades, after a few minutes of irregular firing, fell back. To deploy the 89th was impossible, as the fugitives from other regiments were crowding the narrow opening occupied by Willich's men; but Colon el Hotchkiss managed to rally four or five companies around the colors, and by a few deliberate volleys checked the advance and inspired his own men. Captain Henry S. Willett, of Company H, was killed at this moment. From this time until reaching Rousseau's position, two hours later, the regiment "fought on its own hook," the coolness of its officers and the pluck of its men showing that veterans can be made in a day with the right material. Sergeant-Major Farquhar and Sergeant E. O. Young, of Company A, were both promoted for bravery in this battle, the former to a captaincy and the latter to a lieutenancy. At nightfall of the 31st, the regiment became the nucleus of re-organization for the brigade, and, some would say, for the division. During the following days of rain, hunger and skirmishing, nothing of

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particular moment occurred to the regiment until Friday night, when Breckinridge attempted to turn Rosecrans' left flank, but suffered a most disastrous repulse. That afternoon and night the 89th was the infantry support of Stokes' (Chicago Board of Trade) Battery, when it again showed the reliable and stubborn qualities of the gloomy closing day of 1862. After this battle, the 89th was put in the front line of Willich's brigade, in company with the 32d Indiana.

Stone River being won, the army rendezvoused in and around Murfreesboro until June 24th. During this time many changes occurred in the regiment. Colonel John Christopher, who had never joined the regiment, resigned January 7th, Lieutenant-Colonel Hotchkiss succeeding as Colonel, Major Duncan J. Hall (taken prisoner at Stone River), as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain William D. Williams, of Company F, as Major. Sergeant-Major John M. Farquhar became Captain of Company B, Captain T. O. Spencer having accepted the Chaplaincy, vacated by the decease of the noble, generous-hearted Mr. Dill, who died while on a mission for the relief of the wounded and sick of the regiment. Heavy battles and hard work at "the front" change muster-in rosters of new regiments wonderfully, and the 89th was no exception to the rule. Up to June 25th, the following resignations took place: Surgeon S. F. Hance; Captain E. A. Smith and Lieutenant J. N. Hopper, Company A; Lieutenant H. W. Smith, Company B; Lieutenant Samuel A. Ellis, Company C; Lieutenant W. D. Clark, Company D; Lieutenants J. B. Watkins and George W. White, Company E; and Lieutenant Isaac Copley, Company G.

In Rosecrans' advance against Bragg at Tullahoma, the only engagements worth official notice were at Shelbyville, Liberty Gap, and Hoover's Gap. At Liberty Gap the 89th again distinguished itself, receiving flattering mention in general orders. Here, among others, fell Captain Herbert M. Blake, of Company K — a noble Christian soldier.

Rosecrans, by masterly strategy, having now driven Bragg across the Tennessee, began his celebrated movement against Chattanooga, General Johnson leading off on the extreme right, on August 16th. The march from Tullahoma to the Tennessee river, and over the Sand and Lookout Mountain ranges of Northern Alabama, until reaching

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Chickamauga Creek, Georgia, September 17th, presented no remarkable feature but hard marching and countermarching. On the morning of September 19th, Johnson's division was rapidly marched from near the right of Rosecrans' main line, to the extreme left, where it became hotly engaged about noon, and steadily gained nearly two miles of ground, until five P. M., when the rebels abandoned their attempt to turn the left flank. It is shown by reports captured since Lee's surrender, that Johnson's division (handled by Willich, as Johnson was sick), fought and drove back, successively, in these five hours, Bates' and Cheatham's rebel divisions, capturing all their artillery engaged, and on the last charge fighting against the odds of J. K. Jackson's, Maney's, Strahl's, Wright's and Preston Smith's rebel brigades. This day was the glory of the 89th, although its losses were fearful. On Sunday, the 20th, the regiment was again in the hottest fighting on the left, and, with the brigade, was the last body of organized Federal troops to leave the bloody field. General Thomas chose Willich's brigade as the rear guard in the fall back of our army to Rossville, and Willich, in turn, assigned the 89th to the post of honor — Captains Farquhar and Sampson commanding the skirmishers. In the two days' fighting, the regiment lost in officers killed, Lieutenant-Colonel D. J. Hall, Captains Rice, Spink and Whiting, and Lieutenant Ellis (Company B); wounded, Adjutant E. A. Bishop, Captain J. M. Farquhar, and Lieutenant J. W. Warren; prisoner, Lieutenant H. W. Adams.

In the engagements at Orchard Knob and Mission Ridge, November 23d and 25th, the 89th displayed its Chickamauga vim in its new organization — Willich's brigade, Thomas J. Wood's (3d) division, 4th Army corps. Here fell the brave Captain Rowell, of Company C, and Lieutenant E. O. Young, of Company A.

From November 28, 1863, to May 3, 1864, the regiment, with the division, campaigned in East Tennessee against Longstreet's forces. In May commenced the celebrated Atlanta campaign, under Sherman, in the prominent battles of which the 89th took an honorable and oftentimes foremost part, losing two hundred and eleven officers and men, killed and wounded, in the campaign. At Peach Tree Creek, Lieutenant Nathaniel Street, of Company D, was killed; and at Kenesaw Mountain, Captain William Harkness, of Company A,

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was killed, and Lieutenant O. C. Pease, Company E, wounded. At New Hope Church, May 27th, Captain Dimick and Lieutenant Arenschild, Company F, Captain Samuel Comstock, Company I, and Lieutenant H. C. Wood, Company B, were wounded.

When Sherman divided his army for the "March to the Sea," the regiment returned with the 4th corps to the campaign against Hood in Tennessee, and took an active part in the engagements at Columbia, Franklin and Nashville. In the last named battle it captured more than its own number in prisoners, losing Peter G. Tait, of Company G, killed, and Major B. H. Kidder, and Lieutenant E. P. Walker, Company A, wounded.

After participating in the skirmishes in the retreat of Hood to the Tennessee river, the regiment marched to Huntsville, Alabama, thence took railroad transportation to East Tennessee, to aid in reestablishing communication through to Virginia. On Lee's surrender, further movements in that section were abandoned, and the regiment returned by cars to Nashville for final muster out. On the 10th of June, in the field, the 89th was mustered out of the United States service, left Nashville the same day, arrived in Chicago on June 12th, and was discharged and received final payment on June 24, 1885.

The following is the muster-out roster:

Colonel, Charles T. Hotchkiss, entered as Lieutenant-Colonel, since brevetted Brigadier-General; Lieutenant-Colonel, William D. Williams, entered as Captain Co. F; Major, John M. Farquhar, entered as private Co. B, then Sergeant-Major, then Captain Co. B; Surgeon, Henan B. Tuttle, entered as Assistant Surgeon; Assistant-Surgeon, Pembroke R. Thombs, joined March, 1863; Adjutant, Jerrie M. Grosh, entered as private Co. K, then Sergeant-Major; Quartermaster, George W. Deering, joined January 16, 1864.

Co. A — Captain, E. P. Walker, entered as Corporal; 1st Lieutenant, Bryan O'Conner, entered as private Co. K, then Sergeant-Major.

Co. B — Captain, Hardin C. Wood, entered as Sergeant; 1st Lieutenant, Horace W. Adams, original rank, long a prisoner; 2d Lieutenant, Emory H. Howell, entered as Corporal.

Co. C — Captain, James M. Rigney, entered as Corporal, then 1st Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, W. H. Kinney, entered as Corporal.

Co. D — Captain, George F. Robinson, entered as 1st Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander Beecher, entered as private, then 2d Lieutenant.

Co. E — Captain, John W. Warren, entered as Sergeant; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Miller, entered as Sergeant; 2d Lieutenant, Oscar C. Pease, entered as Corporal.

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Co. F — Captain, James F. Copp, entered as Sergeant; 1st Lieutenant, Charles J. Arenschild, entered as Sergeant.

Co. G — Captain, William H. Howell, entered as 2d Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, J. M. Swickard, entered as Corporal.

Co. H — Captain, John A. Beeman, entered as Sergeant; 1st Lieutenant, Aaron M. Boomer, entered as Corporal.

Co. I — Captain, William H. Phelps, entered as 1st Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, Charles M. Carnahan, entered as Sergeant.

Co. K — Captain, William A. Sampson, entered as 1st Lieutenant; 1st Lieutenant, James A. Jackson, entered as 2d Lieutenant; 2d Lieutenant, Horace G. Greenfield, entered as Corporal.

The following official statement is the best encomium of the 89th's hard service and gallantry that can be pronounced: In 1863, 440 recruits were added to the regiment, making a total borne on the rolls of 1,403. It left in the field 202 recruits (transferred to the 59th Illinois ), and mustered out on its rolls 381 officers and men, leaving 820 men killed in action, died from wounds, or discharged on account of disability contracted in service. The official reports of Stone River, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge, Atlanta and Nashville show a casualty list of 536 officers and men. By official authority the names of twenty-three battle fields are inscribed on the regimental colors.

NINETIETH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 90th regiment was recruited and organized, at Camp Douglas, Chicago, and was christened the "Irish Legion," by Father Dunne, who was largely instrumental in its organization. At the date of its muster into the service, September 22, 1862, its roster was as follows:

Colonel, Timothy O'Meara; Lieutenant-Colonel, Smith McCleavy; Major, Owen Stewart; Adjutant, Edwin S. Davis; Quartermaster, Redmond Sheridan; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John B. Davidson; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Darwin Hinckley; Chaplain, Thomas F. Kelley.

Co. A — Captain, Patrick Flynn; 1st Lieutenant, James Conway; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel Corcoran.

Co. B — Captain, Michael W. Murphy; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas Gray; 2d Lieutenant, Charles Billingale.

Co. C — Captain, Patrick O'Marah; 1st Lieutenant, John C. Harrington; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Murray.

Co. D — Captain, David O'Conner; 1st Lieutenant, John W. Kelley; 2d Lieutenant, Peter O'Brine.

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Co. E — Captain, Matthew Leonard; 1st Lieutenant, John McAssey; 2d Lieutenant, Lawrence S. McCarthy.

Co. F — Captain, Richard C. Kelley; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Feeney; 2d Lieutenant, William White.

Co. G — Captain, John Murphy; 1st Lieutenant, David Duffy; 2d Lieutenant, Patrick Campion.

Co. H — Captain, Peter Casey; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew Liddle; 2d Lieutenant, George W. McDonald.

Co. I — Captain, William Cunningham; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Teahon; 2d Lieutenant, John J. O'Leary.

Co. K — Captain, Thomas K. Barrett; 1st Lieutenant, Peter Real; 2d Lieutenant, John Larkin.

On the 27th of September, 1862, the regiment left Camp Douglas for Lagrange, Tennessee, 980 strong. After remaining four days at the latter place it was sent to Coldwater, Mississippi, where it was first engaged with the rebel General Van Dorn's cavalry on the 20th day of December. After capturing Holly Springs, he attacked the pickets of the 90th, but was repulsed. In June, 1863, the regiment took part in the siege of Vicksburg, and on the 13th, 14th and 17th of July participated in the battle of Jackson. On the 11th of October, the 90th assisted in driving the rebels from Collierville, and saving the town from falling into the hands of the enemy. On the 25th of November it participated in the battle of Missionary Ridge [Vol. I., p. 314], with a loss of 143 killed, wounded and missing, including Colonel Timothy O'Meara among the killed. Then followed the battles of Resaca on the 13th and 14th of May, 1864; Dallas, Georgia, May 28th; before Atlanta, July 22d and 28th, and August 3d; Jonesboro, Georgia, August 31st; Lovejoy Station, September 2d; Gadsden, Alabama, October 25th; Fort McAllister, December 7th. In 1865, we find them with Sherman in the march to Savannah and through the Carolinas. After the surrender of Johnston to Sherman, the 90th marched to Washington, where they took part in the grand review before the President. On the 10th of June, 1865, the regiment reached Chicago, where it was mustered out and discharged.

The 90th regiment sustained an aggregate loss of 300 men in battle, and returned home with only 221 men, of whom forty-one were crippled beyond carrying a musket.

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NINETY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 91st regiment was organized at Camp Butler, Springfield, and mustered into the service on the 8th of September, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Henry M. Day; Lieutenant-Colonel, Harry S. Smith; Major, George A. Day; Adjutant, William Grant; Quartermaster, Eugene M. Wiswell; Surgeon, David LeRoy; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Edgar L. Phillips; 2d Assistant Surgeon, William T. Day; Chaplain, John C. Sargent.

Co. A — Captain, Isaac Skillman; 1st Lieutenant, William R. Pack; 2d Lieutenant, James T. Renbart.

Co. B — Captain, Joseph A. James; 1st Lieutenant, John M. Marrah; 2d Lieutenant, Matthew Shaw.

Co. C — Captain, John McKinney; 1st Lieutenant, Caswell Hanna; 2d Lieutenant, Jonathan P. Long.

Co. D — Captain, Edwin I. Fosha; 1st Lieutenant, Philip Seelback; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel N. Van Antwerp.

Co. E — Captain, Thomas B. Hanna; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin Brown; 2d Lieutenant, John Q. A. Rider.

Co. F — Captain, Elmers Ryan; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred H. Grass; 2d Lieutenant, Nathan B. Hoff.

Co. G — Captain, James D. Roodhouse; 1st Lieutenant, John H. Wilson; 2d Lieutenant, Isaac N. Oaks.

Co. H — Captain, Jordan Lakin; 1st Lieutenant, James Coates; 2d Lieutenant, John Jones.

Co. I — Captain, Slocum H. Culver; 1st Lieutenant, Robert Dennis; 2d Lieutenant, Theodore P. Hackney.

Co. K — Captain, Benjamin Newman; 1st Lieutenant, John F. Collins; 2d Lieutenant, Alexander S. Denton.

The regiment left Camp Butler on the 1st of October for Louisville, from whence it went to Shepherdsville, where it guarded the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. On the 27th of December it was attacked at Elizabethtown, Kentucky, by the rebel General Morgan, and captured. It was paroled, and sent to Benton Barracks for exchange. The exchange was effected June 3, 1863, when the regiment was ordered to Vicksburg, arriving on the 14th of July. It was next sent to Port Hudson, and thence to Carrollton, arriving August 16th. Here it remained till September 6th, when it moved to Morganzia, thence to the Atchafalaya River, where it had a brisk engagement with the enemy, who were routed with heavy loss. October 10th the regiment returned to Morganzia, thence to Carrollton,

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and on the 22d embarked for Brownsville, Texas, where it was determined to break up the illicit traffic between the rebels and Mexico. The troops landed on the 3d of November at Brazos Santiago, and were entirely successful in capturing and occupying Brownsville. The 91st remained here till July, 1864, guarding the Texas frontier, when it was stationed at Brazos Santiago. Here it remained till late in December, when it was sent to New Orleans. In February, 1865, it joined the 13th Army Corps at Fort Morgan, where the expedition for the capture of Mobile was made up. The 91st took an active part in this campaign, participating in the taking of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakeley. After the surrender of the city, it pursued the flying rebels to Eight Mile Creek, where it attacked them, driving them in confusion from the field at the point of the bayonet. This engagement was probably the last one of the war east of the Mississippi. After remaining in this vicinity for some time, the regiment returned to Mobile, where it was mustered out of the service on the 12th of July, 1865. On the 22d it arrived at Springfield, where it was paid off and discharged.

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Chapter XX. — Incidents and Sketches.

SCARCITY OF MATERIAL — SEVENTY-FOURTH AND EIGHTY-EIGHTH AT FRANKLIN — CHARGE — STAMPEDE — COLONEL SMITH — CAPTAIN BARNARD — CORPORAL NEWMAN — CAPTURES — THANKS OF GENERAL WOOD — GENERAL THOMAS — CASUALTIES — THE SEVENTY- SECOND — CHARGED BY REBELS — DRIVEN — RETAKE THEIR LINE — LIEUTENANT-COLONEL STOCKTON — MAJOR JAMES — LOSS — THE SEVENTY-FIFTH — CHARGE THROUGH AN OPEN FIELD — ITS CAPTURES — THE EIGHTY-EIGHT AT STONE RIVER — ON FRONT LINE — "FIRE AND FIRE LOW" — AT MISSION RIDGE — LIEUTENANT-COLONEL CHANDLER — COLONEL JOHN W. SHAFFER.

THE author regrets that there is not more of personal incident preserved in the ana of the war. He has sought them diligently, but such has been the magnitude of the issues and extent of the campaigns that little space has been accorded to personal prowess, personal self-sacrifice and devotion. And yet that grand army was made up of persons, sons of mothers to whom each son was a hero, brothers, husbands, fathers!

THE SEVENTY-FOURTH AND EIGHTY-EIGHTH AT FRANKLIN.

From a soldier's letter we give the following describing the 88th and 74th at the battle of Franklin:

"Our brigade held the advance, the 88th (with which, for the purposes of field operations, is consolidated with the 74th Illinois) composing the rear of the column. A mile before reaching Spring Hill news came that Forrest, who had crossed Duck River during the night, was moving upon the town. Instantly, and not a moment too soon, we were put on the double quick. Reaching town we could see the enemy's cavalry moving across the fields from the right in most gallant and confident style. Without halting or unslinging knapsacks the 88th was moved out of column by the right flank, and deployed as skirmishers in Forrest's front. We pushed back the enemy steadily and surely, driving him a mile, when we formed our skirmish line

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for the night. Meanwhile he had massed heavily on the right of the division, making a series of desperate charges in front of the 2d and 3d brigades, which suffered some temporary disaster. Night closed in soon afterwards, and the fighting ceased. Meanwhile the trains were all getting in, and the other divisions of our corps and the 23d corps coming up. By 2 o'clock A. M. of the 30th the last wagon was on the road to Franklin; by 4 o'clock the army was in motion, and at 6 o'clock this regiment, which was again designated for the post of honor, was in position as skirmishers for the rear of the army. Hood's cavalry followed us pretty closely, getting round on our flank whenever the wooded hills jutted out sufficiently close to the road to enable them to give us a volley. We had several sharp bouts with them during the march, but kept them at a respectful distance. At noon we reached Franklin, which Cox's division of the 23d Corps had already intrenched. The 2d and 3d brigades of our division were posted half a mile in advance of the works, as a sort of column of observation, with orders to retire to the main line in the event of the appearance of any considerable rebel force, while our brigade was massed in reserve three or four hundred yards in rear of the works for the purpose of rest and refreshment. Thus matters stood until about half past 3 o'clock, when the 2d and 3d brigades, being flanked by largely superior numbers, retired upon the main line in considerable haste and disorder. At the same time the rebel charging columns were set in motion, and when our outposts reached the works the rebels were close behind them, and all things were mixed up like confusion worse confounded. As our forces clambered over the breastworks they communicated a panic to that portion of the 23d Corps which occupied that part of the works, and then began a scene which beggars all description. Backward, in affrighted stampede, came men and artillery; the rebel yells of triumph rang in our ears, and we all knew that unless, on our part, there was instant fighting as furious and desperate as last hope could make it, nothing but irretrievable disaster could possibly result. In the twinkling of an eye, therefore, our brigade was under arms. There was no time to form brigade front; we charged by regiments, the consolidated 88th leading and clearing the way. Col. Smith, Major Holden and Adjutant Realf were on horseback; there was indeed no time to dismount had we desired to do so. In all my life I never saw, in all my readings I never read of, a more knightly scene than that of Colonel Smith, at the head of the charging column, cap in hand, dashing hither and thither, chock in the white heat of the fray, nerving the brave, shaming the coward, an unconscious hero in every inch of him. Presently his horse was shot, presently the Major's; the Adjutant's escaped being hit. Well, an awful time, for a while, we had of it. I never saw hand-to-hand fighting before. Captain Barnard shot two rebels with his revolver; Corporal Newman, of Company G, nearly severed a rebel captain's head with an ax; somebody actually pinned a rebel soldier to the breastworks by the stroke of a pick-ax. I saw a rebel color-bearer knocked flat with the butt end of a musket, and there were bayonetings without number. But, thank God, we stayed all the rebel tide. Then, when we had things safe, we got up the stragglers, and by and by affairs again assumed order and shape. But Hood was not content; again and again, until the eleventh time, he charged us with desperate frenzy. The slaughter was perfectly horrible; the ground was actually slippery with blood and gore. The 88th Illinois captured one division and four regimental flags; the 74th Illinois captured two, making seven in all, and we took from 200 to 300 prisoners.

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"At midnight, when the troops withdrew, we were left to cover the movement of our brigade, and for an hour and a half opposed our thin skirmish line to the solid rebel columns. Some of us confess to have been a little nervous, and certainly you will admit it to have been a critical and ticklish position. But we got off safely, rejoined our brigade, and moved with it to the outer defenses of Nashville.

"Arrived there, Gen. Wood (who in the absence of Gen. Stanley, wounded, commands the corps), accompanied by Wagner and Thomas, paid the regiment a visit. Gen. Wood sought out Col. Smith and addressed him thus: ‘Colonel, I desire to repeat to you, in the presence of Gen. Thomas and of your regiment, that which Gen. Stanley said to me respecting yourself and the troops you command, that with the exception only of Col. Opdyke, commanding your brigade, with whom you share the honor — to your special gallantry and special exertions more than to those of any other man, is owing the repulse of the rebel column, the safety of the army and the victory of the day. In his name and in mine I thank you.’ Thereupon Gen. Thomas desired to see our captured flags, when, turning to Gen. Wagner, he desired him to make an official report relative to Col. Smith, and to the regiment, assuring the men that their services were most thoroughly appreciated.

"Our casualties were, 2 killed, 7 wounded, and 6 missing — 15 in all. The 74th suffered more, and it is due to the officers and men of that regiment to say that every word of commendation honestly earned by ourselves was earned by them also. No soldiers could be cooler, more courageous or more enduring than they. Side by side we fought, and, as sometimes in whist, ‘honors are easy’ between us."

THE SEVENTY-SECOND.

Another thus describes the 72d:

"The 72d was placed at the center of the lines surrounding the city, and upon a gentle slope, at the bottom of which and outside of the line was a small grove of young trees. On our right was a depression an eighth of a mile wide, on our left the ground was higher than that occupied by our regiment. The men were not in the best condition for an engagement, but nevertheless they all took their positions in the pits, with an evident willingness, if not eagerness, and so confident were officers and men that we should hold our line, that nothing was taken by them except their arms and accoutrements. The regiment was working on the breastworks when it was ordered to the pits, where it stood in silence some time previous to taking part. Some were watching the advancing foe and the dimly descried contest in the distance, some intently engaged in thinking over the probabilities of the impending battle, while not a few were silently but fervently offering up a prayer to Heaven.

"On rushed the maddened foe. When they came in range the cry went up, ‘Open on them, boys; give it to them.’ And the boys did open on them, and, when once commenced, the firing did not cease for ten long hours.

"But the enemy were too powerful and numerous, and, forcing the line at our left, opened a cross-fire, which event, together with our skirmishers, rushing over our works, caused our regiment to fall back to the second line of works. But our line was soon after retaken, principally by our boys, and held till after dark, when the rebels, after repeated assaults, and from their position on the left, compelled us to leave it.

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"The officers showed themselves to be as fearless as the men were brave, and both of our field officers were wounded while heroically facing the tremendous fire of the enemy and directing with coolness the fire of the men. Thus, in the very first part of our energetic resistance, fell our noble and brave Lieutenant-Colonel Stockton and Major James. But we can hope for their speedy recovery and return. The command of the regiment then devolved upon the gallant Captain James A. Sexton, whose exertions upon various parts of the field will not be forgotten.

"The coolness and self-possession of the officers was truly encouraging to the men, and the determination of both was very effective in making such a successful resistance in the face of so many embarrassments.

"Charge upon charge was made by the rebels, and repulse upon repulse followed which brought forth yells and cheers from our lines. The proportion of our loss to that of the whole rebel loss shows plainly the part they took in the battle of Franklin."

The 75th in the same battle suffered severely. In the battle of Nashville on the second day it charged through an open corn-field on the double quick for the distance of a half mile, the enemy being under partial cover on the brow of a little hill; he was driven by the 75th, leaving twenty-six in our hands. The regiment kept up fire from that point for two hours. A second charge was made by the whole corps, by brigades en echelon; the 75th was in the front charging line and captured 223 prisoners, with quantities of stores, etc.

The 72d lost nine officers out of sixteen engaged and 152 men killed and severely wounded. Such is an honorable record.

THE EIGHTY-EIGHTH AT STONE RIVER.

We quote from the MSS. of one on the field:

"The morning of the 31st of December, 1862, broke cold and cheerless. The men were stiff with the cold, having lain, without fires, in a muddy cotton-field in front of Harding's house during the night. The position of the regiment was on the left of the brigade and division, and in the first line of battle. Day had scarcely dawned before the pickets opened fire all along the lines, and ere the sun had risen, the rebels advanced in force on the right wing under Gen. McCook.

"Four regiments of the enemy marched directly on the position held by the 88th. Col. Sherman gave orders that not a gun should be fired until he gave the word, and was obeyed. A brigade of four regiments in column were coming steadily on with their battle flags displayed. The regiment waited until the first line was within seventy-five yards of where it lay. With a yell the enemy took the double quick for the charge, and then our Colonel gave the order to ‘fire, and fire low!’ A simultaneous discharge of all the muskets in his command answered, and as that volley

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went tearing through the rebel ranks, it shook them as if an earthquake were rumbling beneath their feet. So unexpected was the volley that the whole column came to a cloud halt giving the 88th time to reload. Again the rebel officers succeeded in getting the column to advance, and again another volley, more terrible than the first, swept through their ranks from the heavy guns with which the regiment was armed. This they could not face and the remnant of the brigade sank to the ground to find shelter. The Colonel now ordered file firing upon them as they lay, and soon drove them from their front in utter confusion.

"For six hours we were under heavy fire without cessation, and with empty cartridge boxes were forced from the field, when Sheridan's division fought so nobly against overpowering numbers and saved the day. One hundred and fifty-one men out of 416, which was the effective force of the regiment in the morning, lay on the field at night and in the hands of the enemy.

"At Chickamauga it lost 106 out of less than 300 with which it went into action."

MISSION RIDGE.

The lamented Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler says in his report of the storming of Mission Ridge:

"We advanced on quick time until we reached the edge of the timber, when we took the ‘double quick’ across the plain, a distance of half a mile to the first line of works, the enemy firing into our ranks from the first line, and pouring grape and canister from the batteries on the crest of the ridge. Here, under the little shelter afforded by this first line of works, the men sank from exhaustion. We remained here only a few moments, and advanced to the second line, driving the enemy in confusion before us. The men were now so completely exhausted, and there was kept up such a galling fire from the enemy, that a further advance seemed out of question. A few moments of rest, however, and they followed the colors which were ordered forward. The advance, which was slow but sure, having to contend not only with the direct fire, but enfilading fire from the right. When near the upper works of the enemy we halted, waiting for the troops on our right to move forward and draw from us the fire, which was enfilading our line of advance. This fire, not in any way diminishing, I ordered the colors forward on the works, which a moment after were carried, and the ‘stars and stripes’ waved triumphantly on Missionary Ridge, the enemy being in full retreat and great confusion.

"The distance from where the charge was begun to the top of the ridge was at least one and a half miles across a wide open plain, and up a long steep hill, protected by three lines of rifle-pits, one at the foot, the second about half way up, and the third on the crest of the ridge, with artillery at the top. The time occupied was about one and a half hours. The regiment rested on the ridge until about one o'clock the next morning, when, with the brigade, we moved to the front a mile and a half, and halted until about ten o'clock, when we moved forward to Chickamauga Creek. In the afternoon we returned to camp.

"I desire to make honorable mention of the officers of this regiment, all of whom did their duty most gallantly. Captain George W. Smith, of Company A, acting field officer, was conspicuous for his bravery while urging on the almost

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exhausted men, until about two thirds of the way up the hill, he fell, severely wounded. First Lieutenant, Dean R. Chester, commanding Company G, was shot through the leg while crossing the plain, but gallantly led his company to the second line of works.

"Second Lieutenant Henry L. Bingham, commanding Company H, was killed just before we reached the second line, but proved himself entirely worthy the straps he had so recently mounted. First Lieutenant Edward E. Tucker, commanding Company D, was conspicuous for his daring, in moving among the men, urging them forward. Sergeant Richard Realf was everywhere, urging on those who fell behind of other regiments, as well as those of our own. It affords me great satisfaction to mention our brave color-bearer, Sergeant John Cheever, who gallantly carried our banner, planting it always in the advance for the regiment to rally on, never letting it trail in the dust, but waving it encouragingly to those behind, and defiantly to the enemy before him, never faltering until he waved it over the top of Missionary Ridge. It is difficult to select any one from the ranks and give him special mention where all behaved so well; but I must mention Corporal Thomas Lacy, of Company K, and private William Isbester, of Company C, who seemed to vie with the colors for the advance."

In this engagement the regiment lost forty-seven men and seven officers.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL GEORGE W. CHANDLER.

The unsuccessful attack upon Kenesaw cost the State many valuable lives among whom were none more precious than that of Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Chandler of the 88th. He was born in St. Armand East, Messisquoi County, Canada East, and, although born in Queen Victoria's domain, he was of patriotic stock, his grandsire having been a soldier of the Revolution from Hartford, Conn. Receiving a respectable education and a thorough training as an accountant, he came to Chicago in 1855 and entered the banking-house of George Smith, in which he remained until 1859 when he accepted a clerkship in the office of the City Comptroller.

When war came he threw himself entirely in the cause of the country, assisted actively in enlisting two companies of the 88th, and was chosen Captain of the "Kimbark Guards." When the regiment was organized he was unanimously chosen as its Major and so commissioned, ranking from September 4, 1862. He was presented by personal friends with a handsome outfit.

The Major was untiring in the performance of his duties through the campaigns of Buell, Rosecrans and Sherman. After the battle

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of Stone River General Rosecrans designated him to command the Brigade of Honor, which he decided to form, to be composed of men selected from different regiments engaged in those battles, who had made themselves most conspicuous for deeds of bravery and gallantry, in honor of their services, and as an incentive to his army's future acts of courage and daring. It was not deemed advisable to carry out the formation of the "Brigade of Honor," although the Roll of Honor was completed, by designating the names of the brave men who would compose the brigade, whenever it might be thought proper to organize it.

He distinguished himself for intrepidity and coolness on the field, and for personal morality, being entirely free from profanity, and other vices too common in the army.

Subsequently to Stone River, Colonel Sherman being in command of a brigade and the Lieutenant-Colonel absent, from illness and on detached duty, he was in command of his regiment. He was a rigid disciplinarian, but a tender-hearted, humane commander. After the battle of Chickamauga the Lieutenant-Colonel resigned and Major Chandler was promoted. He distinguished himself greatly at Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain. At midnight, after the storming of Mission Ridge, he wrote to a friend:

"I am cheating myself out of the sleep I ought to have, to do some writing, and will steal time to say a word.

"We have this day accomplished that which the nation ought to feel proud of, and grateful to us for doing. I do not write this in any boasting spirit, but I feel that the blow has been struck that will cause the tottering to its very foundation of the so-called ‘Southern Confederacy.’ God grant that it may be so.

"You will have read ere this reaches you, in the city papers, the telegrams of good news, and also the detail of the storming of ‘Mission Ridge,’ a position considered by the enemy as impregnable to any assault.

"It was glorious to see the ‘old flag’ — the stars and stripes — that proud emblem of Liberty and Freedom, cross the upper line of the rebel rifle-pits and wave triumphantly on the top of the ‘Bald Hills of Mission Ridge.’ It was all the more glorious to me to know that the 88th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was the first to carry her colors across that line of works, and wave them defiantly to the retreating enemy."

His letters home expressed the most intense loathing of cowardly Northern sympathizers, but in this they only resembled those of almost the whole army rank and file.

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From Mission Ridge to Kenesaw his regiment was in the advance and day after day in the skirmish line, sustaining and brightening its reputation, and receiving commendations from its commanding General. When the burst upon Kenesaw came, Howard's corps, which was to have been held in reserve, was placed in advance, and in the charge Colonel Chandler fell, shot through. Major G. W. Smith thus wrote:

"IN THE FIELD, NEAR MARIETTA, GA.,"
June 28, 1864.

"GEO. M. KIMBARK, ESQ., CHICAGO, ILL.:

"Dear Sir: — I am pained to write to you of the death of Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Chandler, who was killed yesterday in a charge upon the enemy's works at this point, by a musket shot through the body. Death followed the wound almost instantly. It is unnecessary for me to express to you the sorrow which his loss occasions me, for you know my high estimation of his character (shared by all who knew him here and at home), and the warm friendship which has existed between us. The service has, in him, indeed, lost a capable, efficient officer, his regiment a brave and gallant leader, and his brother officers a comrade with whom they have been proud to do battle, and to whose efficiency and continued faithful performance of duty, much of the reputation of the 88th is due. It is strange and mysterious that one should have escaped so many perils and dangers to fall at last in the closing struggle of the war, but I know that, on his part, the sacrifice of his life for the cause of the nation was willingly and cheerfully made; his patriotism was untainted, unselfish and rare. He died as he would have wished — on the field — without pain or suffering, saying only — ‘Give me some water and let me die.’

"All that I can offer in aid of his friends will be gladly done. We are still in the midst of the campaign, when to end, no one knows. The work before us is yet hard, but will be accomplished.

Very truly yours,
"GEORGE W. SMITH,
"Major Commanding 88th Illinois Volunteer Infantry."

A letter from Colonel F. T. Sherman, chief of General Howard's staff — dated "near Marietta, Georgia, June 27th," giving an account of the repulse at Kenesaw Mountain — says:

"Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Chandler, of the 88th, was almost instantly killed at the head of his regiment — one more has been added to the list of the noble and pure of our land who have laid down their lives in defending the right. May he rest in peace."

Upon the announcement of his death, the Board of Trade passed resolutions of respect, of condolence with his relatives and appointed

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a committee to receive and bury with fitting honor the body of the deceased.

The funeral was one of solemn pomp. The old members of the 88th acted as guard of honor. The remains arrived in charge of Captain H. H. Cushing, Quartermaster 4th Corps, July 6th, and on the 7th were borne to Bryan Hall where they lay in state. The casket was wreathed with flags and covered with rare flowers and across it lay his sword inscribed,

Presented to Major George W. Chandler, after the battle of Stone River, by the line officers of his regiment, on the occasion of his being appointed by Major-General Rosecrans to command his "Brigade of Honor," in consideration of his gallant services in the field.

Thousands came to the hall with saddened, thoughtful step. At half past three P. M. detachments of the 8th and 15th Veteran Reserve Corps under Major Skinner, the guard of honor, associations of the city and citizens filled the hall, where appropriate religious services were held and the procession moved to the depot, and the body was sent to the mother and sisters of the deceased in Canada.

And so went to his grave a pure, brave soldier without reproach.

COLONEL JOHN W. SHAFFER.

Colonel John Wilson Shaffer was born in Union County, Pennsylvania, on the 5th of July, 1827. His father died in 1838, leaving seven children, four sons and three daughters. John was the oldest of the boys; his sisters were all older than himself. Within two months after his father's death, he started to earn his own living, and aid his widowed mother, with whom and the family, in the spring of 1849, he started west. On the road the emigrant family buried one of the sisters, who died of cholera. In May, 1849, he reached Freeport, Illinois, with less than five dollars in money, but with a stout heart. With the exception of one year in California, and his army life, he has continued to reside there. He engaged in mercantile life until elected Sheriff of Stephenson County in 1856, at which time he first took part in politics, in which he manifested at once rare ability. In 1860, he was elected clerk of the Circuit Court, and Recorder for Stephenson County. When, in April, 1861, President

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Lincoln issued his first call for 75,000 troops, Governor Yates telegraphed Mr. Shaffer to repair at once to Springfield for consultation where he remained until after the first six regiments were sent into the field. When the ten additional regiments were called for on the part of the State, Mr. Shaffer was requested by Governor Yates to return to Freeport, and arrange to take care of one of those regiments — the 15th Illinois Volunteers. During its organization Mr. Shaffer was constantly associated with Captain John Pope, the mustering officer, and when Captain Pope was appointed a Brigadier-General he immediately telegraphed to Washington asking that Mr. Shaffer be appointed his Quartermaster. His appointment was sent to him by telegraph, and he went with General Pope to Missouri. When General Hunter was appointed a Major-General, Captain Shaffer was relieved by order of the Secretary of War, from duty with General Pope, and ordered to report to General Hunter, and when General Hunter relieved General Fremont, at Springfield, Missouri, Captain Shaffer became chief Quartermaster of the army in the field. When General Hunter was sent to Kansas, Captain Shaffer accompanied him, but was subsequently sent to Port Royal, as Chief Quartermaster Department of the South. When General Butler left-Ship Island, the War Department selected Colonel Shaffer (President Lincoln having, without solicitation from Captain Shaffer, promoted him to the rank of Colonel), as the proper officer to perform the responsible duties of Chief Quartermaster Department of the Gulf. He arrived in New Orleans about two weeks after General Butler had taken possession, and assumed direction of the Quartermasters Department. His services during 1862, were of the most extraordinary, responsible and harassing nature, so completely breaking down his health that he was compelled, in January, 1863, to send his resignation to Washington, which was returned by the Secretary of War, not accepted, but granting him leave of absence until he should recover his health. In the fall of 1863, he again reported for duty, and was ordered to report to General Butler, then in Washington, on his way to assume command of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina. He was assigned to duty, by General Butler, as Chief-of-Staff, and in addition to the duties of his position took charge of the correspondence connected with the exchange

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of prisoners, and, under the direction of General Butler, managed the entire office work of that bureau. In May, 1864, when the Army of the James was preparing to make that most remarkable movement up James River, into an enemy's country, in unarmed boats, Colonel Shaffer, in addition to his ordinary duties as Chief-of-Staff, assumed entire charge of the shipping, and to his indomitable energy General Butler acknowledged himself, in a great part, indebted for the success of the expedition. Every movement of the Army of the James bore evidence of his energy and courage, until he was compelled to resign, in September, 1864, being again completely broken down in health, and the War Department reluctantly accepted of his final resignation.

Governor Yates, at several different times, tendered to Colonel Shaffer the command of a regiment, which he declined at the commencement of the war because he felt he had not the experience necessary; and, later, because he considered it due to the junior officers of the regiments that they should have the promotion. No more generous soldier than Colonel Shaffer was in the army; and while in the West, in the South, and on the Potomac he was ever zealous of the rights and interests of the officers and soldiers of the Illinois regiments — fighting their battles for them in the departments at Washington, and insisting on the promotions due to their gallantry in the field. Says an officer, "His care for the Illinois troops is a bright page in his military history, and all over the State there are regimental and line officers, who, with gratitude, remember ‘Wilse,’ and who will wish him a long and happy life." We cannot better close our sketch of Colonel Shaffer, than by quoting the touching letter of Major-General Butler to him on his finally leaving the service with broken health:

"HEAD-QUARTERS DEP'T OF VIRGINIA AND NORTH CAROLINA.
"IN THE FIELD, SEPTEMBER 25, 1864.

"MY DEAR SHAFFER —

"As now our long and pleasant personal relations in the camp and in the field are severed, probably never to be renewed under their former conditions, I will not refrain from saying to you with my pen, what each was too much moved when we parted — either to speak or to hear.

"I have to thank you, in behalf of the country, with earnest gratitude for the unwearied vigilance with which you have always done your duty as an officer, with

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the single purpose of her service and her interests. True patriotism is shown by acts and thoughtful devotion to public interests. Nothing but shattered health against which you have been struggling during the whole campaign, has taken you unwillingly from the army — and not till long after every friend thought it a duty to yourself that you should go — and I hope, and reverently pray the Disposer of all events that in His wisdom you may be restored to the greatest of all blessings.

"But it is not of the performance of your public duties that I desired to speak — of that your military record, and the opinion of all your associates of the staff will testify. There is a warmer and nearer tie which has been your guide in our official intercourse, which fills the heart as I write, and makes the pen tame in utterance. The truest and most unselfish personal friendship — your country first — myself next — yourself last was the chart of duty to you. That your devotion to duty and friendship is most gratefully appreciated by me — and your sentiments of personal regard fully reciprocated — why need I write? That we shall be divided, except by space, is impossible, and I shall always be happy to subscribe myself,

"Most truly, your friend,
"(Signed) BENJ. F. BUTLER.

"Colonel J. W. SHAFFER,
"(Late) Chief-of-Staff, Army of the James."

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Chapter XXI. — Onward From Savannah.

JANUARY, 1865 — COLUMNS IN MOTION — GRANT AND SHERMAN — LOGAN — RIGHT WING — A SKIRMISH — CHAPLAIN'S LETTER — LOGAN'S CORPS — KILPATRICK — WILLIAMS — EXTRACTS FROM SHERMAN'S REPORT — SWOLLEN WATERS — SHERMAN'S REPORT — EDISTO BRIDGES — THE DIVIDED REBEL FORCE — KILPATRICK — ATKINS — SHERMAN AND THE RIGHT WING — ORANGEBURG — HARDEE — CROSSING OF CONGAREE — COLUMBIA — SHERMAN'S REPORT— THE CONFLAGRATION — WHO WAS TO BLAME? — SHERMAN OF WADE HAMPTON — SOLDIERS' LOVE FOR SOUTH CAROLINA — LEFT WING — MARCHES FOR WINNSBORO — RIGHT JOINS IT — BARNWELL — NINETY-SECOND ILLINOIS — BLACKVILLE — ATKIN — ATKIN'S BRIGADE — KILPATRICK'S MOVEMENTS — EXCITING SITUATION — JOE JOHNSTON IN THE FIELD — ROCKY MOUNT — SHERMAN'S REPORT — CHERAW — KILPATRICK NARROWLY ESCAPES CAPTURE — SCHOFIELD AND TERRY — FORT FISHER — WILMINGTON — OUR MEN IN WILMIMGTON PRISON — WHAT A CORRESPONDENT SAW — FORWARD — CAVALRY SKIRMISH — HARDEE TRIES TO "HOLD" SHERMAN — DON'T SUCCEED — HARD FIGHTING — HARDEE ABANDONS HIS WORKS — RETREATS TO AVERYSBORO.

THE regiments of Sherman's army obtained such rest as they might until January 15, 1865, when the columns were again set in motion, this time heading northward. Lieut. Gen. Grant had sent orders to Sherman to embark his troops and carry them to James River to give direct aid in the overthrow of Richmond and Lee. Sherman represented the difficulties of such transportation and promised to get them sooner and in better condition where Grant wanted them, beside destroying the enemy as he went. Grant yielded to his request to be permitted to march them thither by land; Goldsboro being the first objective point.

Logan had returned from the North and, relieving Osterhaus, had assumed command of the 15th Corps which greeted him with enthusiasm. The right wing moved thus: the 17th Corps by transports from Humboldt to Beaufort, and thence marched to the Charleston and Savannah railway near Pocotaligo.

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The chaplain of the 64th Illinois thus describes the skirmish at this station:

"With Captain J. I. Reynolds commanding we moved out from Beaufort on the 13th of January, buoyant and confident. Marching toward Pocotaligo we were opposed and found it held by a small rebel force who, as we approached, was heard to say, ‘Ah! there they come,’ ‘they are Foster's niggers.’ Whiz, bang, comes the shell, our boys drop on seeing the flash and are up unharmed and on with double fury. The thing is repeated but on go the boys in blue. A rebel officer looks through his glass and is heard to say ‘I'll be — if they ain't Sherman's soldiers.’ Then and there was hurrying to and fro. An officer moves up the road and disappears, it grows dark and our troops entrench and hear movements of wagons and troops all night, at daybreak the enemy is gone, the fort is ours.

"We plant the stars and stripes there and change the name to Poke-em-till-i-go in honor of the plan of the rebel general in leaving a small force to hold us at bay till he could get out of the way.

"We remained there several days to complete an outfit or a farther movement, but in the meantime we were not idle."

Logan's Corps wont partly by transports and partly by land; Slocum, was instructed to move the left wing as follows: Kilpatrick was to move with his mounted force against Coosawhatchie, South Carolina, on the Charleston and Savannah railway and Robertville on the Columbia road. Williams, in command of Jackson's and Geary's divisions of the 20th corps, marched to Hardeeville, on the Charleston railway where it was in communication with Howard's command at Pocotaligo. Heavy rains, however, isolated these divisions from the rest of the wing and they were compelled to move up toward Sister's Ferry.

General Sherman says:

"On the 18th of January I transferred the city and forts of Savannah to Major-General Foster, commanding the department of the South, imparted to him my plans of operation, and instructed him how to follow my movements inland by occupying in succession the city of Charleston and such other points along the sea coast as would be of any military value to us. The combined naval and land-forces und Admiral Porter and General Terry had, on the 15th of January, captured Fort Fisher and the rebel forts at the mouth of Cape Fear River, giving me an additional point of security on the sea coast. But I had already resolved in my own mind, and had so advised General Grant, that I would undertake at one stride to make Goldsboro and open communication with the sea by the Newbern railroad, and ordered Col. W. W. Wright, superintendent of military railroads, to proceed in advance to Newbern and to be prepared to extend the railroad out from Newbern to Goldsboro by the 15th of March.

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"On the 22d of January I embarked from Savannah for Hilton Head, where I held a conference with Admiral Dahlgren, U. S. N., Maj. Gen. Foster, commanding the Department of the South, and next proceeding to Beaufort."

Awaiting the subsidence of swollen streams and the concentration of his force the grand advance began on the first of February, though some of the divisions had moved out of camp the day previous.

Says General Sherman:

"All the roads northward had been for weeks held by Wheeler's cavalry, who had by details of negro laborers felled trees, burned bridges, and made obstructions to impede our march. But so well organized were our pioneer battalions and so strong and intelligent our men that obstructions seemed only to quicken their progress. Felled trees were removed and bridges rebuilt by the heads of columns before the rear could close up. On the 2d of February the 15th corps (Logan's) reached Loper's cross-roads and the 17th was at River's Bridge. From Loper's cross-roads I communicated with General Slocum, still struggling with the floods of the Savannah at Sister's Ferry. He had two divisions of the 20th corps, General Williams on the east bank and was enabled to cross over on his pontoons the cavalry of Kilpatrick. General Williams was ordered to Beaufort's Bridge by way of Lawtonville and Allandale, Kilpatrick to Blockville via Barnwell and Gen. Slocum to hurry the crossing at Sister's Ferry as much as possible and overtake the right wing on the South Carolina railroad. General Howard with the right wing was directed to cross the Salkehatchie and push rapidly for the South Carolina railway at or near Midway. The enemy held the line of the Salkehatchie in force, having infantry and artillery intrenched at River's and Beaufort's Bridge. The former position was carried promptly and skillfully by Mower's and Giles A. Smith's divisions of the 17th corps, on the 3d of February, by crossing the swamp nearly three miles wide with water varying from knee to shoulder deep. The weather was bitter cold and Generals Mower and Smith led their divisions in person on foot, waded the swamp, made a lodgment below the bridge and turned on the rebel brigade which guarded it driving it in confusion toward Branchville. Our casualties was one officer and seventeen men killed and seventy men wounded. The line of the Salkehatchie being thus broken, the enemy retreated at once behind the Edisto at Branchville, and the whole army was pushed rapidly to the South Carolina railroad at Midway, Bamberg (or Lowery's Station) and Graham's Station."

The 17th corps forced the rebels to burn two important railway bridges over the Edisto. On the 16th the railway was cut at Baubrey and at Midway, and the whole army worked at destroying the road and cutting the rebel army in twain, one wing being at Branchville and Charleston, the other at Aikin and Augusta — each expecting "the vandals" who were cutting their way between them marching to their destination, resistless as destiny.

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On the 11th Kilpatrick brought up his cavalry to threaten Augusta, with orders not to be drawn into a battle. He managed to avoid it but had some serious skirmishing at Blackville, Williston and Aikin. At this point Brevet Brig-General Atkins was in advance with the 2d brigade, 92d Ill. mounted infantry and 9th Michigan cavalry and confronted Wheeler's massed force. The General made a gallant fight but was compelled to fall back to Kilpatrick's main line, near Johnston Station. On the 13th Kilpatrick moved toward the South Edisto.

On the 9th the 55th Ill. — of proud record — did good service crossing the South Edisto above Holman's Bridge, to strike the enemy's flank. To secure the crossing, the men made their way over floating logs and fallen trees, until they reached a miserable swamp through which they waded near a mile before striking solid ground, but they did their work and secured their position despite the enemy.

While the left wing continued railroad destruction west of Branchville, Sherman, with the right, moved against Orangeburg. The 17th Corps, on the 12th, found a rebel force in front of Orangeburg Bridge, but routed it, and crossed the bridge though partly consumed. The whole corps was in Orangeburg by 4 P. M. destroying the road. It wrecked it as far as Lewisville, and compelled the enemy to burn the bridges across the Congaree.

Hardee now saw whither Sherman was heading, and evacuated Charleston, and retreated to Florence. General Gilmore's men occupied the cradle of the rebellion on the 18th, and made it rock with their shouts.

And now for Columbia. The 17th Corps marched gaily along the State road; Logan's corps crossed the North Edisto at Schelling's bridge, and moved by a county road, entering the State road at Zeigler's. February 15th Logan found the enemy in strong position at a bridge crossing the Little Congaree, with a tete-du-pont on the south side, while on the north was a sturdy fort, defended with artillery commanding the bridge. Stone's brigade was ordered into a cypress swamp, to the left, to turn the left flank of the tete-du-pont; the 111th was in the skirmish line — the cypress was threaded, the flank turned, the bridge seized, though partly in flames, and the fort captured. The bridge was repaired for the passage of artillery, and

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that delay made it nightfall before the head of the column reached the bridge leading across the Congaree into Columbia. Daylight found the bridge in flames, and the army halted for the pontoons.

There was commotion in the streets, but no large force, though there were cavalry squads, at which one shot was fired by a battery, and only one. On the 16th Howard crossed the Saluda three miles above the city, skirmishing with rebel cavalry; the same night he threw a bridge over Broad River, and crossed Stone's brigade. General Sherman says:

"Under cover of this brigade a pontoon bridge was laid on the morning of the 17th. I was in person at this bridge, and at 11 A. M., learned that the mayor of Columbia had come out in a carriage, and made a formal surrender of the city to Colonel Stone, of the 25th Iowa, commanding 3d brigade, 1st division, 15th corps. About the same time, a small party of the 17th corps had crossed the Congaree in a skiff, and entered Columbia from a point immediately west. In anticipation of the occupation of the city, I had made written orders to General Howard, touching the conduct of the troops. They were to destroy absolutely all arsenals and public property not needed for our own use, as well as all railroads, depots and machinery useful in war to an enemy, but to spare all dwellings, colleges, schools, asylums and harmless private property. I was first to cross the pontoon bridge, and in company with General Howard, rode into the city. The day was clear, but a perfect tempest of wind was raging. The brigade of Colonel Stone was already in the city, and was properly posted. Citizens and soldiers were on the streets, and general good order prevailed. General Wade Hampton, who commanded the rebel rear-guard of cavalry, had, in anticipation of our capture of Columbia, ordered that all cotton, public and private, should be moved into the streets and fired, to prevent our making use of it. Bales were piled everywhere, the rope and bagging cut, and tufts of cotton were blown about in the wind, lodged in the trees and against houses, so as to resemble a perfect snow-storm. Some of these piles of cotton were burning, especially one in the very heart of the city, near the court-house, but the fire was partially subdued by the labor of our soldiers."

The upshot was, during the night those smoldering fires burst into flame, and in spite the efforts of Sherman and his corps commanders, much of the beautiful city was laid in ashes. It caused a bitter correspondence between Hampton and Sherman. Sherman says, with Junius-like severity:

"And without hesitation, I charge General Wade Hampton with having burned his own city of Columbia, not with a malicious intent, or as the manifestation of a silly ‘Roman stoicism,’ but from folly and want of sense, in filling it with lint, cotton and tinder."

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During the 18th and 19th the arsenal, depots, machine shops, founderies, etc., were destroyed, and the railway broken up to Kingsville and Wateree Bridge. That General Sherman and his commanders did their utmost to save the private property of Columbia from ruin, is true, but it is as true that in the army there was perfect resignation to the fate that thus came upon the capital of the fire-eating State of Calhoun, and the more because Columbia had been one of the prison pens of the cruel, heartless rulers of the Confederacy. The rank and file believed that nothing so well became the city as its robes of flame. South Carolina was associated with rampant State Rights heresy, with defiance of law, contempt of authority and defiance of the constitutional prerogatives of the Federal Government.

Slocum came within two miles of Columbia, and was to march by the left against Winnsboro, and moved at once. On the 18th he broke up the railroad from Alston, fourteen miles northward including the Broad River Bridge. He reached Winnsboro on the 21st.

The right wing joined it there. Kilpatrick moved to Robertville, February 3d, and making Lawtonville on the 4th, Allandale on the 5th, on the 6th threatened Augusta, driving a rebel brigade, then turned squarely to the right, and crossed the Salkehatchie a little below Barnwell. Here the enemy, about 300 strong, had chosen a strong position behind heavy earthworks, commanding the bridge already blazing. With a shout the 92d Illinois, under Lieutenant-Colonel Van Buskirk, and the 9th Ohio cavalry dashed into the swamp, waded water up to their arm-pits, and despite the rebel artillery, carried the works, and scattered the enemy toward Barnwell. The bridge, only partly burned, was repaired, and at 4 P. M. Kilpatrick rode into the town. The next day a brigade of Wheeler's was driven from Blockville on the Charleston and Atlanta railroad. For a short time there was a halt for the weary horsemen, spent, however, in destroying railway. On the evening of the 8th Colonel Spencer's brigade had a sharp and successful engagement with a portion of Wheeler's cavalry. On the 11th General Atkins was reconnoitering in the vicinity of Aikin; he rode unharmed into the town, but was suddenly attacked by Wheeler's entire force. It made the attack boldly, but the little brigade, though aware that it

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was outnumbered heavily, bravely stood its ground, and slowly fell back, grimly fighting, determined to hold the foe in check until Kilpatrick could make his disposition to check his advance. The end was attained, and after a sharp and bloody rencounter Wheeler fell back to Aikin. Our cavalry remained at Johnston's threatening Augusta and destroying track until the 12th, when it crossed the South Edisto, and encamped above it. It continued its ceaseless movements; on the 15th struck the Lexington and Augusta road, on the 17th crossed the Saluda, and found that Wheeler was heading for the Broad River railroad bridge at Alston's; on the 18th it held along its way parallel to the rebel General Cheatham's corps, sometimes within three miles, and only prevented by a deep, tangled water-course from striking him a swift blow in flank; it cut the railway at Pomaria Station, destroyed the depot, "fixed" the track, and destroyed several bridges; on the 18th reached Alston's Station; on the 19th crossed Broad River, and on the 20th reached Monticello to learn that Wheeler was across the river moving on Chesterfield. It had done a full share of hard fighting, and rough campaigning.

The position was an exciting one. Our infantry was being concentrated in the vicinity of Winnsboro, on the Charlotte and South Carolina Railroad, and, until now, the campaign from Columbia had indicated a purpose to go into Virginia by the inland route, via Charlotte. Sherman had again confused and misled his enemy, but now a point was nearing when a battle seemed unavoidable, and this time under his old adversary, Joe Johnston, who had superseded Bragg in chief command.

Slocum reached Winnsboro on the 21st of February. The 20th Corps reached Rocky Mount on the 22d, and laid a pontoon bridge over the Catawba, which it crossed on the 23d. The same night Kilpatrick crossed in a drenching rain, and marched up to Lancaster, as though leading a grand demonstration against Charlotte, North Carolina, to which Beauregard had gone with a strong cavalry force from Columbia. Sherman says, "I was also aware that Cheatham's corps of Hood's old army was aiming to make a junction with Beauregard at Charlotte, having been cut off by our rapid movement on Columbia and Winnsboro."

The progress for some days is clearly told by General Sherman in his report:

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"From the 23d to the 26th we had heavy rains, swelling the rivers and making the roads almost impassable. The 20th corps reached Hang Rock on the 20th, and waited there for the 14th corps, to get across the Catawba. The heavy rains had so swollen the river that the pontoon bridge broke and General Davis had very hard work to restore it, and get his command across. At last he succeeded, and the left wing was put in motion for the Cheraw.

"In the meantime the right wing had broken up the railroad to Mindoro, and then turned for Pea's Ferry, where it crossed over the Catawba before the heavy rains set in, the 17th corps moving straight on to Cheraw, via Young's Bridge, and the 15th corps by Tiller's and Killer's Bridges. From this latter corps detachments were sent into Camden to burn the bridges over the Wateree, with the railroad depot, stores, &c. A small force of mounted men under Captain Duncan, was also dispatched to make a dash and interrupt the railroad from Charleston to Florence, but it met Butler's division of cavalry, and after a sharp skirmish at Mount Elon, was compelled to return unsuccessful. Much bad road was encountered at Lynch's Creek, which delayed the right wing about the same length of time as the left wing had been at the Catawba.

"On the 2d of March the leading division of the 20th corps entered Chesterfield, skirmishing with Butler's division of cavalry, and the next day about noon the 17th corps entered Cheraw, the enemy re treating across the Pedee and burning the bridge at that point. At Cheraw we found much ammunition and many guns, which had been brought from Charleston, on the evacuation of that city. These were destroyed, as also the railroad trestles and bridges as far down as Darlington. An expedition of mounted infantry was sent down to Florence, but it encountered both cavalry and infantry, and returned, having only broken up, in part, the branch road from Florence to Cheraw.

"Without unnecessary delay, the columns were put in motion, directed on Fayetteville, North Carolina, the right wing crossing the Pedee at Cheraw, and the left wing and cavalry at Sneedsboro. General Kilpatrick was ordered to keep well down the left flank, and the 14th corps, moving by Love's Bridge, was given the right to enter and occupy Fayetteville first. The weather continued unfavorable, and the roads bad, but the 14th and 17th corps reached Fayetteville by the 11th of March, skirmishing with Wade Hampton's cavalry, that covered the rear of Hardee's retreating army, which, as usual, had crossed Cape Fear River, burning the bridge. During the march from the Pedee, General Kilpatrick had kept his cavalry well on the 1eft and exposed flank. During the night of March 9th, his three brigades were divided to picket the roads. General Hampton detecting this, dashed in at daylight, gained possession of the house in which General Kilpatrick and Colonel Spencer had their quarters. The surprise was complete, but General Kilpatrick quickly succeeded in rallying his men on foot in a swamp near by, and by a prompt attack, well followed up, regained his artillery, horses, camp, and everything, saving some prisoners, which the enemy carried off, leaving their dead on the ground.

"The 12th, 13th and 14th corps were passed at Fayetteville, destroying absolutely the United States arsenal and the vast amount of machinery which formerly belonged to the old Harper's Ferry United States arsenal. Every building was knocked down and burned, and every piece of machinery utterly broken up and

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ruined, by the 1st Regiment Michigan Engineers, under the immediate supervision of Colonel O. M. Poe, Chief Engineer. Much valuable property of great use to the enemy was here destroyed or cast into the river.

"Up to this period I had perfectly succeeded in interposing my superior army between the scattered parts of my enemy. But I was then aware that the fragments that had left Columbia under Beauregard, had been reinforced by Cheatham's corps from the west, and the garrison of Augusta, and that ample time had been given them to move to my front and flank about Raleigh. Hardee had also succeeded in getting across Cape Fear River ahead of me, and could therefore complete the junction with the other armies of Johnston and Hoke, in North Carolina. And the whole, under the command of the skillful and experienced Joe. Johnston, made up an army superior to me in cavalry, and formidable enough in artillery and infantry to justify me in extreme caution in making the last step necessary in the march I had undertaken. Previous to reaching Fayetteville, I had dispatched to Wilmington from Sorrel Hill Church, two of our best scouts, with intelligence of our position and my general plans. Both of these messengers reached Wilmington, and on the morning of the 12th of March, the army tug Davidson reached Fayetteville from Wilmington, bringing me full intelligence of events from the outer world. On the same day this tug carried back to General Terry, at Wilmington, and General Schofield, at Newbern, my dispatches to the effect that, on Wednesday, the 15th, we would move for Goldsboro, feigning on Raleigh, and ordering them to march straight for Goldsboro, which I expected to reach about the 20th."

Here we may pause and trace the line of the troops thus ordered to co-operate. After Fort Fisher was captured by Terry and Porter, Wilmington was next to be taken. Schofield had been put in charge of the Department of North Carolina, and was in command. By a series of brilliant movements, he gained the main defenses of Cape Fear river and Wilmington, capturing ten heavy guns and much ammunition, with little loss. With his gallant subordinates, Cox and Terry, he continued to gain important advantages until the 22d of February, when General Terry entered Wilmington, capturing fifty-one heavy, fifteen light guns, stores, ammunition, &c.

Then, as we have seen, he pushed on to join his old commander at Goldsboro, fought his way gallantly and successfully, and justified the choice of Lieutenant-General Grant, of the commander, for this important and difficult command.

A correspondent of the Chicago Tribune thus describes what he saw after the capture of the city. It is one of the many chapters of loyal suffering and rebel barbarity — a barbarity worse than the quick cruelty of Thugs:

"In the opinion of eminent engineers, Cape Fear river, from

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Wilmington to the ocean, is more strongly fortified than any one of our northern harbors, or any river in the world — nineteen forts and batteries line its approaches within the short distance named, all of the heaviest character, most scientifically constructed, and thoroughly armed — three lines of formidable obstructions, consisting of piles torpedoes, sunken ships and cribs, chain cable, and rafts of heavy timber securely fastened together. The entire front of this line was covered by succession of lakes and deep swamps, stretching from the river to the ocean, and only crossed by two narrow causeways. Then three miles outside of these works was a second strong line. The city was capable of stronger defense than any we have taken during the war. Its only lack was in men.

"Schofield was most heartily congratulated on all sides for this flattering result of his combination. Only one division, the 3d, and one brigade, Moore's, of the 2d Army Corps, were engaged. The remainder of the 23d Corps did not arrive. The total loss on both sides of the river after Schofield took command, will fall a trifle below 200. This was owing to the fact that the position assaulted could be turned. But few citizens left the city, except such as the enemy forced to enter the ranks. All able-bodied men hid themselves and thronged the streets as soon as our forces entered. The ladies were also out in force, and the negroes crowded all the avenues. Not a symptom of animosity was displayed by man, woman or child throughout the day. Early in the morning a large class of citizens began to help themselves to goods in various stores, but a provost guard soon stopped this traffic, so peculiar to rebel towns.

"The city contains a number of very fine church edifices and public buildings, and many beautiful private residences, but these serve to make the general shabbiness of the rest more conspicuous. The Union prisoners had been confined at Camp Lamb, about nine miles from the city, and their treatment was worthy of fiends from hell. Though agreements for a general exchange had been completed at Richmond, the starving process goes on. For three days before the evacuation, these prisoners had not received a mouthful to eat.

"To the credit of citizens, many attempts were made to relieve them, but food in all cases was taken away from them by order of the officer in command, and trodden into the ground before the eyes

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of prisoners and citizens. It was thought that 700 were recovered, but many in a dying condition. All which has appeared in the public prints in regard to this matter utterly fails to prepare one for the awful reality.

"After nerving myself for the visit, and trying to picture all its horrors, while riding slowly over a mile to the house where they had been collected, my brain reeled for a moment as the sickening reality burst upon me. An officer came in, and those who had never quailed on the field of death, whose cheeks had never blanched, stood aghast with tears in their eyes, grinding their teeth, clenching their hands, and thanking God that there was a hell. Pale, haggard and emaciated skeletons glared on us from glassy eyes, whose light of reason was just expiring. With matted hair, and skin blackened with smoke, scarcely covered with the filthiest shreds of cast-off rebel clothing without blankets, and most of them without coats and shoes, they gazed on us with almost idiotic stare, while the majority could with difficulty be roused from their listlessness.

"Many had forgotten their names. Some could be aroused by asking them of home, wives and children; these magic words bringing them back from the grave into which they were sinking with hands clutching the bread our soldiers brought. As they lay there dying, an old negro woman passed from one to another, tenderly smoothing their awful passage to the grave, knowing that the authors of all this misery had escaped. How consoling to repeat, ‘Vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord.’

"The following are the names of the Western soldiers in this building, and as many more are scattered through the town:

"Joseph Elmrich, 1st Ohio artillery; John H. Ashmend, 80th Indiana; George Oswald, Company F, 5th Ohio, Cincinnati; G. H. Clark, 1st Wisconsin; William T. Collins, Company G, 18th Missouri; Albert McCarter, Company I, 7th Indiana; James Cochrane, Company H, 8th Iowa cavalry; William F. Everman, Company H, 8th Iowa cavalry; James W. Hays, Company F, 8th Iowa cavalry; Thomas Rhodes, Company I, 3d Illinois cavalry; John Taylor, 12th United States; Taylor Worded, Company H, 14th Illinois cavalry; F. Ronodent, Company D, 20th cavalry; William D. Minger 2d Kentucky cavalry; Gottert Sting, 14th Illinois cavalry; Joseph

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Atwood, 1st Indiana; John W. Lee, Company G, 14th Illinois cavalry; John Zerveirson, Company I, 16th Wisconsin; Croyden Pierce, Company A, 99th Indiana; Thomas C. Groves, Company K, 96th Illinois; William Plumb, Company K, 14th Illinois cavalry; William Munshaw, Company H, 5th Michigan."

It was horrible traveling, but Sherman set forward March 15th. Kilpatrick was in Slocum's advance, moving up the river or plank road to Kyle's, and had a sharp encounter with the rebel cavalry in the vicinity of Taylor's Hob Creek. Howard sent his trains to the right toward Faison's depot and Goldsboro, keeping four divisions in light order, ready to go to the aid of Slocum, if needed.

Hardee had attempted an imitation of the policy of General Grant toward Lee, and halted in force in a swampy, narrow neck, lying between South and Cape Fear Rivers, hoping to hold Sherman inactive until Johnston could concentrate his whole force at some point in Hardee's rear, such as Goldsboro, Raleigh or Smithfield. It was necessary to dislodge him, and the enterprise was formidable, as he commanded 20,000 men, veteran troops, with artillery, infantry and cavalry, and a position of his own choosing. Sherman wanted the Goldsboro road, and he also wished to keep up the appearance of moving on Raleigh.

Slocum was ordered to rout him. Williams' 20th corps was first, and it was led in turn by Wood's division. Rhett's brigade of Confederate artillery, armed as infantry, were stationed across the road, protected by a slight parapet, with a strong battery fairly sweeping the approach. Case's brigade was sent to the left, turned Rhett's line, and by a quick charge, broke it. The rebels fell back to a second and stronger line. Three guns and 217 prisoners, of whom 68 were wounded, were captured. The main rebel line extended from Black River on their left, to Cape Fear River on the right, covering fairly the roads to Goldsboro, Smithfield and Raleigh. On the 16th, Carlin and Morgan brought up their men, and a desperate, but unsuccessful effort was made to clear the Goldsboro road, but the enemy held his position, though severely punished. During the night he abandoned the line and fell back to Averysboro, chased by Wood's division, leaving his dead and wounded.

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Chapter XXII. — Regimental Sketches.

THE NINETY-SECOND — REBEL TREATMENT OF PRISONERS — BREVET MAJOR GENERAL SMITH D. ATKINS — COLOR BEARER "GEDEE" SCOTT — "FOR GOD'S SAKE SAVE THE FLAG" — THE NINETY-THIRD — FROM ATLANTA TO SAVANAAH — THE NINETY-FIFTH — REGIMENTAL STATISTICS — COLONEL THOMAS W. HUMPHREY — THE NINETY-EIGHTH — A FATAL ACCIDENT — THE NINETY-NINTH — THE ASSAULT UPON VICKSBURG — THE ONE HUNDRED AND FIRST — RUNNING THE BLOCKADE — THE ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND — CAPTURE OF A BANK — THE ONE HUNDRED AND THIRD — DEATH OF COLONEL DICKERMAN — THE ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTH — THE ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTH — PORT GIBSON AND CHAMPION HILLS — THE ONE HUNDRED AND NINTH — A BRIEF BUT DISGRACEFUL RECORD — THE ONE HUNDRED AND TENTH — HEAVY LOSSES — THE ONE HUNDRED AND ELEVENTH — GALLANT CHARGE AT RESACA — THE ONE HUNDRED AND TWELFTH — SANDERS' RAID — THE ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTEENTH — COLONEL GEO. B. HODGE — THE RANKIN FAMILY.

NINETY-SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

THE 92d infantry was organized at Rockford and mustered into the service September 4, 1862. It was composed of five companies from Ogle, three from Stephenson and two from Carroll Counties. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Smith D. Atkins; Lieutenant-Colonel, Benjamin F. Sheets; Major, John H. Bohn; Adjutant, I. C. Lawver; Quartermaster, George W. Marshall; Surgeon, Clinton Helm; 1st Assistant, Thomas Winston; 2d Assistant, Nathan Stevenson; Chaplain, Rev. O. D. W. White.

Co. A — Captain, William J. Ballinger; 1st Lieutenant, Harvey Simms; 2d Lieutenant, William Cox.

Co. B — Captain, Wilbur W. Dennis; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Crowell; 2d Lieutenant, E. F. Bander.

Co. C — Captain, William Stouffer; 1st Lieutenant, Robert M. A. Hawk; 2d Lieutenant, Norman Lewis.

Co. D — Captain, Lyman Preston; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Skinner; 2d Lieutenant, Oscar F. Sammis.

Co. E — Captain, Matthew Van Buskirk; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph L. Spear; 2d Lieutenant, Jeremiah Vorhis.

Co. F — Captain, Christopher T. Dunham; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred G. Dunham; 3d Lieutenant, William C. Dove.

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Co. G — Captain, John M. Schermerhorn; 1st Lieutenant, John Gishwiller; 2d Lieutenant, Justin N. Parker.

Co. H — Captain, James Brice; 1st Lieutenant, James Dawson; 2d Lieutenant Edward Mason.

Co. I — Captain, Egbert T. E. Becker; 1st Lieutenant, David B. Colehour; 2d Lieutenant, Alexander M. York.

Co. K — Captain, Albert Woodcock; 1st Lieutenant, Horace J. Smith; 2d Lieutenant, Horace C. Scoville.

The regiment left Rockford on the 11th of October, 1862, for Cincinnati, and passed through Chicago on the afternoon of the same day. The time spent in Rockford had been well employed in drill and the soldierly appearance of the regiment attracted the attention of our citizens who thronged the streets along the line of its march. Arriving at Cincinnati it was assigned to General Baird's Division, Army of Kentucky. It marched immediately into the interior of the State, and was ordered on the last of October to Mt. Sterling, Ky., to guard the place from rebel raids. It soon gained a reputation throughout Kentucky and was known as "The Abolition Regiment." Its anti-slavery sentiments were fully tested, even at the point of the bayonet. Its Colonel was sued and indicted in several of the civil courts of the State for stealing, as was alleged, "men chattels." At the solicitation of prominent slaveholders, the regiment was finally relieved at Mt. Sterling and ordered to Danville, Ky. Here the brigade was reorganized and the command given to Colonel Atkins, who continued to hold it until the regiment was mounted. On the 26th of January, 1863, the 92d with General Baird's division was ordered to the Army of the Cumberland. During its stay in Kentucky, it lost nearly two hundred by death and discharge. The regiment was not permitted to leave Kentucky without a renewal of its difficulties with slave masters. The command was followed to Louisville, where General Gordon Granger issued an order, to appease the wrath of slave hunters, to the effect "that all slaves who had found their way into our lines during our stay in Kentucky, should be delivered to their masters or be left at Louisville." This order was in direct conflict with orders from the War Department, and was openly disobeyed.

Many amusing scenes occurred during these troubles, one of which is here mentioned, as illustrating the earnest zeal of the slave

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holders. At Harrodsburg, during the march to Louisville, a well-dressed lady entered the ranks and collared a robust man, claiming him as her chattel, and endeavoring to drag him from the ranks. "Sam" did not seem to appreciate the beauties of the "sacred institution," and refused to go. The lady called her neighbors to help her, but they stood in fear of bayonets in the hands of abolitionists, and refused their aid. Colonel Sheets, viewing the scene from the head of the regiment, ordered the band to play "Kingdom Come," and the regiment, joining in the chorus, sang with a genuine anti-slavery zeal.

Arriving at Nashville, the command moved to Franklin, Tennessee, and immediately started in pursuit of Van Dorn, who had a few days before captured the command of Colonel Coburn. When the Army of the Cumberland advanced from Murfreesboro, the 92d had a prominent part with the right wing of the army. With a portion of the cavalry, it occupied Shelbyville on the 27th of June. On the 5th of July it was ordered to rebuild a permanent wagon-bridge over Duck River, Bragg having in his retreat burned all the bridges. With no tools but axes and shovels, Colonel Sheds inarched the 92d from Wartrail to the river, and in forty-eight hours a permanent bridge was completed, over which the trains of the army crossed and recrossed during the war. On the morning following this work, General Rosecrans ordered that the regiment be mounted and armed with the Spencer Repeating Rifle, and attached to Colonel Wilder's brigade of General Thomas' corps, in which corps it remained while General Rosecrans commanded the army. Horses and horse equipments were scarce. A few were obtained through the quartermaster's department, and, mounted on captured saddles of every grade and style, a portion of the regiment started out, with orders to press all the serviceable horses, mules and colored men they could find, and bring them into camp. In three days they reported to Colonel Wilder, at Dechard, with three hundred and fifty negroes and thirteen hundred horses and mules. The colored men fought for the flag, and the horses and mules were worn out in the government service.

From this date the greater part of the time was spent in the saddle, and with its Spencer rifles the regiment became a terror to the

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rebel cavalry, and gained a reputation second to no regiment in our army. During some forty battles and skirmishes, in which it was afterward engaged, it was not once driven from the field. For its thorough discipline, much is due to Lieutenant-Colonel (now Brevet Brigadier-General) Benjamin F. Sheets. The regiment for many months was in command of this excellent officer.

Crossing the mountains from Dechard, Tennessee, it had part in those movements opposite and above Chattanooga, which deceived Bragg as to the point where the army was to cross the river. Having accomplished this, it recrossed the mountains via Bridgeport and joined General Thomas at Trenton, Alabama. On the morning of the 9th of September, it led the advance to Chattanooga, drove the rebels from Point Lookout, and entered the rebel stronghold, unfurling from the Crutchfield House the first Union banner since Tennessee had attached herself to the Confederate cause. As soon as General Crittenden's troops came up, the 92d started in pursuit of the rebels. At Ringgold, Georgia, it came upon a brigade of Forrest's cavalry, and drove them from the town, killing and wounding a large number.

During this engagement an amusing incident occurred. As our line was pressing the rebels back, a German, from Company F, came down from the rebel ranks, horseless and hatless. Approaching Colonel Sheets, he cried out, "O Colonel, they shoots mine horse; they shoots mine coat here and there; they shoots mine pants; they spoils mine gun, and I ish almost dead." And sure enough, he had dashed up to their lines, and had his horse killed, and himself escaped on foot, with three bullet-holes through his clothing, and the half of the breech of his gun shot away.

In April, 1864, the regiment appeared once more at Ringgold, Georgia. Here it lost its first prisoners. On the morning of the 23d of April, Lieutenant (afterward Captain) Scovill, in command of a picket post at Nickojack Gap, nine miles from Ringgold, was attacked by an overwhelming force, and after a gallant fight himself and twenty-one men were captured, and one man killed. Of

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men thus captured, twelve were shot down and murdered. Six of these were taken from the field dead, and six died of the wounds inflicted. The men who escaped this inhuman treatment were doomed to a more cruel death. They suffered the tortures of Andersonville, and most of them lie buried there.

From Ringgold, Georgia, on the 7th of May, 1864, the regiment entered upon the Atlanta campaign, leading the advance of General Sherman's army. From Kingston, Georgia, in this campaign, it was commanded by Major (brevet Lieutenant-Colonel) Albert Woodcock, a faithful, efficient, Christian officer. It had been assigned to General Kilpatrick's command, and is entitled to a large share of the honor won by Kilpatrick's division.

Its march was the scene of constant battles and skirmishes, the most important of which were Resaca, the raid around Atlanta, Bethsaida Church, Flint River Bridge, and Jonesboro. The charge at Flint River was witnessed by Major-General Howard, who complimented the men by telling them he had never witnessed a more brilliant charge. In the fight near Jonesboro, the regiment lost one-fifth of the men engaged. From Mount Gilead Church, west of Atlanta, it moved out, on the 1st of October, to take part in the operations against Hood's army. At Powder Springs it had a severe engagement, losing a large number in killed and wounded. Returning to Marietta, it commenced preparation for the march to the sea. It was commanded, during its subsequent service, by Lieutenant-Colonel Matthew Van Buskirk, and assigned to General Atkins' brigade of Kilpatrick's division. During this march it was often engaged with Wheeler's cavalry, and added new laurels to its reputation. An engagement demanding especial mention was at Macon, where the regiment fought three or four times its number, driving the rebels from their works, capturing, killing and wounding quite a number. On the following morning it was attacked by a brigade of rebels, who seemed furious, and determined to capture the regiment. Reserving its fire until the rebels were within easy range, it opened on them with its Spencer rifles, and scattered them. At Waynesboro, on the 4th of December, it was ordered to charge Wheeler's cavalry, who were strongly posted in a well-elected position, and inaccessible except by front attack. At daylight the order of battle

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was formed, and, all being ready, the charge was sounded. The 92d dismounted and moved forward in splendid order. Climbing the eminence before it, under a very heavy fire, it halted not for a moment, but drove the rebels from three successive lines of barricades, scattering them in confusion, and killing and capturing more than its own number. From Savannah to North Carolina, Kilpatrick's command kept the extreme left flank of the army. Its battles and skirmishes with Wheeler's and Hampton's cavalry were numerous. At Aiken, South Carolina, the 92d was completely surrounded by a division of rebel cavalry, and in a hand-to-hand encounter cut its way out. At the crossing of the Salkehatchie River, near Barn well, the 92d charged the rebels from behind earthworks on the opposite side. Colonel Bowman, of General Sherman's staff", writing of this, says: "The 92d Illinois Mounted Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Van Buskirk, dashed through the swamp, the men wading in the water up to their armpits, crossed the stream on trees felled by the pioneers, and, under cover of a rapid fire of artillery, gallantly carried the works, driving the enemy in confusion toward the town of Barnwell."

The 92d had part in the fight at Bentonville. This was its last engagement with the rebels. Here Captain Hawk, Company C, was severely wounded, losing his leg. The people of Carroll County have shown their appreciation of him by electing him to the office of County Clerk.

This regiment lost in the aggregate more men than the average of regiments. Its ranks were kept well filled by constant enlistments. Its record is one that does honor to the state and credit to its members. It was engaged in some forty battles and skirmishes, numbering some of the most sanguinary of the war. It was mustered out at Concord, North Carolina, and discharged at Chicago, July 10, 1865.

The following is the muster-out roster:

General, Smith D. Atkins; Lieutenant-Colonel, Matthew Van Buskirk; Major, Albert Woodcock; Adjutant, Charles C. Freegard; Quartermaster, Lieutenant Philip Sweeley; Surgeon, Clinton Helm; Assistant Surgeon, Nathan Stevenson; Chaplain, Barton H. Cartwright.

Co. A — Captain, Harvey Simms; 1st Lieutenant, William Cox; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Frost.

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Co. B — Captain, Horace J. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Henry C. Cooling; 2d Lieutenant. Miles B. Light.

Co. C — Captain, Robert M. Hawk; 1st Lieutenant, Norman Lewis; 2d Lieutenant, George P. Sutton.

Co. D — Captain, Lyman Preston; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Skinner; 2d Lieutenant, Oscar F. Sammis.

Co. E — Captain, Joseph L. Spear; Lieutenant, Robert J. Huie.

Co. F — Captain, William B. Mayer.

Co. G — Captain, John M. Schermerhorn; 1st Lieutenant, Harry G. Fowler; 2d Lieutenant, William McCammons.

Co. H — Captain, John F. Nelson; 1st Lieutenant, John F. Nettleton; 2d Lieutenant, Crawford B. Bowles.

Co. I — Captain, Egbert T. E. Becker; 2d Lieutenant, Joshua S. McRea.

Co. K — Captain, Horace C. Scovill; 1st Lieutenant, Peleg R. Walker; 2d Lieutenant, James D. White.

Brevet Major-General Smith D. Atkins was born June 9, 1835, near Elmira, Chemung County, New York, and removed to Illinois with his father's family in 1848, and lived on a farm till 1850, when he went to learn printing in the office of the Prairie Democrat, the first paper published in Freeport. He was educated at Rock River Seminary, Mt. Morris, Illinois, working in the printing office and attending school, and in 1852 had control as foreman of the Mt. Morris Gazette, still attending school. In June, 1853, he bought out the paper with C. C. Allen, late Major on the staff of Major-General Schofield, and established the Register, at Savannah, Carroll County. In the fall of 1853 he entered the law office of Hiram Bright, in Freeport, as student at law, and was admitted to practice on the 27th of June, 1855. After admission to the bar he read law a short time in the office of Goodrich and Scoville, Chicago, and began practice in Freeport, September 1, 1856. In 1860 he canvassed for Lincoln, making a speech in review of the Dred Scott decision, which went through several editions. He was elected State's Attorney of the 14th Judicial Circuit. On the 17th of April, 1861, he was trying a criminal case in the Stephenson Circuit Court when a telegram brought news that Lincoln had called for volunteers, and sitting down in the courtroom, General Atkins wrote an enlistment roll and signed it — the first man in his county to enlist as a private soldier — and telling the jury that he would be a soldier, if spared, until the stars and stripes again floated on the ramparts of Fort Sumter, and

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was acknowledged throughout the land, ho left the case in the charge of another attorney, half tried, and marched through the streets of Freeport with a band of music, and by dark had a hundred men enlisted. He was unanimously elected Captain, and went at once to Springfield, and was mustered as Captain Company A, 11th Illinois Volunteers. He enlisted for three years again as a private, and was again mustered as Captain Company A, 11th Illinois Volunteers, at Bird's Point, for three years. Captain Atkins had the only maximum company in that regiment. He was at Donelson with an unexpired leave of absence in his pocket, sick, but in command of his company, taking sixty-eight men into the tight, and coming out with but twenty-three. He was promoted to Major of the 11th for services at Fort Donelson, Colonel Wallace being promoted to Brigadier-General. He went on the staff of General Hurlbut as A. A. A. G. by special assignment of Major-General Grant, immediately after the battle of Donelson, and as such was engaged with General Hurlbut in the battle of Pittsburg Landing, receiving special mention for gallantry. Compelled by illness to resign after the battle of Pittsburg Landing, he spent a couple of months on the sea coast. Recovering in time to take the stump to raise troops under the call of 1862, he raised the 92d Illinois, and was mustered as Colonel at Rockford, September 4, 1862. The Colonel was in command of the regiment until January 17, 1863, when he was placed in command of a brigade. While the regiment was at Mt. Sterling, Kentucky, it being the first Yankee regiment that had visited that part, very many slaves flocked to it, begging for protection, saying that they would work, fight, or do anything for their freedom. The owners of the slaves soon followed, and demanded that the Colonel should give up their property. The Colonel replied that neither he nor his boys were responsible for the action of their slaves in leaving them; that Illinois troops had proved their nobility on too many bloody battle fields to be used as slave hounds in driving back to them their human chattels. They then laid their grievances before the Colonel commanding the brigade, a Kentuckian. He ordered Colonel Atkins deliver up the slaves. Colonel Atkins refused to obey the order. The fugitives were never given up. The Colonel was sued for human chattels appropriated by his regiment, and there are

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judgments against him now in the Kentucky courts amounting to about $50,000.

On the 17th day of January, 1863, the Colonel was placed in command of the 2d Brigade 3d Division Army of Kentucky, which he commanded while in the Department of the Ohio. When the 92d was removed to the Department of the Cumberland he was placed in command of the 1st Brigade 1st Division Reserve Corps. When the regiment was mounted, and transferred to Wilder's brigade of mounted infantry, he accompanied and commanded it until transferred to Kilpatrick's cavalry division. When General Kilpatrick reformed his division, preparatory to the great march with Sherman, he gave command of the 2d Brigade to Colonel Atkins. As Sherman was advancing southward from Atlanta, it was his aim to throw his army between the rebel forces and Savannah. The task of deceiving the enemy and holding them while this movement was being made by Sherman was, by General Kilpatrick, assigned to Colonel Atkins and his brigade. Skillfully he accomplished this difficult task. From Clinton with his brigade he charged the rebels, driving them fourteen miles to Macon; he dashed upon their outer lines, driving them into their main works about the city, and held them there while Sherman swept majestically around to the eastward, leaving the enemy in the rear, and having nothing in front to impede his progress.

The Colonel distinguished himself in the different engagements in which his brigade took part, especially at Waynesboro, where Wheeler and his cavalry were defeated. While leading the charge made by his brigade in this light, his color bearer was shot down by his side; his brigade flag attracting the attention drew the fire of the enemy, but amid the iron shower he wore a charmed life while he cheered on his men to victory. At Savannah he was brevetted Brigadier-General for his skill and gallantry as a commander. As a regimental commander he infused into the men his own ardent spirit of patriotism; he had their entire confidence as to his judgment and skill as a leader, and, perhaps, no Colonel was more popular with his men up to the time of his being removed from them to command a brigade. As a brigade commander he was exceedingly popular; his courteous manner and gentlemanly deportment, and his calm, cool judgment and skill as a leader amid the strife of battle, gave him the

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hearts of his command. At the dose of the war he was mustered out of the service with his old regiment, and for his faithful services he was brevetted Major-General. He has again resumed the practice of his profession at Freeport, where he was appointed Postmaster — a position from which he has been removed to make room for one of President Johnson's bread-and-butter appointees.

David Scott (nicknamed "Gedee") was a joyous-hearted printer boy in Polo, Ogle County. For many months he struggled between his affection for his aged parents, which restrained him at home, and his inclination to fight for the dear old flag. He finally enlisted in Company D, 92d Illinois, and on General Atkins, taking command of a brigade, he was made color-bearer. In one of the numerous engagements in which the 92d had part (it was at Waynesboro, we believe), it was ordered with an Ohio regiment to make a charge. Fearing that, the latter regiment was about to falter, young Scott rode forward, exclaiming, "Come on, boys!" In his eagerness he had ridden some distance in advance of the brigade, when a rebel bullet struck him in the breast. Raising his arms, he cried out, "Boys, I'm shot. For God's sake, save the flag!" and fell dead — a noble sacrifice for the country he loved better than his life.

NINETY-THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 93d regiment was mustered into the service at Chicago, October 13, 1862. Six companies were from Bureau County, two from Stephenson, one from Whiteside and one from Rock Island. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Holden Putnam; Lieutenant-Colonel, Nicholas C. Buswell; Major, James M. Fisher; Adjutant, David W. Sparks; Quartermaster, Edward S. Johnson; Surgeon, Joseph Huyett; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Samuel A. Hopkins; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Charles A. Griswold; Chaplain, Thomas H. Hagerty.

Co. A — Captain, Lewis S. Ashbaugh; 1st Lieutenant, William M. Morris; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel F. McDonald.

Co. B — Captain, John W. Hopkins; 1st Lieutenant, David Deselms; 2d Lieutenant, James W. Lee.

Co. C — Captain, William J. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, William Yonson; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas I. Lockwood.

Co. D — Captain, Charles F. Taggart; 1st Lieutenant, Alpheus P. Goddard; 2d Lieutenant, George S. Kleckner.

Co. E — Captain, Alfred F. Knight; 1st Lieutenant, John Dyer; 2d Lieutenant, William A. Payne.

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Co. F — Captain, Orrin Wilkinson; 1st Lieutenant, Lyman J Wilkinson; 2d Lieutenant, William C. Kinney.

Co. G — Captain, Joseph P. Reed; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Hartsough; 2d Lieutenant, Jeremiah J. Piersol.

Co. H — Captain, John A. Russell; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Dorr; 2d Lieutenant, Gad C. Lowrey.

Co. I — Captain, Ellis Fisher; 1st Lieutenant, Elijah Sapp; 2d Lieutenant, Mills C. Clark.

Co. K — Captain, David Loyd; 1st Lieutenant, Clark Gray; 2d Lieutenant, Harrison I. Davis.

The 93d left Chicago on the 9th of November, 1862, for Memphis, where it remained until early in December, when it joined in the expedition to Tallahatchie until the project was abandoned. It was engaged in scouting duty until March 1, 1863, when it started on the Yazoo expedition to Fort Greenwood. When this undertaking was abandoned, the 93d marched to Helena, Arkansas, then to Milliken's Bend, and on the 27th of April left the latter point on the Vicksburg expedition. While thus engaged it fought a severe battle with the rebels, at Raymond, May 12, 1863, another at Jackson on the 14th, a skirmish at Fort Gibson, and on the 16th participated in the terrible battle at Champion Hills. On the 19th of May the 93d reached Vicksburg, where it remained till the fall of the rebel stronghold, on the 4th of July. The regiment was then sent into the city, and remained there, on provost duty, till September 12th. It then returned to Helena, thence to Memphis, thence to Corinth, Mississippi, and from thence to Chattanooga on the Missionary Ridge expedition. It reached Chattanooga on the 21st of November, and on the 25th participated in the bloody battle of Mission Ridge, where the gallant Colonel Holden Putnam was killed. From the battle field the 93d marched to Bridgeport, Tennessee, thence to Larkinsville, Alabama, and from there, in January, 1864, to Huntsville, Alabama, where it went into camp until February 12th. On the 25th of this month it took part in the battle of Dalton. Next we find it in various duties until August 2d, when it started for Allatoona, Georgia, where it fought a most sanguinary battle with the rebels, losing eighty-three men. From Allatoona, November 12th, it started on the Georgia and Carolina campaign. In this campaign it bore its full share of honors, and in May, 1865, left Rolla for Washington, where it participated in the grand review. In June it was mustered

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out, and on the 24th of that month reached Chicago, where it was paid off and discharged.

The 93d originally mustered 976 men; when it reached Chicago it numbered but 258 men and 23 officers. From the time it entered the service till mustered out at Louisville, it marched 2,554 miles, traveled 2,296 miles by water and 1,237 by rail — a total of 6,087 miles.

NINETY-FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 95th regiment was composed of seven companies from McHenry County and three from Boone. It was mustered into the service at Rockford on the 4th of September, 1862, with the following list of officers:

Colonel, Lawrence S. Church; Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas W. Humphrey; Major, Leander Blanden; Adjutant, Wales W. Wood; Quartermaster, Henry D. Bates; Surgeon, George N. Woodward; 1st Assistant Surgeon, A. D. Merritt; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Walter F. Suiter; Chaplain, Thomas R. Satterfield.

Co. A — Captain, William Avery; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander S. Stewart; 2d Lieutenant, James E. Sponable.

Co. B — Captain, Charles B. Loop; 1st Lieutenant, Milton E. Keeler; 2d Lieutenant, Aaron F. Randall.

Co. C — Captain, Jason B. Manzer; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Wedgewood; 2d Lieutenant, Otis H. Smith.

Co. D — Captain, Edward J. Cook; 1st Lieutenant, John E. Beckley; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Heiffman.

Co. E — Captain, John Eddy; 1st Lieutenant, Asa Farnam; 2d Lieutenant, Oscar E. Dow.

Co. F — Captain, William H. Stewart; 1st Lieutenant, Sabine Van Curen; 2d Lieutenant, Phineas H. Kerr.

Co. G — Captain, Elliott N. Bush; 1st Lieutenant, Henry M. Bush; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph M. Collier.

Co. H — Captain, Charles H. Tryon; 1st Lieutenant, James H. Wetmore; 2d Lieutenant, William B. Walker.

Co. I — Captain, James Nish; 1st Lieutenant, Gardiner S. Smithworth; 2d Lieutenant, Converse Pierce.

Co. K — Captain, Gabriel E. Cornwell; 1st Lieutenant, Almon Schellenger; 2d Lieutenant, Alonzo Brooks.

On the 4th of November, 1862, the regiment left Rockford for Grand Junction, Mississippi, via Cairo, Columbus, Kentucky, and Jackson, Tennessee, and took an active part in General campaign through Northern Mississippi in the ensuing winter, and

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afterward in the march to Memphis, Tennessee, thence down the river against Vicksburg. It participated in the numerous battles fought in the rear of Vicksburg, and was on the noted march from Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, to Grand Gulf, Mississippi. During the entire siege of Vicksburg the 95th performed gallant duty, and in the two famous charges made by Grant's army of the 19th and 22d of May, 1863, this regiment lost twenty-five killed, one hundred and twenty-four wounded and ten missing. On the day of the surrender of the rebel stronghold, July 4, 1863, the regiment was one of the first to enter the city, and remained there and at Natchez until March, 1864, when it went on General A. J. Smith's Red River expedition, and was present in all the important actions of the expedition, including the capture of Fort De Russey, and the battles of Old River, Clouterville, Mansouri and Yellow Bayou. Upon its return to Vicksburg in the early part of May, 1864, the regiment proceeded with the Sturgis expedition, and participated gallantly in the disastrous battle of Guntown, fought on the 10th of July. In this battle the 95th suffered fearfully, losing Colonel Thomas W. Humphrey, then in command, and a large proportion of officers and men. After the battle the boys were sent to Memphis, where they remained in camp until August, when they went with General Mower up White River, then marched from Brownsville through Arkansas to Missouri, in pursuit of the rebel invader, Price. After participating in all the subsequent marches of General A. J. Smith's army, during that campaign, the regiment, in the early part of November, 1864, rendezvoused at Benton Barracks, Missouri. In the latter part of November, it embarked on transports at St. Louis, with General Smith's forces, and proceeded to Nashville, Tennessee, to reinforce General Thomas, then operating against the rebel General Hood. It took part in the great battles around Nashville, of December 15th and 16th, and the subsequent pursuit of Hood's defeated army to the Tennessee River; arrived there January 2, 1865, and a few days afterward ascended that river to Eastport, Mississippi, when General A. J. Smith's corps went into winter quarters. While at this point an expedition was sent out to Corinth, which the regiment accompanied, and was absent only a few days. Early in February, the troops were ordered to embark on steamers at Eastport and proceed

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to New Orleans, to operate in the campaign against Mobile, arriving in the Crescent City February 21st. On the 14th of March, the regiment embarked for Dauphin Island at the mouth of Mobile Bay, and on the 18th of the month landed on the west side of the bay, at Cedar Point, with Colonel Moore's brigade. There the boys commenced the first offensive operations against Mobile City. The regiment took active part in the grand forward movement of General Canby's army from Fish River Landing, March 25th, against Mobile, and was one of the first regiments to advance to close position in the investment of Spanish Fort. During that siege the 95th carried its trenches to within thirty yards of the enemy's works, under a most terrible fire of artillery and musketry, and participated in the storming and capture of the fort, April 8th, being the first regiment to occupy what was known in the rebel line as the "Red Fort." Upon the fall of Mobile, the 95th Illinois marched with the 16th Army Corps from Blakeley to Montgomery, Alabama, where it arrived April 25th. Leaving Montgomery, the regiment proceeded to Opelika, Alabama, about seventy miles to the northeast, on the line of the Montgomery and West Point Railroad, with general orders to attack guerillas, collect Confederate property, and clear the district of the many marauders. On the 18th of July started for Montgomery on its way home to muster out of the service. It arrived at Vicksburg, Mississippi, August 3d, via Selma, Meridian and Jackson, and then received orders to proceed at once to St. Louis, Missouri, for muster out. On reaching that place, August 10th, the regiment was sent directly to Camp Butler, Springfield, Illinois, where, on the 16th day of August, 1865, it was mustered out, paid off, and discharged from the United States service.

In addition to the foregoing, the regiment, during the summer of 1864, had a detachment of several officers and about 100 enlisted men in General Sherman's Georgia campaign. These were in charge of Major Charles B. Loop (then Captain), Captain James Nish, of Company I, and Captain Alexander S. Stewart, of Company A; were engaged at the battles of Kenesaw Mountain, Chattahoochee River, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Lovejoy Station, and took active part in all the important events of that campaign, which resulted in the capture of the "Gate City" of the South.

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The following figures form an interesting record of the 95th during its term of service in the armies of the Republic:

Aggregate number of officers and men during service 1,355
Aggregate number on entering service 983
Old soldiers belonging to the regiment when it was mustered out 490
Number of recruits on mustering out 118
Number discharged during service 240
Died in battle and of wounds received in action 84
Died of disease 276
Number of recruits transferred on muster out of regiment 162
Number transferred during service to Invalid Corps, etc 47
Number missing 38
Miles traveled 9,960
Miles marched 1,800

Colonel Thomas W. Humphrey was born at Knoxville, Ohio, April 4, 1835, but passed the greater part of his life at Franklin, DeKalb County, Illinois. He was a graduate of Beloit College, Wisconsin, and afterward a clerk in the Recorder's office in DeKalb County. Subsequently he was a candidate for Sheriff of that county. During the summer of 1862, he raised a company for the war, and on the organization of the 95th regiment was chosen its Lieutenant-Colonel, and later promoted to the command of the regiment. As related above, he was killed at the battle of Guntown, Mississippi, while at the head of his regiment. His remains were conveyed to his home in DeKalb County, where they were interred with appropriate religious and Masonic ceremonies, the latter being conducted by Major-General Stephen A. Hurlbut.

NINETY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 98th regiment was organized at Centralia, and mustered into the service on the 3d of September, 1862. Its original roster was as follows:

Colonel, John J. Funkhouser; Lieutenant-Colonel, Edward Kitchell; Major, Wm. B. Cooper; Adjutant, John H. J. Lacy; Quartermaster, Finney D. Preston; Surgeon, Robert M. Lackey; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Samuel W. Vortrees; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Allen T. Barnes; Chaplain, William Cliffe.

Co. A — Captain, Enoch P. Turner; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Foster; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph C. Gadd.

Co. B — Captain, David D. Marquis; 1st Lieutenant, William E. Hoffman; 2d Lieutenant, William C. Rickard.

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Co. C — Captain, William McCracken; 1st Lieutenant, Stephen I. Williams; 2d Lieutenant, John P. Powell.

Co. D — Captain, William Wood; 1st Lieutenant, James H. Watts; 2d Lieutenant, William G. Young.

Co. E — Captain, John T. Cox; 1st Lieutenant, Ira A. Flood; 2d Lieutenant, Charles Willard.

Co. F — Captain, Albert W. Lacrone; 1st Lieutenant, Wiot Cook; 2d Lieutenant George W. Hobbs.

Co. G — Captain, Frederick A. Johns; 1st Lieutenant, Lindsy D. Laws; 2d Lieutenant, William Jobes.

Co. H — Captain, Thomas Johnson; 1st Lieutenant, Ephraim Martin; 2d Lieutenant, George Moutray.

Co. I — Captain, William H. Wade; 1st Lieutenant, Simon S. Foster; 2d Lieutenant, Lawrence Banta.

Co. K — Captain, Orvilla L. Kelley; 1st Lieutenant, Alexander S. Moffitt; 2d Lieutenant, William Torrent.

The regiment left camp on the 8th of September, for Louisville. When the train reached Bridgeport, Illinois, on the evening of the 8th, it was precipitated down an embankment by the displacement of a switch, and several cars wrecked, and five persons killed and seventy-five wounded, several of whom afterward died. The regiment resumed its journey the next morning, and arrived at "Camp Joe Holt," at Jeffersonville, where it remained till the 13th, when it went to Camp Ward, at Louisville. It then engaged in campaigning in Kentucky and Tennessee till January 4, 1863, when it reached Nashville. On the 5th it marched to Murfreesboro, escorting a supply train. Here it was stationed during the months of January and February, on picket, foraging and guard duty. On the 14th of March, a part of the regiment was mounted, and from this date till September 16th was constantly engaged in scouting and foraging. On the 17th the battle of Chickamauga was begun, and the 98th did excellent service. In this fight Colonel Funkhouser was wounded in both thighs. At Shelbyville, October 7th, it charged upon the enemy and drove them in confusion. It next engaged with them at Farmington, with a like result. It then pursued Wheeler until he crossed the Tennessee River. From the 17th of October to the 17th of November it was in camp at Maysville. On the 21st it moved to Chattanooga. During the ensuing winter it was actively engaged in scouting, and took part in the Atlanta campaign, in like duties. At Dallas it did excellent service, materially assisting in driving the enemy from the field.

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After the capture of Atlanta it took part in Kilpatrick's raid, and participated in the engagement at New Hope Church in October, 1864. At Rome, October 12th and 13th, it behaved with great gallantry, defeating the rebels. It was constantly employed in scouting till November 1st, when it dismounted, turning over its horses and equipments to Kilpatrick's cavalry, to be used in the march to the sea. On the 13th the regiment reached Nashville, and on the 16th arrived at Louisville, where it was encamped until December 28th. It was then ordered to Bardstown to intercept the rebel General Lyon, and on the 31st moved to Elizabethtown. On the 12th of January, 1865, being again mounted, it marched through Nashville, reaching Gravelly Springs, Alabama, on the 25th. Here it remained till March 22d, when it began the spring campaign. On the 2d of April, our forces attacked and routed Roddy's command at Selma, Alabama, suffering severely. On the 12th of April it was present at the surrender of Montgomery, Alabama. On the 16th, Columbus, Georgia, was captured, with 1,500 prisoners and many pieces of artillery, and the public buildings and arsenal destroyed. On the 20th the forces entered Macon and took possession. This was at the virtual ending of the war, and on the 27th of June the 98th was mustered out of the service at Nashville, and on the 1st of July arrived at Camp Butler, where it was paid and discharged.

NINETY-NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 99th regiment was organized at Florence, Pike county, and mustered into the service on the 23d of August, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, George W. K. Bailey; Lieutenant-Colonel, Lemuel Parke; Major, Edwin A. Crandall; Adjutant, Marcellus Ross; Quartermaster, Isaac G. Hodgen; Surgeon, Joseph H. Ledlie; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Archibald E. McNeal; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Abner T. Spencer; Chaplain, Oliver A. Topliff.

Co. A — Captain, George T. Edwards; 1st Lieutenant, James K. Smith; 2d Lieutenant, James F. Stobie.

Co. B — Captain, Benjamin L. Matthews; 1st Lieutenant, James W. Fee; 2d Lieutenant, James A. Elledge.

Co. C — Captain, Asa C. Matthews; 1st Lieutenant, Joshua K. Sitton; 2d Lieutenant, Lucien W. Shaw.

Co. D — Captain, John F. Richards; 1st Lieutenant, Francis M. Dabney; 2d Lieutenant William T. Mitchell.

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Co. E — Captain, John C. Dinsmore; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph G. Colvin; 2d Lieutenant, Allen D. Richards.

Co. F — Captain, Eli R. Smith; 1st Lieutenant, Leonard Greaton; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel McDonald.

Co. G — Captain, Henry D. Hull; 1st Lieutenant, James H. Crane; 2d Lieutenant, Lewis Dutton.

Co. H — Captain, Lewis Hull; 1st Lieutenant, Melville D. Massie; 2d Lieutenant, Gottfried Wenzell.

Co. I — Captain, Joseph G. Johnson; 1st Lieutenant, John G. Sever; 2d Lieutenant, Robert E. Gilleland.

Co. K — Captain, Isaiah Cooper; 1st Lieutenant, William Gray; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas J. Kinman.

The regiment left camp immediately upon its muster, and on the following day arrived at Benton Barracks, being the first regiment to leave the State under the call of 1862. It was immediately placed on duty in Missouri. It was in a skirmish at Beaver Creek, and in the engagement at Hartsville, Missouri. It remained in Missouri until March 15, 1863, when it embarked for Milliken's Bend. On the 11th of April it entered upon the campaign against Vicksburg, and on the 1st of May took an active part in the engagement at Port Gibson, where it lost 37 in killed and wounded. It then pursued the enemy to Jackson. On the 16th it participated in the battle of Champion Hills, and on the 17th at Big Black River. On the 19th our forces were closely around Vicksburg, and on the 22d began the grand assault upon the enemy's works, in which the 99th took part, losing 103 men out of 300 who went into the action. Among the wounded were the Colonel and Major of the regiment, leaving Captain Matthews in command. The 99th planted its colors upon the rebel breastworks, and did not retire till relieved by another regiment. It remained in front of Vicksburg, taking an active part in the siege, until its surrender, July 4th, losing, in that time, 253 in killed and wounded. On the 5th it started in pursuit of Johnston, returning to Vicksburg on the 24th. On the 21st of August, it embarked for New Orleans, and was engaged in the Teche campaign, a portion of the regiment taking part in the battle of Grand Coteau. On the 16th of November it embarked for Texas, arriving at Mustang Island about the 25th. It immediately marched up to the attack upon and capture of Fort Esperanza, which gave complete possession of the coast from the mouth of the Rio Grande

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to Matagorda. On the 16th of June, 1864, it evacuated the Island, and reported to General Reynolds, at Algiers, Louisiana. During the entire summer of 1864, it was engaged in a kind of garrison duty on the Mississippi River. In November it went to Memphis, where it was consolidated into a battalion of five companies. In December General Grierson made his famous raid, and was supported by the 99th, until he reached Wolf River. The battalion then guarded the railroad till December 28th, when it was ordered to Memphis. On the 1st of January, 1865, it again embarked for New Orleans, and on the 1st of February ordered to Dauphin Island. It took part in the movements against Mobile, until its surrender. It then went up the Red River to receive the surrender of Kirby Smith. It arrived at Shrevesport, Louisiana, in June, and Colonel Matthews was immediately sent with an escort to the Indian Territory, to negotiate with the Indians, returning to Shrevesport July 3d, having traveled the entire distance — 1,000 miles — on horseback. On the 19th the battalion was ordered to Baton Rouge, where it was mustered out on the 31st. It arrived at Springfield on the 7th of August, where it was paid off and discharged.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 101st regiment was organized at Camp Duncan, Jacksonville, and mustered into the service on the 2d of September, 1862. The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, Charles H. Fox; Lieutenant-Colonel, William J. Wyatt; Major, Jesse T. Newman; Adjutant, Harrison O. Cassell; Quartermaster, John M. Snyder; Surgeon, Clarke Roberts; 1st Assistant Surgeon, James Miner; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Alonzo L. Kimber; Chaplain, Wongate J. Newman.

Co. A — Captain, John B. Lesage; 1st Lieutenant, Charles Heinz; 2d Lieutenant, Nimrod B. McPherson.

Co. B — Captain, Napoleon B. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas J. Moss; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas B. Woff.

Co. C — Captain, Horace E. May; 1st Lieutenant, C. Augustus Catlin; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph H. Belt.

Co. D — Captain, Henry C. Coffman; 1st Lieutenant, J. Newton Gillham; 2d Lieutenant, Robert C. Bruce.

Co. E — Captain, Charles Sample; 1st Lieutenant, Myron H. Lamb; 2d Lieutenant, Liberty Courtney.

Co. F — Captain, George W. Fanning; 1st Lieutenant, James L. Wyatt; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Shelton.

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Co. G — Captain, Robert McKee; 1st Lieutenant, Willis Meacham; 2d Lieutenant, John Hardin.

Co. H — Captain, Joab M. Fanning; 1st Lieutenant, William S. Wright; 2d Lieutenant, William R. Seymour.

Co. I — Captain, John A. Lightfoot; 1st Lieutenant, Frederick E. Shafer; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas M. Guy.

Co. K — Captain, Sylvester L. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas B. O'Rear; 2d Lieutenant, David B. Henderson.

The regiment left Jacksonville on the 6th of October for Cairo. Here it remained until the 26th of November, when it proceeded to Columbus, Ky., and thence to Davis' Mills, Miss., where it joined the Army of the Tennessee. On the 28th of November it started on its first march, and on the 30th reached Lumkin's Mills. Three days later it was sent to Holly Springs for provost and garrison duty. December 13th, Company A was sent to Cairo in charge of rebel prisoners, and on the 21st Holly Springs was captured, with five companies of the 101st, who were taken prisoners and paroled. They were sent to Benton Barracks until exchanged, in June, 1863. When Holly Springs was captured, the remaining four companies of the 101st scattered along the line of the railroad, fell back to Coldwater, where they met the 90th Illinois (Irish Legion) and greatly assisted in repelling Van Dorn's subsequent attack upon that place. They were afterward formed into a battalion and temporarily assigned to the 14th Illinois Volunteers. The battalion was engaged in scouting service in Tennessee, finally arriving at Memphis in February, 1863; there it was joined by Company A. On leaving Holly Springs with prisoners, Company A had proceeded to Cairo, and thence to Vicksburg, but General Sherman then investing that place, it was sent back up the river, and finally got rid of the prisoners at Alton, Ill., but not until the Company had been fearfully decreased by the sickness they had contracted by contact with the prisoners. Often it could not muster half a dozen men for duty, and that, too, when it had over a thousand prisoners in charge. Early in March the battalion was ordered to Vicksburg, where it was broken up and the companies assigned to various independent duties, Companies A, G, D and H, being assigned to the naval fleet. From this date each company had its separate history of scouts and skirmishes up and down the Mississippi. Company G, had the honor

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of running the blockade at Vicksburg, on the ram Switzerland, for which, after the fall of the city, General Grant furloughed the whole company. On the 7th of June the other part of the regiment was exchanged, and on the 11th of July arrived at Columbus, Ky., whence it started out on a series of scouts and expeditions which only terminated about the 25th of August, at Union City, Tenn. Here the regiment was reunited, and it thenceforth remained a unit. September 24th it was transferred to the Department of the Cumberland, and on the 27th arrived at Louisville, and on the 30th proceeded via Nashville to Bridgeport, Ala., where it remained till October 27th. On the 28th it participated in the night battle of Wauhatchie. It lay in Lookout Valley until November 22d, when it proceeded to Chattanooga, and participated in the battle at that place. It then took part in the famous march to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, returning to Lookout Valley December 17th. During this march many of the men were barefooted, and thus marched over the frozen ground, leaving traces of their march in blood. On the 17th of December the regiment returned to Lookout Valley, and after a few days' rest was set to work building corduroy roads. On the 1st of January, 1864, it was sent to Kelly's Ferry to relieve the 16th Illinois, then about to return home on veteran furlough. After the completion of the railroad to Chattanooga, the 101st was sent to Bridgeport, and remained there until May 2d. It then set out upon the Atlanta campaign, in which it participated until its close. It took part in the battles of Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw, Pine Mountain, Kulp's Ferry, Peach Tree Creek and Atlanta, being the first regiment to enter the captured city, on the second anniversary of its muster. In this campaign the regiment won imperishable glory. On leaving Bridgeport it had 365 effective men; on the morning following the battle of Peach Tree Creek this number had become reduced to 120. On the 15th of November the 101st started on the grand march to the sea, and participated in all its glories, trials and triumphs. It took part in the Carolina campaign, and was in the battles of Averysboro and Bentonville. On the 24th of May it participated in the grand review at Washington, and went into camp at Bladensburg. Here it was mustered out on the 7th of June, and on the 21st it was paid off and disbanded at Springfield.

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ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 102d regiment was raised in Knox, Mercer, Warren and Rock Island counties, by Colonel William McMurtrey, and was mustered into the service at Knoxville, on the 2d of September, 1862. The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, William McMurtrey; Lieutenant-Colonel, Frank C. Smith; Major, James M. Mannon; Adjutant, John W. Pitman; Quartermaster, Francis H. Rugar; Surgeon, David B. Rice; 1st Assistant Surgeon, William Hamilton; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Thomas S. Stanway; Chaplain, Amos K. Tullis.

Co. A — Captain, Roderick R. Harding; 1st Lieutenant, Levi F. Gentry; 2d Lieutenant, Charles M. Barnett.

Co. B — Captain, Elisha C. Atchison; 1st Lieutenant, William Armstrong; 2d Lieutenant, James C. Beswick.

Co. C — Captain, Frank Shedd; 1st Lieutenant, Almond Shaw; 2d Lieutenant, Watson C. Trego.

Co. D — Captain, Horace H. Welsie; 1st Lieutenant, Highland H. Clay; 2d Lieutenant, John B. Nixon.

Co. E — Captain, Thomas Likely; 1st Lieutenant, Daniel W. Sedwick; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas G. Brown.

Co. F — Captain, Charles H. Jackson; 1st Lieutenant, Orlando J. Sullivan; 2d Lieutenant, Ethan A. Cornwell.

Co. G — Captain, Joseph P. Wycoff; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac McManus; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Bridgeford.

Co. H — Captain, Lemuel D. Shinn; 1st Lieutenant, Hiram Elliott; 2d Lieutenant, John Thomas.

Co. I — Captain, George H. King; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin H. Congon; 2d Lieutenant, John L. Bonnell.

Co. K — Captain, Sanderson H. Rogers; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Wilson; 2d Lieutenant, Van Willits.

Early in October, 1862, the regiment arrived at Louisville, Kentucky, where it was brigaded with the 105th Illinois, 70th Indiana, and 79th Ohio regiments, General Ward commanding. From Louisville it marched to Frankfort, where it fought and whipped John Morgan. It was next placed at guarding the railroad between Murfreesboro and Nashville, where it remained from November, 1862, till February, 1864. In the latter month it was garrisoned in the Wauhatchie Valley, and there remained till May 2d, when it joined the 20th corps. When this corps advanced on Kenesaw Mountain, the 102d was in the advance skirmish line, and did effective service; and after the rebels fell back upon Marietta, Wheeler's cavalry being

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in the rear, the 102d fell upon about 3,000 of them and drove them up the valley. At the battle of Resaca the regiment was desperately engaged, losing 109 men killed and wounded. The 102d participated in the march to Atlanta, losing in this campaign 170 men. Then followed Sherman's grand march across the land, in which the 102d was detailed as a foraging regiment, which, to the boys, was capital sport. On this march two men of the regiment surprised and captured the Bank of Camden, South Carolina, from which they took $900 in gold and 8500,000 in Confederate and South Carolina state bonds. At the battle of Averysville, North Carolina, on the 16th of March, 1865, the 102d was under fire all day, and lost nineteen men killed and wounded.

After the conclusion of the Carolina campaign, the regiment marched to Washington and participated in the national review, when it proceeded to Chicago, where it arrived on the 9th of June, for final muster and discharge.

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRD ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 103d regiment was raised and organized in Fulton County, in the fall of 1862. It was mustered into the service at Peoria, October 2d, with the following roster:

Colonel, Amos C. Babcock; Lieutenant-Colonel, Parley C. Stearns; Major, George W. Wright; Adjutant, Samuel S. Tipton; Quartermaster, Willard A. Dickerman; Chaplain, William S. Peterson; Surgeon, Thornton H. Fleming; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Sydney S. Buck; 2d Assistant Surgeon, James W. Van Brunt.

Co. A — Captain, Asias Willison; 1st Lieutenant, William W. Bishop; 2d Lieutenant, Isaiah C. Worley.

Co. B — Captain, Onamel D. Carpenter; 1st Lieutenant, John S. Gardner; 2d Lieutenant, William Walsh.

Co. C — Captain, Sidney A. Stockdale; 1st Lieutenant, Henry L. Nicolet; 2d Lieutenant, John S. Smith.

Co. D — Captain, John S. Wyckoff; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin F. Wyckoff; 2d Lieutenant, Isaac A. McBean.

Co. E — Captain, Frank G. Post; 1st Lieutenant, William S. Johnson; 2d Lieutenant, Charles H. Suydam.

Co. F — Captain, William Vandevander; 1st Lieutenant, Bernard Kelly; 2d Lieutenant, William Mellor.

Co. G — Captain, Charles W. Wills; 1st Lieutenant, Charles F. Matteson; 2d Lieutenant, John H. Dorrance.

Co. H — Captain, James J. Hale; 1st Lieutenant, William Boyd; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel D. Woodsen.

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Co. I — Captain, Philip Medley; 1st Lieutenant, Nathaniel P. Montgomery; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel H. Brown.

Co. K — Captain, James C. King; 1st Lieutenant, Augustus B. Smith; 2d Lieutenant, Aaron Amsley.

On the 18th of October the Colonel and Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment resigned. Lieutenant Dickerman, Quartermaster, was elected Colonel; Major Wright promoted to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy; Captain Willison, Company A, to Major, and Second Lieutenant Mellor, Company F, to Quartermaster. On the 30th of October, the regiment left Peoria for Bolivar, Tenn., and thence to Jackson, Miss., where it joined Sherman. At Lagrange, Tenn., it remained until November 30th, when it was placed in garrison at Waterford, Miss., and on the 31st of December it went to Jackson, Tenn., then threatened by Forrest. Until June 8th it was engaged in harassing the enemy, when it was ordered to Vicksburg, and there remained until the surrender, doing effective service. Then the boys ware put upon the track of Johnston's hordes, fighting them all the way to Jackson, Miss., where the 103d left its mark in fiery letters of blood. This work was continued until the 24th of November, 1863, when the 103d participated in the fearful battle of Missionary Ridge. From this time until May, 1864, the regiment was in winter quarters at Scottsborough, Ala., whence it marched to Dalton, Ga., where it opened the summer campaign. Following this, it participated in the battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Atlanta, Jonesboro and Gadsden. At Dallas, Colonel Dickerman was killed while at the head of his regiment. At Kenesaw Mountain Lieutenant-Colonel Wright was seriously wounded and three commissioned officers and sixty men were killed. When the grand march to the sea was begun, the 103d took part in it, as also in the Carolina campaign, and in the review at Washington. It then reported at Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out and partially paid. On the 24th of June, 1865, it arrived in Chicago for final payment and discharge. Of the 800 men who left Fulton County under its banners, less than 400 remained on its arrival in Chicago.

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 105th regiment was organized and mustered into service at

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Dixon, Lee County, on the 2d of September, 1802, with the following roster:

Colonel, Daniel Dustin; Lieutenant-Colonel, Henry F. Vallette; Major, Everett F. Dutton; Adjutant, William N. Phillips; Quartermaster, Timothy Wells; Surgeon, Horace S. Potter; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Alfred Waterman; Chaplain, Levi P. Crawford.

Co. A — Captain, Henry D. Brown; 1st Lieutenant, George B. Heath; 2d Lieutenant, Robert D. Lord.

Co. B — Captain, Theodore S. Rogers; 1st Lieutenant, Lucius B. Church; 2d Lieutenant, Willard Scott, Jr.

Co. C — Captain, Alexander L. Warner; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Field; 2d Lieutenant, Henry B. Mason.

Co. D — Captain, Amos C. Graves; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Jeffers; 2d Lieutenant, Luther L. Peaslee.

Co. E — Captain, Thomas S. Terry; 1st Lieutenant, Martin V. Allen; 2d Lieutenant, Albert C. Overton.

Co. F — Captain, Seth F. Daniels; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Adams; 2d Lieutenant, Porter Warner.

Co. G — Captain, John B. Nash; 1st Lieutenant, Richard R. Woodruff; 2d Lieutenant, John M. Smith.

Co. H — Captain, Eli L. Hunt; 1st Lieutenant, James S. Forsythe; 2d Lieutenant, Charles G. Culver.

Co. I — Captain, Enos Jones; 1st Lieutenant, William O. Locke; 2d Lieutenant, Augustus H. Fisher.

Co. K — Captain, Horace Austin; 1st Lieutenant, Nathan S. Greenwood; 2d Lieutenant, Almon F. Parke.

From Dixon the regiment was sent to Chicago, mustering 954 men, rank and tile. On the last day of October, it left Chicago for Louisville. Here it was brigaded and under General Ward marched to Frankfort, where the boys first "smelled powder" in a skirmish with a regiment of rebel cavalry. From Frankfort the regiment marched to South Tunnel, where it remained in garrison until June, 1863, when it returned to Frankfort, and from there marched to Murfreesboro, and thence to Nashville, where the winter of '63-4 was spent. In the latter part of February the regiment left Nashville for Wauhatchie Valley, five miles from Chattanooga, where it remained till April, when it was placed in Ward's brigade of Butterfield's division of the 20th corps, then commanded by Joe Hooker. When General Sherman took command of the Army of the Cumberland, the 105th began war in earnest. Its first pitched battle was at Resaca, where it was one of the regiments which stormed

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and captured the heights. It was next engaged at West Allatoona, and then followed in quick succession the hard-fought battles of Allatoona, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek and Jonesboro, in all of which the 105th bore a prominent part. After our army had recuperated, the 105th joined in the glorious march to the sea and the Carolina campaign. Following this was the grand review at Washington, and then — "homeward bound." The 105th arrived in Chicago on the 10th of June, 1865, for muster and discharge — returning, however, with only 460 of the 954 braves who started out in 1862.

ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 108th infantry was organized at Peoria, where it was mustered into the service on the 28th of August, 1862. The original roster was as follows:

Colonel, John Warren; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles Turner; Major, Reuben L. Sidwell; Adjutant, Benjamin T. Foster; Quartermaster, George W. Raney; Surgeon, Richard A. Conover; Chaplain, George W. Gue.

Co. A — Captain, William R. Lackland; 1st Lieutenant, Philo W. Hill; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Plummer.

Co. B — Captain, Richard B. Howell; 1st Lieutenant, Garrett G. Ruhaak; 2d Lieutenant, Wilber F. Henry.

Co. C — Captain, Sylvester V. Dooley; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Moore; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas Lynch.

Co. D — Captain, David R. McCutchen; 1st Lieutenant, William A. Stewart; 2d Lieutenant, George H. Megguire.

Co. E — Captain, Winefield M. Bullock; 1st Lieutenant, Francis F. Briggs; 2d Lieutenant, William A. Davidson.

Co. F — Captain, Isaac Sarff; 1st Lieutenant, James Tippett; 2d Lieutenant, John H. Schulte.

Co. G — Captain, George K. Hazlitt; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel B. Hartz; 2d Lieutenant, Henry C. Sommers.

Co. H — Captain, William M. Duffy; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac C. Brown; 2d Lieutenant, William W. Nelson.

Co. I — Captain, John W. Carroll; 1st Lieutenant, Richard Scholes; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel Dulaney.

Co. K — Captain, Lyman W. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, James F. Davidson; 2d Lieutenant, Philander E. Davis.

On the 6th of October, 1862, the 108th left Peoria for the front, 900 strong, and joined the division of General Garrard at Covington, Ky., in the advance guard of the army of Kentucky, in pursuit

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of Morgan. It next went to Nicholasville, Lexington and Louisville, and from there went to Memphis, with the army of General A. J. Smith. It next joined Sherman, and participated in the expedition to Chickasaw Bayou, at which place it was engaged for two days with the rebels. At the conclusion of this affair it proceeded to Arkansas Post, where it remained until after the capitulation, when it was ordered to Young's Point. Here the men were employed in digging canals for a length of time, after which they proceeded to Milliken's Bend. On April 15, 1863, the regiment left the Bend and passed through the swamps of Louisiana to Port Gibson, at which place it participated in the fight of May 1st. On the 16th it took part in the battle of Champion Hills, after which it was sent to Memphis in charge of about 6,000 rebel prisoners. On June 1st it returned to the army, joining it at Vicksburg, before which place it did picket duty up to the time of the surrender. On July 28th it returned to Memphis, and on the 4th of August it went to La Grange and next to Pocahontas, at which latter place it remained until November 10th, when it was ordered to Corinth, Miss. Again going to Memphis, it remained there until June 1, 1864, when it started with Sturgis' expedition and participated in the battles of Guntown and Ripley, with the loss of about fifty men. It again returned to Memphis and was there when Forrest made his attack on that place on August 21st. It remained there until February 28, 1865, and then went to New Orleans, where it was quartered until March 12th, when it started by steamer for Dauphin Island, Mobile Harbor. On March 21st it went to Spanish Fort, and there took an active part in the engagement of the 27th of March, and in the thirteen days' siege. After the capitulation it went to Montgomery, Alabama, and there did provost duty until July 18th, when it was ordered to Vicksburg. At Vicksburg it was mustered out, and on the 3d of August started for home, arriving in Chicago on the 9th, with 261 men, all told.

ONE HUNDRED AND NINTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

Of one Illinois regiment we have an inglorious record to make. We would gladly omit it, but the truth of history compels it, and it will at least serve to illustrate the wonderful strength of treason in our own midst, and by its contrast aid to illumine the record of the

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men who did their duty. The 109th regiment was organized at Anna, Union County, and mustered into the service on the 17th of September, 1862. It was freely charged, and generally believed, that the regiment was composed almost exclusively of members of the knights of the Golden Circle. The following special order from the War Department tells as much of its history as it is necessary for us to follow:

"LAKE PROVIDENCE, LOUISIANA, "
"April 10, 1863.

"Special Order No. 6.

"The officers of the 109th regiment Illinois Volunteers, except those of Company K, having been reported as utterly incompetent to perform the duties of their respective commissions, and evincing no disposition to improve themselves, are hereby discharged from the service of the United States.

"This is the regiment which was within a few miles of Holly Springs when attacked by the rebels, failed to march to the support of their comrades, but drew in their pickets, and stood ready to surrender. From nine companies 347 men deserted, principally at Memphis, and but one from Company K. To render the men efficient, it is necessary to transfer them to a disciplined regiment, and they are accordingly transferred to the 11th regiment Illinois Volunteers, Company K to make the tenth company.

"The officers thus discharged are;

"Colonel, A. J. Nimma; Major, T. M. Perrine; 1st Lieutenant, C. B. Dishon, Regimental Quartermaster.

"Captains — J. C. Merustucker, Samuel P. McClure, Hugh Andrews, S. A. Lewis.

"1st Lieutenants — James P. McLane, Jacob Milligan, B. F. Hartline, Abraham Merrenhen, Morgan Stokes, Charles Barringer, Jostah Toler, B. B. Bartlinson.

"2d Lieutenants — M. M. Gordman, T. T. Robinson, Charles Kettles, Squire Crabtree, Henry Gassaway, Andrew Calvin.

"Chaplain P. H. Crouch will, as the regiment has been consolidated, be mustered out of the service.

"Surgeon T. M. Perrine, Assistant Surgeons John W. Henly and George H. Dewey will be assigned by Major-General Grant to other Illinois regiments to fill vacancies.

"By order of the Secretary of War,"

(Signed) S. THOMAS, Adjutant-General.
"ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
"WASHINGTON, April 24, 1863.

"Official:
"E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General."

ONE HUNDRED AND TENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 110th regiment was organized at Jonesboro, where it was mustered into the service on the 11th of September, 1862. The following is the original roster:

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Colonel, Thomas S. Casey; Lieutenant-Colonel, Munroe C. Crawford; Major, Daniel Mooneyham; Adjutant, Oscar A. Taylor; Quartermaster, Thomas H. Hobbs; Surgeon, William C. Pace; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Hiram S. Plummer; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Zachariah Hickman.

Co. A — Captain, Marion D. Hodge; 1st Lieutenant, Green M. Contrell; 2d Lieutenant, William B. Doming.

Co. B — Captain, Charles H. Maxey; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel T. Maxey; 2d Lieutenant, John H. Dukes.

Co. C — Captain, Francis M. Norman; 1st Lieutenant, Richard T. McHaney; 2d Lieutenant, James L. Parks.

Co. D — Captain, Ebenezer H. Topping; 1st Lieutenant, Robert A. Cameron; 2d Lieutenant, William J. Cameron.

Co. E — Captain, George E. Burnett; 1st Lieutenant, Willis A. Spiller; 2d Lieutenant, Charles Burnett.

Co. F — Captain, Grayson Dellitt; 1st Lieutenant, Carrol Payne; 2d Lieutenant, Jesse G. Payne.

Co. G — Captain, John F. Day; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Gibson; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph B. Scudmore.

Co. H — Captain, William K. Murphy; 1st Lieutenant, Enos D. Hays; 2d Lieutenant, James Richie.

Co. I — Captain, William L. Britton; 1st Lieutenant, William S. Bales; 2d Lieutenant, William W. McAmie.

Co. K — Captain, Mark Harper; 1st Lieutenant, James S. Wycough; 2d Lieutenant, John T. Barnett.

On the 22d of September, 1862, the 110th left Jonesboro for Louisville, over 900 strong, remaining there till the 21st of October, when it joined in the pursuit of Bragg, being in the 19th Brigade of the 21st Army Corps, under the command of General T. L. Crittenden. The corps came up with Bragg at Perryville; but as it was on the extreme right of our line, it did not participate in the general battle at that place. Upon Bragg's retreating, the 110th continued in the pursuit to Wild Cat, skirmishing with him all the way, and returned to Nashville on the 20th of November, where it remained till the 26th of December. At this place it was assigned to the 2d Brigade of the 2d Division of the 21st Corps. It started for Murfreesboro on the 26th, skirmishing with Bragg's rear to their destination. After the battle of Stone River, in which the 110th lost seven men and one officer killed, and about fifty men wounded, it went into camp until the 6th of May, 1863, and on the 8th was consolidated into a battalion of four companies, and started on the Tullahoma campaign. It was afterward engaged in the Chattanooga campaign. It was assigned to the 3d Brigade of the 2d Division of the 14th

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Corps, about the 25th of October. From this time until the 20th of July, 1864, the regiment was mainly engaged in guard duty. At that time it was assigned to its brigade, and started on the Atlanta campaign. It met the enemy at Eutaw Creek, August 7th, and at Jonesboro. At the conclusion of this campaign, the 110th remained a few weeks in camp, when it went in pursuit of Forrest's guerrillas, with whom it skirmished at various times. On the 6th of November it joined Sherman's grand army at Gaylesville, and ten days later began the grand march for the Atlantic coast. It remained on duty as provost guard at General J. C. Davis' head-quarters until the disbandment of the army. On the 12th of June, 1865, it arrived at Chicago with fourteen officers and 290 men. During the earlier part of its career it lost very heavily from disease. At Nashville, during one month, over 200 men of the regiment died from measles, diarrhea and other diseases.

ONE HUNDRED AND ELEVENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 111th regiment was organized at Salem, Marion County, and mustered into the service on the 18th of September, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, James S. Martin; Lieutenant-Colonel, Joseph F. Black; Major, William H. Mabry; Adjutant, William C. Stiles; Quartermaster, Benjamin F. Marshall; Surgeon, James Phillips; 1st Assistant Surgeon, John K. Rainey; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Thomas S. Hawley; Chaplain, James B. Woolard.

Co. A — Captain, Amos A. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, John K. Morton; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob V. Andrews.

Co. B — Captain, Anderson Myers; 1st Lieutenant, William H. Walker; 2d Lieutenant, George C. McCord.

Co. C — Captain, Thomas O. Pierce; 1st Lieutenant, James M. Forth; 2d Lieutenant, William B. Holleman.

Co. D — Captain, John Foster; 1st Lieutenant, Robert W. Elder; 2d Lieutenant, George W. Smith.

Co. E — Captain, Joseph F. McGuire; 1st Lieutenant, Lewellyn W. Castellom; 2d Lieutenant, William J. Young.

Co. F — Captain, Abner S. Gray; 1st Lieutenant, William C. Dorris; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Carpenter.

Co. G — Captain, Reuben W. Jolliff; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Simpson; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Stover.

Co. H — Captain, George E. Castle; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew J. Larimer; 2d Lieutenant, Robett M. Lovell.

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Co. I — Captain, Alfred J. Nichols; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Souter; 2d Lieutenant, Franklin W. Kirkham.

Co. K — Captain, Joseph Shultz; 1st Lieutenant, Isaac H. Berry; 2d Lieutenant, James B. Pendleton.

The regiment left Salem on the 31st of October, for Columbus, Kentucky, and remained there till March 12, 1863, when it was sent to Fort Heiman, Tennessee. Here it remained until May 28th, making frequent raids into Tennessee, capturing and destroying a large amount of rebel property. It was then ordered to Paducah, Kentucky, where it remained until October 31st, when it was sent to Gravelly Springs, Alabama. November 7th it took up its line of march for Pulaski, where it remained until February 25, 1864. On the 8th of March it participated in the capture of Decatur, Alabama. On the morning of the 9th, Captain Amos A. Clark, who had been on detached service for twelve months, rejoined the regiment, and within two hours afterward was killed by the accidental discharge of a pistol. On the 16th the regiment marched to Huntsville, and thence to Larkinsville, where it encamped until May 1st. It then joined General Sherman's army in the Atlanta campaign, and participated in the battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro. At the battle of Resaca, the 111th was ordered to force the passage of Camp Creek, which was done in gallant style, in the face of a heavy fire. This being accomplished, Colonel Martin, who commanded the brigade, ordered a charge on the rebel works on the hills beyond. General Logan, who was anxiously watching, saw the charge made, and exclaimed that "the 111th had gone to — !" He was mistaken, for the rebel works were carried and occupied by the regiment. On the 25th of October it had a skirmish with Wheeler's cavalry, in Cherokee County, Alabama. In November it started on the march to the sea, participating in all its trials and triumphs, being the first Union regiment to place its colors on Fort McAllister, Georgia. It next took part in the Carolina campaign, and was engaged with the enemy at South Edisto River, North Edisto River, and Bentonville. It was present in the grand review at Washington on the 24th of May, 1865, and on the 10th of June started for home. It arrived at Camp Butler on the 15th, and on the 27th was paid off and finally

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discharged. The 111th shows a smaller casualty list than almost any other regiment serving an equal length of time. Total number killed in battle, 42; wounded, 143; missing, 87; died of disease, &c., 191; number of miles traveled, 4,700.

ONE HUNDRED AND TWELFTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 112th regiment was composed of seven companies from Henry County, and three from Stark. It was mustered into the service at Peoria, 996 rank and file, on the 20th of September, 1862. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Thomas J. Henderson; Lieutenant-Colonel, Emery S. Bond; Major, James M. Hosford; Adjutant, Henry W. Wells; Quartermaster, George C. Alden; Surgeon, John W. Spalding; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Luther S. Milliken; Chaplain, Rosnill N. Henderson.

Co. A — Captain, Tristram T. Dow; 1st Lieutenant, Asa A. Lee; 2d Lieutenant, John L. Dow.

Co. B — Captain, James B. Doyle; 1st Lieutenant, Jonathan C. Dickerson; 2d Lieutenant, John Gudgel.

Co. C — Captain, John J. Biggs; 1st Lieutenant, John B. Mitchell; 2d Lieutenant, Alexander P. Petrie.

Co. D — Captain, Augustus A. Dunn; 1st Lieutenant, Henry G. Griffin; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel L. Patterson.

Co. E — Captain, Sylvester F. Oatman; 1st Lieutenant, Cranmer W. Brown; 2d Lieutenant, Elmer A. Sage.

Co. F — Captain, William W. Wright; 1st Lieutenant, Jackson Lawrence; 2d Lieutenant, Robert E. Westfall.

Co. G — Captain, Alexander W. Albra; 1st Lieutenant, James McCartney; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas E. Milchrist.

Co. H — Captain, George W. Sroufe; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas T. Davenport; 2d Lieutenant, Elisha Atwater.

Co. I — Captain, James E. Wilkins; 1st Lieutenant, George W. Lawrence; 2d Lieutenant, Henry S. Comstock.

Co. K — Captain, Joseph Westley; 1st Lieutenant, Christian G. Gearhart; 2d Lieutenant, Edward H. Colcord.

On the 8th of October, 1862, the 112th left Peoria for Covington, Kentucky. From thence it went to Lexington, and from thence to Danville, in pursuit of Pegram's cavalry. About the 1st of April, 1863, the regiment was mounted, and soon after started in pursuit of Scott's cavalry, whom it drove from Kentucky. On the 10th of June it made a raid into Tennessee, under General Sanders, and after doing considerable damage to various lines of railroads, it made a

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demonstration against Knoxville, but was compelled to retire before superior forces. It next joined Burnside's army, and, as his advance, entered East Tennessee, and participated in the battles of Philadelphia, Campbell's Station, Calhoun, Knoxville (where it lost 120 men), Bean Station, Kelly's Ford and Dandridge. It returned to Kentucky in 1864, and was dismounted. On the 6th of April it marched to Knoxville, and in a few days started for Tunnel Hill, Georgia, arriving in front of Rocky Face on the 11th of May. It took part in the battle of Resaca on the 14th of May, where Colonel Henderson was wounded and the regiment lost fifty-six men. It continued in the march to Atlanta, taking part in the battles of Nickojack Creek, Pumpkin Vine Creek, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw, Lost Mountain, Chattahoochee, Utoy Creek and Rough and Ready, losing heavily in several of them. After the battle of Atlanta it went into camp at Decatur, Georgia, where it rested for a while, and then started after Hood. At Cedar Bluffs it parted from Sherman, and started with Schofield to head Hood off. While resting at Palesca, Hood attempted to flank it, and in order to make its position more secure, it had to fall back, encountering some heavy skirmishing at Columbia and Spring Hill. It continued to retreat until Franklin was reached, where the 112th took a conspicuous part, as also at Nashville, when it drove the rebels across the Tennessee into Alabama. Just before the close of the war, the regiment went to Fort Fisher on the 8th of February, 1865, and shortly after participated in the battles of Fort Anderson, Town Creek, Wilmington and Kingston. It then proceeded to Goldsboro, where it joined Sherman, and moved up to Greensboro, North Carolina, where it was mustered out of service on the 21st of June. The 112th participated in no less than twenty-five pitched battles, and one hundred and ten skirmishes, and out of 996 men who originally belonged to the regiment only 424 returned.

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTEENTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY.

The 113th regiment — "Third Board of Trade" — was raised in Cook, Kankakee and Iroquois counties, in August, 1862, but was not formally mustered as a regiment until the 1st of October. The following is the original roster:

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Colonel, George B. Hoge, Lieutenant-Colonel, John W. Paddock; Major, Lucius H. Yates; Adjutant, Daniel S. Parker; Quartermaster, William A. McLean; Surgeon, Joel M. Mack; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Lucien B. Brown; 2d Assistant Surgeon, William N. Bailey; Chaplain, Adam L. Rankin.

Co. A — Captain, George R. Clark; 1st Lieutenant, Henry W. B. Hoyt; 2d Lieutenant, Daniel Ferguson.

Co. B — Captain, Cephas Williams; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew Beckett; 2d Lieutenant, John Jeffcoat.

Co. C — Captain, George W. Lyman; 1st Lieutenant, William E. Barry; 2d Lieutenant, Harvey P. Hosmer.

Co. D — Captain, Robert B. Lucas; 1st Lieutenant, David H. Metzger; 2d Lieutenant, George B. Fickle.

Co. E — Captain, Mason Southerland; 1st Lieutenant, U. Rial Burlingham; 2d Lieutenant, Charles D. Trumbull.

Co. F — Captain, William I. Bridges; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph Rogers; 2d Lieutenant, William German.

Co. G — Captain, John G. Woodruff; 1st Lieutenant, Frank Brown; 2d Lieutenant, James I. Conway.

Co. H — Captain, Bliss Sutherland; 1st Lieutenant, Harrison Daniels; 2d Lieutenant, Aquilla C. Congill.

Co. I — Captain, George West; 1st Lieutenant, Anderson Tyler; 2d Lieutenant, Aaron F. Kane.

Co. K — Captain, Silas J. Garrett; 1st Lieutenant, Levi Sargent; 2d Lieutenant, Charles Squires.

During the month of October, 1862, the 113th was employed in guarding rebel prisoners at Camp Douglas, and on the 5th of November left for Memphis, 840 strong. Here it was assigned to the 15th Corps, General Sherman, and with him marched to Oxford, Mississippi, to join the expedition against Vicksburg. It returned with General Sherman to Memphis, and thence to Vicksburg by water. It was in the fights at Milliken's Bend and Chickasaw Bayou. The next move was to Arkansas Post [Vol. I., p. 444], under McClerand and Sherman. On the 3d of March, 1863, the 113th took transports to Vicksburg, and labored on the Butler Canal for a month. It was engaged in the expedition up the Black Bayou to relieve Porter's gunboats, where it had a smart skirmish with the rebels. Returning to Vicksburg, the 113th participated in the labors and perils of the siege until the surrender of Pemberton, losing one third of its force engaged. From August, 1864, to February, 1864 it was engaged in scouting in the vicinity of Corinth, and then returned to Memphis. On the 10th of April it started on the expedition

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under General Sturgis against Forrest. Returning, without a fight, they started out on another expedition under General Sturgis to Guntown, Mississippi, where it was engaged with the enemy for two hours, losing 135 men and five officers killed, wounded and missing. It returned to Memphis, where it remained on picket duty till October, when it embarked on an expedition under General Washburn up the Tennessee River. It was in the disastrous fight at Eastport, Tennessee, where it lost fourteen men and two officers. The next move was to Memphis, where it remained on provost guard and picket duty until ordered home to stay. It arrived in Chicago on the 22d of June, 1865, with 272 men and officers, leaving 242 behind. It recruited 492 men while in the service, making a total of 1,332 men who served in its ranks.

Colonel George B. Hoge was born in Alleghany County, Pennsylvania, April 16, 1834, and removed to Chicago in 1848. Five years later he graduated at the Western University, Pittsburg, and from that time was engaged in business avocations in Chicago until 1856, when he removed to Missouri. When the war broke out he raised a company for the 13th Missouri infantry (afterward 25th Missouri infantry), and was chosen Captain. In this capacity he was at the siege of Lexington [Vol. I., p. 155] and Shiloh, and was wounded at the latter place. In the summer of 1862 he obtained leave of absence and visited Chicago, where he was elected Colonel of the 113th Illinois.

In closing a sketch of the "Third Board of Trade" regiment, it is not inappropriate to mention that in each of the three Board of Trade regiments was a son of the well-known anti-slavery apostle, Rev. John Rankin, of Ripley, Ohio. One entered the first (72d) as wagon-master, another the second (88th) as 1st Assistant Surgeon, and the third in the Third Board of Trade (113th) as Chaplain. One of the three sons — if not all of them — is a native of East Tennessee, where the father was frequently persecuted for his utterances in behalf of freedom.

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Chapter XXIII. — Our Troopers.

THE THIRD CAVALRY — PURSUIT OF PRICE'S ARMY — PEA RIDGE — GALLANTRY OF FAIRVIEW — VICKSBURG AND ARKANSAS POST — THE FIFTH CAVALRY — BATTLE OF CACHE RIVER — PRIVATION AND SUFFERING — EXPEDITIONS TO GRENADA AND JACKSON — MUSTER-OUT ROSTER — THE TWELFTH CAVALRY — A MAGNIFICIENT SABER FIGHT — ESCAPE FROM HARPER'S FERRY — THE MCCLELLAN DRAGOONS — THE FIGHT AT DUMFRIES — STONEMAN'S RAID — APPROACH TO RICHMOND — TUNSTALL STATION — GETTYSBURG — EFFICIENT SERVICE OF THE TWELFTH — RE-ORGANIZATION AS VETERANS — RECEPTION IN CHICAGO — SNOW STORM — THE RED RIVER CAMPAIGN — SERVICE IN TEXAS — MUSTER OUT ROSTER — GENERAL HASBROUCK DAVIS.

THIRD ILLINOIS CAVALRY.

THE Third Cavalry was organized at Camp Butler, and was mustered into the three years' service on the 26th of August, 1861. The following is the original roster:

Colonel, Eugene A. Carr; Lieutenant-Colonel, Lafayette McCrellis; 1st Major, Thomas Hamar; 2d Major, James M. Ruggles; 3d Major, John McConnell; Adjutant, William O'Connell; Adjutant 1st Battalion, Theodore Leland; Adjutant 2d Battalion, James S. Crow; Adjutant 3d Battalion, Burr Sanders; Quartermaster, Byron O. Carr; Commissary, James S. Crow; Surgeon, Albert H. Lanphere; 1st Assistant Surgeon, J. Spafford Hunt; 2d Assistant Surgeon, Charles Orvis; Chaplain, Horace M. Carr.

Co. A — Captain, Dwight D. Johnson; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew J. Taylor; 2d Lieutenant, Joshua Tuthill.

Co. B — Captain, Joseph S. Maus; 1st Lieutenant, Joel B. Ketchum; 2d Lieutenant, Michael Fisher.

Co. C — Captain, Charles P. Dunbaugh; 1st Lieutenant, David Black; 2d Lieutenant, Augustus W. Tilford.

Co. D — Captain, Thomas M. Davis; 1st Lieutenant, James K. McLean; 2d Lieutenant, Moses Lytaker.

Co. E — Captain, John L. Campbell; 1st Lieutenant, Charles C. Guard; 2d Lieutenant, Thomas B. Vaughn.

Co. F — Captain, Thomas W. Macfall; 1st Lieutenant, Wellington S. Lee; 2d Lieutenant, John Hendrickson.

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Co. G — Captain, James B. Moore; 1st Lieutenant, Enos P. McPhail; 2d Lieutenant, Charles L. Raymond.

Co. H — Captain, Edward Rutledge; 1st Lieutenant, Thomas G. McClelland; 2d Lieutenant, Andrew B. Kirkbridge.

Co. I — Captain, James Nicolls; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel F. Dolloff; 2d Lieutenant, Edward O. Rowley.

Co. K — Captain, Robert H. Carnahan; 1st Lieutenant, Aaron Weider; 2d Lieutenant, John Zimmerman.

Co. L — Captain, David R. Sparks; 1st Lieutenant, Norreden Cowen; 2d Lieutenant, Aaron Vanhooser.

Co. M — Captain, George E. Pease; 1st Lieutenant, Henry M. Condee; 2d Lieutenant, James H. O'Conner.

The 3d cavalry left Camp Butler on the 23d, 24th and 25th of September, and reported to General Fremont at Benton Barracks, St. Louis. On the 27th it left for St. Charles, and then began a series of marches, skirmishes, &c., in Missouri and Arkansas, which continued until the close of Fremont's and Curtis' campaigns. On the 11th of February, 1862, it had a small skirmish with the enemy's outposts at Marshfield. On the 13th it advanced toward Springfield, when Major Wright was sent forward with his battalion, and had a sharp fight with a regiment of rebel infantry, handsomely repulsing them. On the 15th the regiment started in pursuit of Price's retreating army, and overtook them at Crane Creek, capturing seven prisoners, and throwing a few shells into their camp. The pursuit was continued during the two days following, with frequent skirmishing, until Sugar Creek, Arkansas, was reached. Here the enemy made a stand, and a brisk engagement was had, ending with a splendid cavalry charge, in which one battalion of the 3d participated, routing the enemy. On the 21st it arrived at Cross Hollows, and went into camp until March 5th, when it took the advance in an expedition to Fayetteville. The approach of the enemy caused it to fall back to Pea Ridge. In the battle at the latter place it bore an honorable and conspicuous part, opening the engagement by a charge upon the advance of the enemy [Vol. I., p. 216]. On the 10th of April it arrived at Forsyth, in the advance, and skirmished with the enemy. On the 16th it marched to the mouth of the North Fork of White River, where it destroyed the rebel saltpeter works, and marched thence to West Plains, and arrived on the 29th, "having been fifteen days without wagons, rations or forage." In May Colonel Carr

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received notice of his promotion to Brigadier-General, dating back to the 7th of March. On the 11th of May Captain McLelland and five men were drowned while crossing White River. On the 7th of June, Captain Sparks and sixty-six men were surrounded by 300 rebel cavalry, near Fairview, and cut their way through, with the loss of four men captured and four wounded. On the 15th of July the regiment arrived at Helena, Arkansas, after weeks of scouting and skirmishing, when it was gladdened with a sight of the Mississippi River, which it had crossed twelve months before. Here it went into camp and suffered greatly from the climate, sickness and the demoralization of camp life. While stationed here, detachments were sent out on numerous expeditions through the country. On the 23d of December, Companies B, C, D, H, I and L, Captain Kirkbride commanding, received orders to embark for Vicksburg, under General Sherman. Companies E and G were at St. Louis, under General Carr. On the 28th, Captain Carnahan was relieved from duty as Provost Marshal General, District of Eastern Arkansas, and ordered to report with his battalion — Companies A, K, F and M — to General Steele, at the mouth of the Yazoo River, which was done by running past the rebel battery at Napoleon, with the loss of three men wounded. At Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi, the regiment was detailed for picket and escort duty, being the only cavalry accompanying that expedition, and did good service throughout the battle as pickets and orderlies. Companies A, K, L and M were the last to embark in transports from that ill-starred attack on Vicksburg. The regiment next accompanied General McClernand to Arkansas Post, where it did good service. It then went with General McClernand to Young's Point, where Colonel McCrellis received permission to take his regiment back to Memphis, leaving Captain Carnahan with his battalion — companies A, C, K, E and L — as escort to General McClernand. Captain Carnahan was next ordered to report with his battalion to General Osterhaus, and with the 15th Army Corps took part in the battles of Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge and the sieges of Jackson and Vicksburg. On the 13th of August, 1863, the battalion was sent to New Orleans, and participated in the fights at Vermillionville, Opelousas and Carrion Crow Bayou. In December, under the command of Major O'Conner, it

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was sent to Port Hudson, where it remained till July, 1864, when it was ordered to rejoin the regiment at Memphis. In June the main body of the regiment took part in the fights at Tupelo, Okalona and Guntown. On the 1st of July the regiment was again divided, a portion being sent out on a scout in Western Kentucky. During the month of July a large portion of the men re-enlisted as veterans, when the non-veterans were ordered to Germantown, to garrison that post. On the 21st of August, the regiment, under the command of Captains Brice and Kirkbride, took part in the fight at Memphis, and contributed largely in repulsing Forrest, Major O'Conner being taken prisoner. On the 24th of that month, the non-veterans having been mustered out, the veterans were consolidated into six companies, and Captain Carnahan was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel. On the 29th of September the regiment left Memphis and proceeded to Florence, Alabama, where it confronted the rebel army, under Hood, and fell back, skirmishing with his advance, and took part in the battles of Lawrenceburg, Spring Hill, Campbellsville and Franklin. December 15th it was with the division which opened the battle of Nashville, and distinguished itself for gallantry. In January, 1865, it went into camp at Gravelly Springs, in General Wilson's cavalry corps, and three weeks later marched to Eastport, Mississippi. On the 12th of May it was ordered to report at St. Paul, Minnesota, where it arrived on the l4th of June. On the 4th of July it started out on an Indian expedition, returning to Fort Snelling on the 1st of October. On the 10th it was mustered out of the service, and arrived at Springfield on the 13th, where it was finally paid and discharged.

FIFTH ILLINOIS CAVALRY.

The 5th cavalry regiment was organized at Camp Butler in the fall of 1861, with the following roster:

Colonel, John J. Updegraff; Lieutenant-Colonel, Benjamin L. Wiley; 1st Major, Thomas A. Apperson; 2d Major, Speed Butler; 3d Major, James Farnan; Adjutant, Daniel M. Turney; Adjutant 1st Battalion, Frederick A. Nichey; Adjutant 2d Battalion, Oscar F. Lindsey; Adjutant 3d Battalion, Edward P. Harris; Quartermaster, Robert C. Wilson; Quartermaster 1st Battalion, Charles Neceswanger; Quartermaster 2d Battalion, William N. Elliott; Quartermaster 3d Battalion, Calvin A. Mann; Commissary, Webster C. Wilkinson; Surgeon, Charles W. Higgins;

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1st Assistant, John B. Ensey; 2d Assistant, Charles B. Kendall; Chaplain, John W. Wood.

Co. A — Captain, Edward W. Pierson; 1st Lieutenant, Gordon Webster; 2d Lieutenant, Jacob M. Cullers.

Co. B — Captain, Thomas McKee; 1st Lieutenant, Alfred Thayer; 2d Lieutenant, Dennis A. Harrison.

Co. C — Captain, William P. Withers; 1st Lieutenant, James Depew; 2d Lieutenant, James A. Lawrence.

Co. D — Captain, Henry A. Organ; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel J. R. Wilson; 2d Lieutenant, Calvin Schell.

Co. E — Captain, George W. McConkey; 1st Lieutenant, John J. Adams; 2d Lieutenant, Madison Glasco.

Co. F — Captain, Horace P. Mumford; 1st Lieutenant, Francis M. Dorothy; 2d Lieutenant, William Wagenseller.

Co. G — Captain, John A. Harvey; 1st Lieutenant, William N. Elliot; 2d Lieutenant, Amos H. Smith.

Co. H — Captain, Joseph A. Cox; 1st Lieutenant, Washington F. Crane; 2d Lieutenant, William G. Nelson.

Co. I — Captain, Bartholomew Jenkins; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin S. Norfolk; 2d Lieutenant, John F. Smith.

Co. K — Captain, James Farnan; 1st Lieutenant, Charles J. Childs; 2d Lieutenant, John P. Mann.

Co. L — Captain, Henry D. Caldwell; 1st Lieutenant, Harrison H. Brown; 2d Lieutenant, William N. Berry.

Co. M — Captain, Robert Schell; 1st Lieutenant, Samuel Burrell; 2d Lieutenant, Albert S. Robinson.

The regiment left Camp Butler on the 20th of February, 1862, for St. Louis. On the 1st of March it received orders to march into the interior of Missouri. On the 1st of April it reached Doniphan, where it had a considerable skirmish with the rebels; routing them and destroying their camp. Here it went into camp, diversifying the monotony with frequent scouting expeditions into the surrounding country. On the 12th of May it voted upon the question of the adoption of the new constitution in Illinois, by far the greater portion of the men voting in the negative. It continued campaigning and skirmishing in Missouri and Arkansas, with little variation, until the 7th of July, when it fought in the battle of the Cache River, whipping three times its own number. Soon after, one of the men who had been left sick at Pocahontas joined the regiment and reported that all the sick at that place had been taken prisoners, and most of them paroled and sent to St. Louis. On the 14th of July it arrived at Helena, after suffering severe privations

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from lack of water and provisions. After its arrival at Helena, it suffered very much from bad water, hot weather, &c. On the 9th of September the regiment was sent out on a scout, returning on the 13th, having made 102 miles in twenty-two hours, without stopping to feed. On the 27th of October seven companies were sent out in the direction of Grenada, Miss., where they destroyed several miles of railroad track and a number of bridges, and took several prisoners. The regiment remained at Helena till May 29, 1863. In January of that year it took part in the expedition to Duval's Bluff, and in April joined in the pursuit of Marmaduke in his retreat out of the state. On the 1st of June it reported to General Grant at Snyder's Bluff, and on the 4th engaged the enemy at Mechanicsburg. During the siege of Vicksburg it was in the rear of General Grant's army, watching the movements of Johnston. On the 6th of July it joined in General Sherman's movement on Jackson. On the 11th the cavalry brigade was sent to Canton, Miss., where it destroyed several miles of railroad track and a large amount of rebel property, rejoining the main army at Jackson. On the 10th of August an expedition started for Grenada, capturing railroad trains by the way and moving the rolling stock forward till it reached Grenada, where the rebel General Chalmers was driven out. The engines and cars were burned. On the 19th the regiment moved toward Memphis, and on the 21st, at the crossing of the Coldwater, met Blythe's cavalry, and after a brief engagement defeated them.

It reached Memphis on the 22d, having marched 325 miles in 12 days, with but four days' rations, and closely pursued by a largely superior force. It moved from Memphis to Vicksburg, reaching Black River August 29th, where it remained till May 1, 1864, when it moved into Vicksburg. During this time it was engaged in frequent expeditions. On the 1st of January the command re-enlisted in the veteran service, and on the 3d of February joined in General Sherman's Meridian campaign. On this campaign several skirmishes were had with the rebels, and many miles of railroad track and a large amount of rebel property destroyed, returning to camp March 3d. On the 17th the veterans were furloughed, returning to their post on the 10th of May. During their absence, the non-veterans participated in General McArthur's expedition to Benton,

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Mississippi, meeting and defeating the enemy at Mechanicsburg. During the spring and summer, the regiment did a large amount of patrol and picket duty in and about Vicksburg. On the 27th of May, John McConnell, formerly Major of the 3d Illinois Cavalry, arrived at Vicksburg, and was mustered in as Colonel of the 5th, and Joshua Tuthill, formerly a Lieutenant in the 3d, was mustered in as Adjutant. The regiment being sadly deficient in horses and equipments, eight companies were dismounted, and the 1st battalion — Companies A, B, C and D — completely mounted and equipped. On the 1st of July, this battalion was sent, with detachments from other cavalry regiments and a brigade of infantry, on an expedition to Jackson. Skirmishing began on the 3d, at Big Black River, and continued all the way to Jackson. On the 4th the rebels drove the 2d Wisconsin cavalry from their camp, when the battalion of the 5th Illinois in turn drove the rebels from the position they had gained. The return march was begun on the 6th, and when a few miles from Jackson, our forces were attacked by a large force of rebels, who were handsomely repulsed. The regiment reached the Big Black on the 8th, and from thence went to Port Gibson and Grand Gulf, where it had a skirmish with the rebels, returning to Vicksburg on the 12th. On the 29th of September, the 5th, with other regiments, all under the command of General E. D. Osband, proceeded to Port Gibson, where it had a brief skirmish with the rebels, driving them from the town. It moved thence to Natchez, where it was joined by the 4th Illinois cavalry, and a battery. It then went to Tornica Bend, and thence to Woodville, where it surprised and broke up a rebel camp, and captured a large amount of ammunition. The next morning it was found that the rebels had moved up with the intention of making an attack. General Osband did not wait "for manners' sake," but gave them battle, completely routing them. The command returned to Vicksburg on the 11th, with a large number of cattle and sheep, contrabands, &c. On the 20th of November, the same command was sent to destroy the Mississippi Central Railroad, over which supplies were being transported to Hood's army, and accomplished the object of the expedition. On the 24th of January, 1865, the regiment went to Memphis. On the 26th it started upon a raid through Southern Arkansas and Northern

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Louisiana, returning February 13th. It remained at Memphis, except when engaged in raids, &c., until July 1st, when it was ordered to Texas, arriving at Houston, on the 13th of August, after a most fatiguing march over the country. It remained here until October 6th, when it was ordered home for muster out. On the 17th it arrived at Springfield, and on the 27th it was mustered out, receiving final payment and discharge on the 30th.

The following is the muster-out roster of the 5th cavalry:

Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General, John McConnell; Lieutenant-Colonel, Abel H. Seeley; 1st Major, Alexander Jessup; 2d Major, George W. McConkey; 3d Major, Lyman Clark; Quartermaster, Richard Rainforth; Surgeon, William Watts; Assistant Surgeon, Charles B. Kendall; Commissary, George F. West.

Co. A — Captain, Joshua Tuthill; 1st Lieutenant, John D. Rawlings; 2d Lieutenant, Warren Harper.

Co. B — Captain, Charles K. Slack; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin Harrison; 2d Lieutenant, Marion T. Hall.

Co. C — Captain, Clarenden W. Wheelock; 1st Lieutenant, A. Y. Davidson; 2d Lieutenant, Joseph Smith.

Co. D — Captain, Alonzo G. Payne.

Co. E — Captain, Francis M. Webb; 2d Lieutenant, Townsend Wells.

Co. F — Captain, James H. Wood; 1st Lieutenant, Jacob Stifal; 2d Lieutenant, James G. Bennett.

Co. G — Captain, Alexander D. Pittenger; 1st Lieutenant, William A. McAllister; 2d Lieutenant, John W. Patterson.

Co. H — 1st Lieutenant, William H. Pinkerton; 2d Lieutenant, William Cox.

Co. I — Captain, James K. Brown; 2d Lieutenant, Ralph H. Osborne.

Co. K — Captain, William C. Addison; 2d Lieutenant, William Maxwell.

Co. L — Captain, William M. Berry; 1st Lieutenant, John L. Dow; 2d Lieutenant, William Inghram.

Co. M — 1st Lieutenant, Ridley McCall; 2d Lieutenant, Samuel M. Ellis.

TWELFTH ILLINOIS CAVALRY.

In our first volume (p. 561 et seq.) we have given the original roster of this gallant regiment, and a part of its history. At the risk of repeating the story, we publish the history of the 12th from its leaving camp till its muster-out.

On the evening of the 26th of February, 1862, the regiment broke camp and took the cars for Springfield. The command then numbered

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less than three hundred men, all of whom, however, were of the real bone and muscle.

When the regiment reached Springfield, instead of being fitted out for the field, as had been promised, orders were received from the Secretary of War to equip the men as infantry and put them to guarding rebel prisoners at Camp Butler. It remained at Springfield during the spring and until June 25, 1862, when it was mounted and sent to Martinsburg, Virginia.

The first time the 12th met the enemy was after the evacuation of Winchester by General White, of Chicago. It had become necessary, therefore, that the forces at Martinsburg should establish their outposts. Lieutenant-Colonel Davis was placed in command of these stations. About five miles from the camp, on the Martinsburg and Winchester pike, on the morning of the 5th of September, 1862, he scouted the country as far as Bunker Hill, where he came up with the enemy's cavalry, in numbers far superior to his own. These were in a strong position, but the scouting party, by a vigorous charge, routed them, and drove them several miles, killing, wounding and capturing a considerable number.

On Saturday morning, the 7th, at daybreak, the enemy, having been largely reinforced, and designing to capture Colonel Davis and his command, made a bold attempt to get to his rear and cut him off from his camp at Martinsburg. Anticipating this movement, Colonel Davis sent out a small party under Lieutenant Logan, to reconnoiter. This detachment was surrounded, but the men succeeded in cutting their way through the enemy, and again joined the Colonel, who immediately despatched a messenger to Martinsburg for reinforcements. Captain Thomas W. Grosvenor (afterwards Major and Lieutenant-Colonel), commanding Company A, with forty men, was immediately ordered forward, to be followed by the remainder of the 12th as soon as they could be got ready. As soon as the Captain reported, Colonel Davis ordered him out at once to meet the enemy. He drove several squads of rebels from ambush in the woods and roadsides, until he reached Darkesville, when he met the enemy in force, to the number of eight hundred. As the little band of Federal cavalry approached the graybacks, the latter fired upon them at short range a most terrific volley, severely wounding the

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Captain and killing Lieutenant Luff's horse, thus leaving the company without a commander. Colonel Davis led the men in person. His presence animated the troops, and his voice was heard above the din of the conflict, calling upon the boys to follow him. Away they went, madly, furiously upon the enemy, drawing their sabers as they charged — scorning to use their pistols, but delivering their concentrated blows — the saber blows of forty resolute, noble heroes — against eight hundred rebels in position — all in cold steel, cutting and thrusting as men never before cut and thrust, and finally drove them until their retreat became a rout, and the forty men literally masters of the field, the enemy running away beyond Winchester before they could be rallied! It is true that, in the meantime, the remainder of the regiment had come up, and that they joined the brave little band of forty, and completed the disaster of the rebels on the occasion — but it was really the valor, the dash, the bravery of this ever memorable forty, under Colonel Davis, that did the business. The result of this encounter was that twenty-five of the rebels were buried on the field, including Lieutenant Carroll, of the Maryland battalion, who, by the way, was a grandson of Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Fifty rebels, with their horses and equipments, were taken back prisoners to the Federal camp, many of them severely wounded by saber cuts. The strangest part of this history is that the forty did not lose a man on the field. A number were wounded, a few of whom subsequently died, and some of them were disabled for life. General White, who assumed command of the post at Martinsburg, a few days previously, reported to the Secretary of War the result of this battle, and Mr. Stanton responded in terms highly complimentary, thanking the officers and men engaged, for their bravery on the occasion.

A few days subsequent to this gallant affair on the Winchester pike, the 12th rejoined General White's command, and with it fell back before the superior numbers of the enemy, and on the morning of September 12th entered Harper's Ferry.

On Sunday night, about nine o'clock, the 12th and other cavalry, to the number of two thousand men, under Colonel Davis, made their escape, having received permission from Colonel Miles to do

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so. Following, the line of the Potomac as far as Williamsport, Colonel Davis with his command struck off across the country, on his way capturing and burning a train of sixty wagons belonging to General Longstreet's headquarters, and containing all that commander's private papers, documents, and other valuables. After cutting through the enemy's lines, the brave boys finally reached Hagerstown, and soon after joined McClellan at Sharpsburg, where that celebrated strategist was calmly waiting for Lee to make his escape before inaugurating another forward movement.

While in camp at Sharpsburg, the 12th was reinforced by a consolidation with the two companies comprising the McClellan Dragoons, which had been doing duty as a body guard to the General-in-Chief. Thus increased to ten companies, the 12th was assigned to General Averill's brigade, and under that officer made several expeditions, until McClellan was relieved from the command of the army and Burnside assumed the head of affairs in that section, when the 12th was sent on picket at Williamsport and Dam Number Four on the Upper Potomac.

On the 16th of November, 1863, the grand army began to move by parallel routes. The 2d and 9th Corps under, Sumner, forming what was called the right grand division, had the advance; the 1st and 5th Corps, the center, under Joe Hooker, and the 11th and 12th Corps, under Sigel, were in reserve. The 12th cavalry was called away from picket and assigned to Sigel's army, and acted as its escort from Warrenton to Fredericksburg, frequently having severe brushes with scouting parties of J. E. B. Stuart's cavalry. After the disastrous battle of Fredericksburg, the 12th was sent to Manassas and below to observe the movements of Lee and Stuart. After performing this service the regiment was sent to Dumfries.

Generals Stuart and Fitz Hugh Lee's cavalry, with a battery of artillery, in all about 3,500 men, crossed the Rappahannock above Burnside's army, on Saturday, the 27th of November, 1862, and, advancing between Bentsville and Stafford Court House, were joined by Hampton's Legion, when they made a combined attack on Dumries, on the Lower Potomac, at two o'clock the same afternoon. Dumfries was garrisoned by a portion of General Geary's division, consisting of the 5th, 7th and 66th Ohio regiments, and the 12th Illinois

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cavalry, all under command of Colonel Charles Candy. The enemy surprised the outpost pickets, and took about fifty of the 12th Illinois and 1st Maryland cavalry men prisoners. Immediately after this surprise had been effected, the enemy opened upon the garrison with artillery, shelling our troops in the town, and made repeated charges upon them, each of which was met and repelled with the fire and steadiness which distinguished these troops at Winchester, Cross Keys, Cross Lanes, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Harper's Ferry and Antietam. The fight was vigorously continued on both sides, without intermission, all the afternoon and until late in the evening. At four o'clock the whole force of the enemy was concentrated in an attack upon our flank, but the movement was promptly met and the rebels repulsed. At eight o'clock they retired discomfited and beaten by Colonel Candy's force — so inferior to their own but who had never failed to face the enemy — to the Neobsco River, about four miles above Dumfries, when they encamped for the night. In this battle our loss, according to official returns, was only three killed (one commissioned officer) and eight wounded. As far as could be ascertained from the prisoners taken by our side, and from citizens, the loss of the enemy was between twenty-five and thirty killed, and about forty wounded.

In our sketch of this regiment we now come to the part taken by it in the celebrated "Stoneman raid," made during the first days of May, 1863. On the 3d of May, Lieutenant-Colonel Davis received orders to penetrate to the Fredericksburg railroad, and, if possible, to the Virginia Central, and destroy communications between Richmond and Lee's army, then confronting Hooker on the Rappahannock. In case the latter part of the programme was carried out, the regiment was to make for Williamsburg, supposed to be in possession of General Keyes, of our army, who had been sent up the Peninsula, as a means of diverting the attention of the rebels. The 12th began the march before daybreak, passing down the bank of the South Anna, through a region never before occupied by our forces. It burned one bridge and dispersed a party of mounted guerrillas who made a poor attempt to oppose it. The first line of railway was struck at Ashland. Lieutenant Mitchell, with a party of about a dozen men, was sent ahead to occupy the place. He

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dashed into the village and took it without loss. There were but few of the enemy there, and they escaped, minus their shooting irons, however. The inhabitants were very much astonished at the appearance of this Yankee force in their midst, and it required a great deal of persuasion before they became assured that their persons and property would not be harmed.

When the remainder of the regiment came up, the boys were set to work cutting the telegraph wires and tearing up the rails. A quantity of boards were piled in the trestle-work of a railroad bridge south of the town, which, being ignited, made an immense fire, and soon consumed the entire structure. While at this work, a train of cars approached the village, was captured, and brought in for inspection. It proved to be an ambulance train from Fredericksburg, of seven cars, filled with two hundred and fifty sick and wounded officers and soldiers, with a guard. Among those captured were an Aid to General Letcher and several officers of high rank. Colonel Davis, after receiving from them their version of the battle of Chancellorsville, paroled them and let them go, leaving the cars for the benefit of the poor fellows who were more seriously injured. The engine and tender of the train, together with another found in the town, were rendered completely useless by a mechanic from the ranks.

After destroying a wagon train and a quantity of harness, and taking about eighty mules, the regiment moved out of Ashland. When about five miles from the town, word was brought that eighteen wagons were camped in the woods near by; Captain Roder, with Companies B and C, was sent to destroy them, which he did. The Central Railroad was struck at Hanover Station on the afternoon of the 5th. Although wearied and exhausted by the day's march, Colonel Davis thought it best to complete the duty assigned him, and break all the enemy's connections before going into camp. Thirty officers and men were captured and paroled at the Station. Captain Shears was ordered to destroy the trestle-work, which reached about ten rods to the south of the depot. The work was effectually done by the same process as at Ashland, and by its blaze could be clearly discerned the Confederate guards passively standing at the other and. The boys also burned a culvert and cut the telegraph wires, and burned the depot buildings, storehouses, stables

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and a train of cars, all belonging to the rebel government and filled with property.

By the light of the burning buildings the regiment left the station and marched for the Court House, which had been previously occupied by Captain Fisher with Companies A and G, who had placed pickets there and taken a Captain and four men prisoners. Passing on through the Court House, and marching on down to within seven miles of Richmond, the regiment bivouacked till eight o'clock the next morning, when it marched for Williamsburg.

At Tunstall Station (near the White House and the Richmond and Yorktown railroad), a train of cars filled with infantry and a three-gun battery, was run up, with the intention of debarking there and giving battle to the 12th. Colonel Davis at once took measures to break through this force before the men could be got out of the cars or the battery in position. He therefore brought up the two foremost squadrons, and ordered a charge, which was executed, Captain Reans, with Companies D and F, taking the lead. This charge was made most gallantly. The infantry filled the embankment of the railway and poured upon the boys a severe fire, but the brave fellows dashed up to the embankments in splendid style, and with carbines and pistols responded to the fire with equal effect. It was impossible, however, to break through. There were formidable rifle-pits to the left of the road, which the enemy soon filled. The 12th retired from the conflict with a loss of two killed and several wounded; among the latter Lieutenant Marsh, who was one of the foremost in the charge.

Failing to penetrate the enemy's lines at this point, Colonel Davis determined to cross the Pamunkey and Mattapony rivers, and make for Gloucester Point. In this movement he had nothing to guide him but a common map of the State of Virginia, and he also was in entire ignorance of the position of the enemy's force, except that the line before him was closed. The only information he could gather was from ignorant contrabands. He selected Plunkett's Ferry, over the Pamunkey, and occupied it after driving away a picket on the other side, with whom the regiment exchanged shots. The regiment was crossed in a boat holding fifteen or eighteen men and horses, which was poled across the river. In the same manner the passage of the

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Mattapony was made, at Walkertown, after driving away the pickets. The 12th captured fifteen rebels, and destroyed a quantity of saddles at Kings and Queens Court House. From Walkertown the regiment marched to Gloucester Point, having traveled a distance of over two hundred miles, much of it through Southern homes never disturbed by the presence of the enemy. Not far from Saluda the regiment captured and destroyed a train of eighteen wagons loaded with corn and provisions.

The total loss sustained by the 12th in this most remarkable raid was two commissioned officers and thirty-three enlisted men, while the regiment brought with it, as results of the expedition, one hundred mules and seventy-five horses, captured from the enemy. A much larger number of animals were captured in the course of the march, but they could not be brought along. The amount of property destroyed was estimated at over one million dollars.

While a portion of the 12th remained at Gloucester Point, one battalion was sent to General Dix, commanding at Fortress Monroe, and the remainder reported at Alexandria. The detachment which reported to General Dix made frequent forays into the interior counties, for the purpose of suppressing a band of smugglers who infested that district. On one of these expeditions a rebel General, William H. Lee, a son of Robert E. Lee, was captured and taken to Fortress Monroe.

It would be almost impossible to follow the history of the regiment in detail from the time it was broken in detachments up to the time these scattered fragments were again combined, which occurred in June, 1883. Immediately after the battle of Beverly Ford, the 12th cavalry joined Pleasanton, and was assigned to the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division.

Buford's division, without waiting to recover from the fatigue consequent upon its recent severe engagements, marched toward the Potomac from Aldie Gap, and, following its windings, crossed into Maryland at Point of Rocks, and continued on in a northeasterly direction to Gettysburg, where it arrived on the 3d of June. General Buford, with his usual quickness, perceived the necessity of taking possession of a horse-shoe ridge of low, uniform hills, running just beyond the town of Gettysburg. The position was a most formidable

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one, as both ends of these ridges terminated in steep, sugarloaf peaks, which would thoroughly protect the flanks of the force occupying them. Disposing the greater part of his force of cavalry and his horse batteries on these eminences, Buford, on the 1st of July, at an early hour, fell upon the flanks of Longstreet's corps, which was moving south from Carlisle, charging and recharging, and still repeating the operation, forcing a portion of the enemy at every onslaught to halt and form line of battle. In this manner the rebels were not only sorely damaged by the loss of a large number of men killed and wounded, but their movements were impeded greatly, which gave General Meade an opportunity to push forward his lagging infantry and get them into position for resistance. A brigade of Pennsylvania militia and a battery of artillery, commanded by "Baldy" Smith, which had got into Longstreet's front, and were being hotly pressed with every indication of falling prisoners, were rescued from that unhappy fate by the daring Western roughriders under Davis, Medill and Chapman, who charged right into the face of the rebel infantry, and forced them to give up the pursuit. After this feat, the brigade fell back on the main body of the division, and until ten o'clock Buford continued to hold his position against Longstreet's entire corps of infantry. At that hour he was relieved by the celebrated "Iron Brigade," of Wisconsin infantry, and other troops of the 1st Corps, under the lamented Reynolds, who was killed while standing near General Buford, taking observations of the enemy. Immediately after being relieved by General Reynolds, the cavalry under Buford fell back to the rear of our army, and for the two succeeding days were engaged in guarding our supply trains from the attacks of Stewart. On the 4th of July, when Lee's army made its last grand attempt to retrieve its fortunes, the brigade was hastened off toward Williamsport, with orders to seize the ford and hold it against the enemy.

In the march from Gettysburg to Williamsport the boys succeeded in capturing upward of two thousand demoralized rebels, who were endeavoring to make their way back to the "sacred soil," and over two hundred wagons and teams. The wagons were destroyed, and the mules driven down to Washington. On the 6th of July the cavalry reached the vicinity of Williamsport, and being informed that the

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place was guarded by only one regiment of Stuart's cavalry, the 8th Illinois and a portion of the 12th rushed forward for the purpose of driving out the enemy.

After the defeat and retreat of Lee at Gettysburg, the 12th Illinois and other regiments of the brigade followed the fortunes of the Army of the Potomac. It was present at the cavalry battles which occurred at Falling Waters, the Rapidan, and at Stevensburg, in all of which it acquitted itself with its usual bravery. On the 20th of November, 1863, the 12th was relieved from duty with the Army of the Potomac, and was ordered home to Illinois to re-organize as veterans. This distinguished privilege was awarded to the regiment, by the Secretary of War, "for brilliant services in the field."

On the evening of the 28th of November, the regiment reached Chicago, and was received, from first to last, with one grand burst of patriotic admiration and enthusiasm. At Bryan Hall the most ample provision had been made for its accommodation. Kind and bright eyes spoke a sweeter welcome to the tired and hungry boys than could be extracted from whole dictionaries of words. Everything pertaining to the entertainment passed off without the least flaw to mar the general joy which prevaded all hearts and shone from all eyes.

At the conclusion of a brief season of rest, the regiment, which had been recruited up to the maximum number of 1,256 officers and men, re-assembled at Camp Fry. On the night of January 2, 1864, a snow storm of unparalleled violence set in and raged with uncontrolled fury for three days. Cognizant of its irresistible power, the storm visited, in the course of its triumphant march, the camp of the 12th Illinois, causing much suffering and hardship. The brave men who had unflinchingly faced the rebels were taught that they could not successfully cope with the Northern Boreas.

On the 9th of February the regiment started for St. Louis, and went into camp there. In the early days of March it embarked on transports for New Orleans, and shortly after arriving there, was ordered to join General Banks, on his retreat down the Red River, participating in the different engagements of the retreat, and losing

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a large number of men. At the conclusion of the disastrous Red River campaign, the 12th returned to New Orleans, and was almost immediately ordered to do picket duty on the Lafourche, from Donaldsonville to Thibodeaux, Louisiana, continuing on this line during the summer. In the early part of September, the regiment was ordered to report to General Lee, commanding the cavalry division, at Baton Rouge, where it was actively employed in scouting and picket duty. In the early part of November, 1864, the 12th (then brigaded with the 2d Illinois cavalry, the brigade commanded by Colonel Davis) and the other cavalry regiments, under General A. L. Lee, made an expedition to Liberty, Mississippi, where they had a severe action, driving the enemy and capturing a number of prisoners, cannon and small arms. Lieutenant-Colonel Dox, in charge of the outposts, repulsed several attacks of the enemy. Subsequently the regiment participated in General Davidson's expedition against Mobile, returned to Baton Rouge, and on the 7th of January, 1865, went up the river to Memphis, joining General Osband's division. In the latter part of January, with the other regiments of the division, it made a raid through Southeastern Arkansas, returning to Memphis, and did scouting and picket duty in the vicinity, until June, 1865, when it was ordered to join General Custar's cavalry division at Alexandria, Louisiana. From there it marched with the division to Hempstead, Texas, at which place it remained until some time in September, when it marched to Houston, reporting to Major-General Mower, commanding the eastern district of Texas. From this time to the final mustering out, the regiment, distributed in detachments through the district, was actively employed in guard and escort duty, maintaining the United States' authorities, and protecting the Union men and freed men.

While at Memphis, "in pursuance of Circular No. 36, paragraph three, section two, from War Department, A. G. O., of 1864, the 12th Illinois cavalry was consolidated into an eight company organization; and the 4th Illinois cavalry, having previously been consolidated into a battalion of five companies, was, in compliance with instructions received from the War Department, transferred to and consolidated with the 12th Illinois cavalry. The organization to bear the designation of the latter regiment."

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The regiment was finally mustered out of the United States' service at Houston, Texas, on the 29th of May, 1866, and ordered to proceed to Camp Butler, Springfield, for payment and discharge. It left Houston on the 2d of June, and arrived at Springfield on the 14th, and was paid off on the 18th — the last regiment from our state to return home.

The following is the muster-out roster of the regiment:

Colonel, Hamilton B. Dox; Lieutenant-Colonel, Andrew H. Langholz; Major, Anthony T. Search; Adjutant, William Crookes; Quartermaster, Asher B. Hall; Surgeon, Asa Morgan; 1st Assistant Surgeon, Ralph D. Parsons; Commissary, Henry M. Stahl.

Co. A — Captain, Isaac Conroe; 1st Lieutenant, Joseph A. Addington; 2d Lieutenant Frank G. Miller.

Co. B — Captain, Henry Lossburg; 1st Lieutenant, Edwin Kolkow; 2d Lieutenant, Oscar Charles.

Co. C — Captain, William H. Redman; 1st Lieutenant, George R. Stowe; 2d Lieutenant, Frank Meacham.

Co. D — Captain, John J. DeLacey; 1st Lieutenant, Patrick Mahar; 2d Lieutenant, Robert Canfield.

Co. E — Captain, Edson H. Pratt; 1st Lieutenant, Solomon P. Emden; 2d Lieutenant, William H. Estep.

Co. F — Captain, Edmund Luff; 1st Lieutenant, Charles L Amet; 2d Lieutenant, Allen C. Hartwell.

Co. G — Captain, Abraham Donica; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Martin; 2d Lieutenant, David W. White.

Co. H — Captain, Robert Gray; 1st Lieutenant, Jesse C. Rodgers; 2d Lieutenant, Henry Richardson.

Co. I — Captain, Edward Mann; 1st Lieutenant, Andrew J. Norton; 2d Lieutenant, James E. Sterling.

Co. K — Captain, William D. Wardlow; 1st Lieutenant, Benjamin J. Arnold; 2d Lieutenant, Cornelius W. Sparkes.

Co. L — Captain, John F. Wallace; 1st Lieutenant; Sacia F. Taylor; 2d Lieutenant, Edwin E. English.

Co. M — Captain, Charles H. Bussum; 1st Lieutenant, John Few; 2d Lieutenant, Frederick Walker.

General Hasbrouck Davis was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, April 23, 1827. His father, Hon. John Davis, was United States Senator and Governor of Massachusetts. Young Davis came to Chicago in 1855, and commenced the practice of law, and had very fair success till the war broke out, when he joined with Colonel Voss in raising the 12th Illinois cavalry, closed his law office and left for

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the seat of war as Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment. He remained in service till August, 1865, when he resigned as Brevet Brigadier-General. He made an honorable record for bravery and sagacity, for courage and unflinching constancy to the country.

He is now one of the Editors of the Chicago Evening Post, an evening paper of this city, is a successful journalist, and sustains with his pen the policy for which he fought with his sword.

Thus in our country the citizen becomes the soldier, and the soldier is merged in the citizen. War calls up an army line a million strong, while peace finds so many accessions to her sons of toil!

General Hamilton Bogart Dox was born in Albany, New York, April 28, 1827. He resided there until 1848, when he removed to Buffalo, New York, where he remained till 1854, and then took up his residence in Chicago. Here he was Cashier of the Exchange Bank of H. A. Tucker & Co., until 1860, when he was appointed Cashier of the Bank of Milwaukee. He returned the same year to Chicago, to take the cashiership of the Marine Bank. In the fall of 1863, he was authorized to recruit three companies for the 12th cavalry, which duty he performed, and joined the regiment with a battalion, on its return home on veteran furlough, and was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel. On the resignation of Colonel Davis he was commissioned Colonel and commanded the regiment from August, 1865, until its muster out. He was subsequently brevetted a Brigadier-General for gallant and meritorious services — a promotion he richly deserved.

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Chapter XXIV. — Grant's Army — Victory.

GRANT'S ARMY — SIEGE OF PETERSBURG — FUTILE EFFORTS — OPENING OF SPRING — LOSSES — GRANT'S STRATEGY — REBEL IRON-CLAD DASH — EXTENSION OF UNION LEFT — SHERIDAN'S COMMAND —- HIS GREAT RAID — REACHES WHITE HOUSE — LEE'S DASH ON FORT STEEDMAN — RECAPTURED — REBEL PRISONERS — IMPORTANT POSITION GAINED — ADVANCE ON THE UNION LEFT — FIFTH AND SECOND CORPS — FACE NORTHWARD — WHITE-OAK ROAD — FIVE FORKS REACHED AND ABANDONED — SHERIDAN REINFORCED — LONGSTREET COMES TO HELP LEE'S RIGHT — AYER'S DIVISION BROKEN — GRIFFIN AND HUMPHREYS — THE REBEL LION AT BAY — SHERIDAN AGAIN AT FIVE FORKS — DEVINS AND DAVIES — ENEMY CONCENTRATE ON SHERIDAN — NIGHTFALL — AYERS' DIVISION — SHERIDAN'S ADVANCE — FIVE FORKS AGAIN — ORDERS TO WARREN — HIS REMOVAL — UNION ASSAULT — VICTORY — PETERSBURG — PARK'S ASSAULT — WRIGHT — HUMPHREYS' — GIBBON TAKES GREGG AND ALEXANDER — MILES GOES TO SHERIDAN — ENEMY DRIVEN — SUTHERLAND'S DEPOT — HILL KILLED — LEE'S RIGHT WING GONE — TEN THOUSAND LOST — DESPERATION — LEE'S TELEGRAM TO DAVIS — EXCITEMENT IN RICHMOND — WEITZELL — ENTRANCE INTO RICHMOND — "RICHMOND OURS!" — EXCITED AFRICAN — THE COUNTRY — GRANT'S POLICY — LEE ATTEMPTS RETREAT — CHESTERFIELD — AMELIA COURT HOUSE — SHERIDAN REACHES JETERSVILLE — CUTS DANVILLE RAILWAY — DEEP CREEK — PAINE'S CROSS ROADS — DEATONVILLE — CROOKS — EWELL'S CORPS CAPTURED — ORD — SAY SURRENDER — BLODDY FIGHTING — GRANT DEMANDS THE SURRENDER OF LEE'S ARMY — LEE'S ANSWER — GRANT'S TERMS — SHERIDAN MISTAKEN — LEE HEADS TOWARD LYNCHBURG — CHANGES AND COMES BETWEEN LEE AND SUPPLIES — APPOMATTOX STATION — LEE PROPOSES DIPLOMACY — ATTEMPTS TO CUT THROUGH SHERIDAN'S CAVALRY — "WHAT! INFANTRY!" — WHITE FLAG — GRANT'S ANSWER — LEE PROPOSES SURRENDER — CORRESPONDENCE — THE ARMY OF "NORTHERN VIRGINIA" — GRANT GOES TO WASHINGTON — HIS REPORT — HIS PLANS SUCCESSFUL.

THE siege before Petersburg went slowly on. Efforts had been made and failed to secure the South-side Railroad, and Hancock sustained a severe assault from Lee, but repulsed it. The army of the James attempted to drive the enemy on the Williamsburg and York River railroads, but failed, though a work of considerable importance was carried, and so the army rested from any grand movement from October until the opening of the spring campaign. The army under Grant and Meade had lost from May 5, 1864, to

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November 1, 1864, as follows: Killed — officers, 796; enlisted men, 9,776; wounded — officers, 2,796; enlisted men, 51,161; missing — officers, 775; enlisted men, 23,083. An aggregate loss of 88,387 and yet the defences of Petersburg were impregnable, Richmond flaunted its defiant flags in the face of our veterans, and the Army of Northern Virginia, one of the best disciplined and bravest ever led to battle, though decimated, held our forces at bay. Grant was criticized by many, but his strategy was to succeed. Possibly some shorter road to success might have been found, but Grant at last succeeded, and crushed the Army of Northern Virginia. He waited until he could crush it, instead of rolling it back upon Sherman. December 7th three rebel ironclads attended with steamers, torpedo-boats, etc., made a daring effort to pass and destroy our batteries and had well-nigh achieved a dangerous success, but were defeated.

On the 5th and 6th of February, by a series of movements attended by hard fighting and 2,000 Federal loss, our left was extended permanently to Hatcher's Run and important advantage gained. There were some daring rebel movements in Northern and Western Virginia by Moseby and Rosser, but nothing of serious importance. Sheridan really opened the spring campaign by a grand raid of his cavalry. He was ordered to demonstrate against Lynchburg and the rebel communications, but had permission to swing southward and go to the aid of Sherman who was deficient in horsemen. He left Winchester with 10,000 horse, rode rapidly to the bridge at Mt. Crawford, over the middle Shenandoah before the enemy could burn it, rode through Staunton, that nest of disloyalty, and fell upon Jubal Early who, with the remains of his army, some 2,500, was intrenched at Waynesboro, capturing 1,600 prisoners, 11 guns, 91 flags and 200 wagons. He wrecked the railroad and then dashed against Charlottesville which yielded at once, and Sheridan devoted two days to destroying rebel depots, manufactures, bridges, etc. The alarm spread and there was the mustering of troops at Lynchburg too strong for unassisted cavalry. He divided his command and headed both columns for the James, one destroying the canal from Scottsville to Newmarket, the other tearing up the Lynchburg Railroad westward to Amherst C. H., then crossing to Newmarket and uniting with the other wing.

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The enemy had taken steps, assisted by heavy rains, which baffled Sheridan's purpose to ride in on Grant's left and he chose the alternative of passing in the rear of Lee's army to White House, which he did leisurely, destroying bridges, &c., as he went, reaching White House March 19th, giving four days' rest to his weary men and jaded horses, then on the 27th reporting to the Lieutenant-General.

General Lee saw that he was being environed and must once more employ the frequently victorious policy of massing his forces, falling upon some vulnerable spot in the Union lines and cutting it in twain. He selected Fort Steedman, which is nearly east of Petersburg, and had he been successful he would have marched his army southward to unite with Johnston and thus Sherman would have been exposed to the assault of almost the entire force of the Confederacy.

At dawn on the morning of March 25th, General Gordon, with two divisions, with the bulk of Lee's army as a support, charged across the narrow space, carried Fort Steadman, captured all of the 14th New York Artillery who did not escape by flight and turned the guns upon our works; three additional batteries were abandoned by us and seized by the rebels.

Thus far all went well for them. The next effort was to seize Fort Haskell, next to Steedman on the left, but the assault was repulsed; the support failed to come in time; the crest between and behind the forts, if carried, would have divided our army, but it was not carried. Our men recovered from their astonishment and rallied; a terrible fire isolated Gordon's division, and 2,000 surrendered. It was the blunder of the Petersburg mine repeated this time, by the enemy.

General Meade ordered an instant advance by our forces to the left of Fort Steedman, and they moved with such energy as to beat back the rebel line, carry its strongly-intrenched picket line and hold it. Lee's retreat into North Carolina was thus rendered more difficult and perilous than ever and an important advantage was gained by the army threatening his annihilation. The spirit of the rebel chieftain was almost broken.

Grant was ready on the 29th for a general advance on his left. Not

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only did he wish to flank the rebel right but he would not permit Lee to escape into North Carolina. Hence he withdrew from the James three divisions of Ord's army and ordered them to his left before Petersburg; Warren and Humphreys with the 5th and 2d Corps respectively, were moved west across Hatchers Run and faced northward to operate upon the rebel right. At the extreme left was Sheridan with his 10,000 horsemen acting directly under orders from Grant. Humphreys reached the Boydton plank-road, and Sheridan rested at night at Dinwiddie Court House. Warren's Corps met resistance, but held its ground, capturing 100 prisoners, and halted at night in front of the rebel intrenchments defending the White Oak road, having lost 370 killed and wounded. All night and the next day the rain fell; the infantry was, perforce, content with perfecting its formation and strengthening its connections. Sheridan gradually pressed back the foe, and crowded part of his command on the rebel right flank to the Five Forks but found him too strong to ride over or destroy with his unaided cavalry and returned to Dinwiddie Court House. General Grant directed Warren to assist Sheridan, placing the latter in command.

So heavy had been the rain that Grant would have remained quiet but for the movements of Lee who left Longstreet 8,000 men to hold Richmond, and with the main body of infantry hurried to support his right, while his cavalry, which Sheridan's advance had cut off from the main body, made circuitous movement around Dinwiddie Court House to recover its communications. Lee met Warren, who was attempting to seize White Oak road, striking General Ayres in flank and rear, throwing his broken division upon Crawford's, breaking it, and disaster seemed imminent. But Griffin's division stood meeting the rebel wave and breasting it. Warren rallied his divisions behind it, and advanced, assisted by Humphreys who ordered Miles' division to move on Warren's right and strike Lee's left flunk, and thus the rebel tactics again failed, and the army deemed so long invincible, was driven into its intrenchments, having lost a large number in killed and wounded and more in prisoners. Here the lion was fairly brought to bay, and efforts to carry his works on the White Oak road were futile.

While Warren was thus engaged Sheridan advanced and carried

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the point where he was before prevented from turning the rebel right at Five Forks. Lee sent two divisions of infantry which fell upon Devin's brigade and Davies' division of cavalry and drove them, following almost to Dinwiddie Court House, cutting them off from Sheridan, compelling Devin to make a tedious detour before he could rejoin him. This was mistaken by the enemy for a retreat and they attempted pursuit, when Sheridan ordered two brigades to charge them in flank and rear. Turning from Devin, the enemy came in force upon Sheridan. He was vastly outnumbered, but dismounting his men and forming a slight barricade, the advancing foe was received by a deadly fire and recoiled. Nightfall stayed the slaughter, and Lee withdrew his men, for they were exposed to a flank assault from Warren while Sheridan held the front. At headquarters there was intense solicitude when it was announced that Sheridan was compelled to fall back to Dinwiddie Court House and Warren was repeatedly ordered to his help. He sent Ayers forward through darkness and mud, but he was stopped at Gravelly Run for want of the bridge; he rebuilt it, crossed at 2 A. M., hurried forward and reached Dinwiddie as the last of the rebels were leaving. Sheridan was not alarmed, and at daylight, supported by Ayers, followed his foe, and was joined at 7 A. M. by Warren with his two remaining divisions. Again his cavalry advanced at 2 P. M. and crowded the rebels into the works at Five Forks, thus leavin