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Particulars of the Great Battle.

The New York Times, one of the most enterprising Republican papers of the great metropolis, had a correspondent who witnessed the battle at Manassas. He gives the following account:

The muskets used by the government troops, were four-fifths of them flint locks altered, which either were useless after the sixth or seventh round, or became so hot that they could not be handled. In many cases, too, the sight became destroyed, owing to the iron being of an inferior quality, yet with all these disadvantages the men fought superbly during the early part of the day, and it was not until they all saw that they were being cut down, without any important points being gained, that they fled as only scared soldiers can flee. A case in point occurred early in the day, when a battery of six Confederate guns was fast on the point of being taken, and their cheers rent the air as the supposed column started to strengthen them, when to their amazement, they observed that the militia general in command could not see the point, and sent the body of men to another quarter.

When the fortunes of the day seemed slightly to waver, why were the reserve not sent for ere it was too late? I saw what seemed to be a general officer riding about in high excitement, wondering where reinforcements could be found, as "they would soon be needed." A few resolute men, with rifled cannon, might have completely scattered the bold flankers of the enemy; as it was, our troops, once disheartened, fled so precipitately that, had the enemy seen this advantage, they could have cut them to pieces or forced them to surrender before they reached Fairfax Court House.

I came on from Fairfax Court House in an ambulance, which contained six men severely wounded. We led this ghostly column of yesterday's horrors. I saw in one of them a Fire Zouave with his leg shot off. He had a handkerchief tied around it to keep the life blood from flowing. In a little while he dropped off, a grim smile on his lips. On the battle-field, the groans of the wounded, were awful, many calling, piteously for water or for the doctor, while others were begging some one to cut their throats to relieve their misery.

As at Bull's Bun, the secessionists murdered the prisoners in their hands in the most horrid manner. I saw with my glass a southern Zouave deliberately go up to a southern prisoner and cut his throat, while others were bayoneted to death by slow torture. I do not think our men were guilty of any such acts, although they committed gross acts of vandalism all along the route from Alexandria, and apparently were not restrained as they should have been — burning houses and ruthlessly destroying property are not so atrocious, however, as deliberate acts of murder.

At Centreville, I stopped an hour, and, fortunately, met with a very intelligent person, who saw, frequently, Beauregard, Bonham and Lee, when their forces were rationed there. She told me that she frequently heard them say that they intended to fall back from Centreville and Fairfax, so as to draw our troops on, disarm their suspicions, and make them believe that they would not fight; then they would get them into their numerous masked batteries, which skirt the thick woods around Manassas and in the neighborhood of Gainesville, and "when once in the net, they would give them a dose they never would forget."

I found, in conversation with this lady, and several others whom I stopped to see on my way from Vienna, that, as late as last Wednesday, mere boys were impressed, and in many cases were tied hands and feet and thrown into wagons, to prevent their escaping. This is southern chivalry. How monstrous must be the course that would dictate such vile acts.

A very important prisoner, who was brought in during the morning, told me that Jeff. Davis was commanding in person, with some 60,000 men, and that fresh soldiers were arriving by every train on the Manassas and Strasburg Railroad. Our magnificent army of 55,000 to 60,000 men, was commanded by officers who could not be found when wanted, bad muskets, a want of ammunition, and a miserable supply of artillery, and entire ignorance of masked rifled cannon that cut into our men so terribly. The natural result was a disgraceful and ignominous retreat, that has inflicted a terrible stab upon the Republic.

Congress adjourned Friday until Monday expressly to let the members witness the show. Neither Congress nor the Union wish to see another such a sight. At the great stampede, civilians were awfully scared, and I think several of them were taken prisoners. I witnessed some terrific feats of running among them. Many lost their carriages, and for aught I know are talking about in the woods now. One very fat Congressman offered an artillery-man $20 for a horse, but, after he had the horse, he found it so hard to mount that he turned pale all over. He John Gilpined [unknown]; near my legs, until his horse threw him, when his agony was fearful. Three of us boosted him up, and he cut again as though the d — l was after him. That M. C. will never go to the war again.

The flag of truce sent out by Maj. Wade with, for the purpose of obtaining the wounded and the bodies of the dead, was received, but Maj. Wadsworth was turned back with an intimation that he had better keep away. It is certain that Beauregard will refuse to permit a flag of truce to enter his lines for any purpose. The reason given is that the flag of trace sent to President Lincoln by Col. Taylor was sent back without an answer, and, therefore, not treated with such courtesy, as the rules of war demanded. The evidence is accumulating that the rebels treated our soldiers with great barbarity while the battle was raging. Two officers of the Thirty-eighth assure me that they heard rebel officers on two occasions order their men to "bayonet the d — d Abolitionists," and as they passed along over the wounded, they executed the orders thus given.

Acting Lieutenant Colonel Haggerty, of the, N. Y. Sixty-ninth, was shot through the heart by a prisoner whom he had captured. His murderer was riddled with balls.

Gov. Sprague, of Rhode Island, had two horses shot under him during the action. After the first one was killed, by his head being shot away by a cannon ball, his men gathered around him and insisted on his going to the rear. This he positively refused to do, and continued throughout the engagement at the head of his brigade, gallantly leading them on and encouraging their efforts.

Your correspondent can himself bear personal testimony to the intrepidity of the First German Rifles. While the panic was at its greatest height, the commander of the division rode up to Col. Blenker, after vainly endeavoring to stem the frantic tide of fugitives, and remarked to him, "Col., you and your regiment can save the republic." To which the fearless commander replied, "We have never learned to run before the enemy."

The brave conduct of Col. Hunter, commanding the Second Division, deserves special notice. He was shot in the throat while commanding in person the Second Rhode Island Regiment, in its gallant assault upon a battery. Just before he was wounded he has given an order to one of his aids for a distant regiment. The aid was about galloping off, when he saw the Colonel fall from his horse. He immediately came to his assistance, but the Colonel motioned him off, telling him, "deliver your order, and never mind me — I will take care of myself."

Lieutenant Colonel Boone, of Mississippi, one of the few prisoners taken by our men, states that, had the Union troops held their ground on the other side of Bull's Run for half an hour longer, the entire rebel army would have given away.

How absolute the disintegration of the grant army was is fully evinced by the fact that brigade commissioners could be seen on Sunday night between Centreville and Fairfax Court House without an aid or a man of their brigades within ten miles of them.

It has thus far been found almost impossible to gather the debris of the grand army into the former encampments of the several regiments that participated in the precipitate retreat to Washington. Thousands of men are loafing about the city in the most independent fashion. Many of the officers continue to set a bad example by persisting in the enjoyment of hotel comforts, instead of reporting for duty, and trying to rally their men and infuse them once more with a spirit of order and discipline.

An order has been issued by Gen. Mansfield, dated to-day, as follows:

"All straggling soldiers will join their respective regiments without delay. [Here follows the designations of rendezvous for twenty of the regiments by name.] Soldiers attached to regiments in camp or quartered on the Virginia side, and not embraced in the foregoing list, will rendezvous at Jackson square opposite the President's house. All stragglers found in the streets six hours after the promulgation of this order will be deemed guilty of disobedience of orders, and will be taken care of."

Washington papers of a day later state:

There are fewer men and officers about the streets this morning than yesterday or the day before, in consequence of the exertions of Col. Wright, one of Gen. Scott's aids, who spent twelve hours in personally urging officers to go to their quarters, under penalty in case of refusal.

A Col. of volunteers was met during Sunday's retreat by a regular officer, who asked him where his regiment was. He said he didn't know. He was told he ought to know, and that he ought to be with them. He made some paltry excuse, to which his interrogator replied, calling him by name: "You're a coward, sir."

Since the return of Maj. Wadsworth, a message has been received from Beauregard to the effect that, while he will not permit our surgeons and ambulances to come within his lines, he will take as good care of our wounded as of his own.

First Sergeant Mix, of Company C, Second Dragoons, arrested in this city a teamster, who cut his traces on the field of battle, and abandoned eleven of our wounded to the enemy. The offender is now in jail.

One of our officers counted 150 dead bodies in a piece of wood into which one of the terrible batteries had been firing.

A Rhode Island soldier states that, after the capture of one of the Bull's Run batteries, forty-eight dead men and one wounded of the enemy were found piled up at the guns. The wounded man, on being asked how they managed to stand by their guns so long, answered that "they had taken an oath never to leave them."

The Cols. of our regiments appear to have been in the thickest of the fight, if we may judge of the casualties. The returns show four killed, and seven wounded. — There were thirty-six in the engagement, which gives a ratio of one in three killed or wounded.

About one-half of the Rhode Islanders are in their quarters. They are not badly cut up, and but little demoralized. Gov. Sprague has given orders to the officers to spare no expense in getting the regiments in condition, and to charge the expenses to him.

The secessionists of Washington make no concealment of their exultation. The prisoners taken from the rebels and in confinement in Washington are liberally supplied with cakes, pies, wines and clothing by women who commend them as the greatest patriots in the country.