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Monthly Record of Current Events, September 4.

UNITED STATES.
OUR Record closes on the 4th of September, up to which date no military operations of importance have taken place in Virginia. Immediately after the defeat at Bull Run serious apprehensions were felt for the safety of the Capital, and the Secretary of War telegraphed to the Governors of the Eastern and Middle States to dispatch all troops at once to Washington. The order was promptly obeyed, and in a few days the place of the regiments whose term had expired was abundantly filled by men enlisted for the war. The Confederates after some delay began to move slowly toward the Potomac; but up to this date no engagement, beyond collisions between pickets, has taken place. — In Western Virginia several sharp skirmishes have occurred. — General Wool has been appointed to the command of Fortress Monroe.

On the 26th of August a strong military and naval force, under command of General Butler and Commodore Stringham, left Fortress Monroe, destined for Hatteras Inlet, in North Carolina, where the Confederates had erected two forts. This inlet formed a convenient refuge for privateers. The vessels, having on board about 800 soldiers, reached their destination on the afternoon of the 27th, and the next morning about 300 men were landed. The fleet then commenced cannonading the forts, which replied. The action continued until noon of the 29th, when a white flag was hoisted, and a message was sent from the shore proposing to surrender the forts, the men being permitted to retire. This was refused, and a full capitulation insisted upon. This was yielded, and the forts and garrison were surrendered. The prisoners numbered 715 officers and men. The commander was Samuel Barren, formerly commander in the United States Navy, and now Assistant-Secretary of the Navy of the Confederate States. The loss in the forts was 8 killed and a number wounded. None of the United States troops were injured. The prisoners have been brought to New York. A considerable amount of ammunition, 81 cannon, and 1000 stand of arms were captured.

In Missouri events of decided importance have occurred. Confederate troops in large numbers from Tennessee and Arkansas, with those belonging to Missouri, under command of Generals M'Culloch and Price, advanced toward Springfield, which was occupied by the national forces under General Lyon. On the evening of the 9th of August General Lyon, at the head of about 5500 troops, marched out of Springfield to attack the enemy. The next morning he came up with a greatly superior force. A fierce engagement ensued. General Lyon was killed in the early part of the action, and the command devolved upon General Siegel. The national forces were too few to ensure success, and General Siegel retired, at first to Springfield, and then back to Rolla, some fifty miles in the direction of St. Louis. Official reports state our loss in this action to have been 223 killed, 721 wounded. Two official reports have been published by the enemy. General Price commanding the Missouri troops, reports to Governor Jackson that the men under his command numbered 5221, of whom 156 were killed and 517 wounded. General M'Culloch commanding the Confederate troops reports to his Government. He claims a decided victory, says his forces were nine or ten thousand, and his loss 265 killed and 800 wounded. The entire loss of the Confederate troops in this action, acknowledged by themselves, is therefore 421 killed and 1317 wounded. The result of the retreat of the national troops has been to lay Southwestern Missouri open to the Confederates, and enable them to take possession of important lead mines, thus furnishing them with an article of which they have stood in great need. — On the 14th martial law was proclaimed at St. Louis by General Fremont. — Governor Jackson, who was deposed by the State Convention, has issued a proclamation, declaring the union between Missouri and the other States dissolved, and that Missouri is a free and independent State. This proclamation is dated at New Madrid on the 15th of AuguSt. — On the 24th Mr. Gamble, the Governor appointed by the Convention, issued a proclamation stating that the civil authority was insufficient to protect the lives and property of the citizens; he therefore calls into active service of the State 42,000 militia, to be as far as possible volunteers, for six months, unless peace should be sooner restored. If there were not sufficient volunteers recourse would be had to a draft. — On the 31st General Fremont issued a proclamation placing the entire State of Missouri under martial law, and the lines of the army of occupation are for the present declared to extend from Leavenworth by way of the posts of Jefferson City, Rolla, and Ironton, to Cape Girardeau, on the Mississippi. The most important clause in this proclamation reads as follows: "All persons who shall be taken with arms in their hands within those lines shall be tried by court-martial, and, if found guilty, will be shot. The property, real and personal, of all persons in the State of Missouri who shall take up arms against the United States, or who shall be directly proven to have taken active part with their enemies in the field, is declared to be confiscated to the public use; and their slaves, if any they have, are hereby declared free men." The extreme penalty of the law is threatened against all who shall destroy railroad tracks, bridges, or telegraphs; those who have been led away from their allegiance arc warned to return to their homes, as their absence will be held to be presumptive evidence against them. The object of this proclamation is to enable the military authorities to give instantaneous effect to existing laws; but the ordinary tribunals are not to be suspended wherever the laws can be executed by the civil authority.

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Increased activity pervades every branch of the Government. In the Navy Department, besides the vessels building, nearly 200 have been purchased or chartered to aid in the blockade. — The army, under the command of General M'Clellan, is rapidly advancing in discipline, a large number of incompetent officers resigning or being dismissed. Several attempts at insubordination have been promptly put down. — The Departments at Washington have been freed of clerks in favor of secession; and numerous arrests have been made of persons charged with aiding and assisting the enemy. The persons arrested are mostly confined at Fort Lafayette in New York Harbor. Among the prisoners are the Baltimore Police Commissioners, Mr. Berrett, Mayor of Washington, who refused to take the oath of allegiance, and Pierce Butler, of Philadelphia. Mr. Faulkner, late Minister to France, has also been placed under arrest at Washington. In New York the Grand Jury made a presentment against several newspapers, charging them with publishing treasonable articles; their transmission through the mails has been prohibited. Among these was the Daily News, edited by Benjamin Wood, a member of Congress from that city, and the Journal of Commerce, one of the oldest papers in New York; the prohibition has been rescinded in the case of this latter paper. — On the 16th of August the President issued a proclamation declaring the seceding States to be in a state of insurrection, prohibiting all commercial intercourse between them and the other parts of the Union without special permission from the Government, under penalty of the confiscation of all goods dispatched either way, and of the vessels or vehicles conveying them; and declaring that all vessels belonging wholly or in part to any citizen of the insurgent States found at sea or in a port of the United States after fifteen days from the date of the proclamation forfeited to the United States. A large number of vessels remaining in our ports contrary to this notice have been seized. — Banks in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston agreed, on the 15th of August, to take at par $50,000,000 of Treasury Notes, bearing 7 3 per cent. interest, with the privilege, in case the money was not raised by a national loan, or negotiated abroad, of taking $50,000,000 at the expiration of 60 days, and another $50,000,000 in 120 days; the Government agreeing to issue no bonds or notes other than those payable on demand, within a specified time; reserving, however, he right to negotiate its bonds abroad, and to receive subscriptions for a national loan. The Secretary of the Treasury has issued an appeal to the people, pointing out the advantages, in point of profit and security, of this loan, and announcing that subscription books would be opened at once in the principal towns and cities. The interest amounts to one cent per day for every fifty dollars. — The Secretary of State has issued an order directing that no person shall leave the country for any foreign port without a passport countersigned by the Secretary of State; nor shall any person be permitted to land from abroad unless provided with the proper passport, after a reasonable time has been given for the fact of such requirement to be known in the country from which such persons come. — The Convention of Western Virginia has passed an ordinance, to, be submitted to the people on the 24th of October, cutting off about 40 counties from Virginia, and forming them into a new State, to be called Kanawha. These counties comprise about one quarter of the white population of Virginia, but have only a small proportion of slaves.

Several important Acts have been passed by the Confederate Congress at Richmond. The President is directed to issue a proclamation ordering all male citizens of the United States, above the age of 14 years, to leave the Confederate States within forty days. If they remain longer, they are liable to arrest and imprisonment as alien enemies. — The President is empowered to accept the services of 400,000 men for a period not less than one year or more than three. — A Treasury and Tax Act has been passed, authorizing the issue of Treasury notes to the amount of $100,000,000, redeemable six months after the close of the war; these are to be received in payment of all Government dues, except the export duty on cotton. Besides this, $100,000,000 of bonds are to be issued, bearing interest at the rate of 8 per cent., and redeemable in twenty years. A war tax is also levied of fifty cents in the hundred dollars upon all persons whose property amounts to more than $500. The proposition to sell cotton to the Government, taking payment in Confederate bonds, seems to meet with much favor. It is said that cotton to the amount of $50,000,000 is already subscribed. — The cotton brokers in the principal ports have issued Circulars urging planters not to forward cotton to the sea-ports until the blockade is raised. — Privateering has been very actively carried on. Nearly a hundred vessels are known to have been captured. The Jeff Davis, the most daring and successful of the Confederate privateers, was wrecked on the 18th of August while attempting to cross the bar at St. Augustine, Florida. The vessel was a total loss, but the crew escaped and have reached Charleston.

SOUTHERN AMERICA.
There is no improvement in the condition of Mexico; in fact all accounts concur in representing it as worse than ever. The Juarez Government appears to be powerless, and Marquez, the most dashing of Miramon's officers, is at the head of a strong force. The French and English representatives have suspended diplomatic relations with the Mexican Government. — Some months ago the Spanish Government took possession of the Dominican republic, the southern portion of the Island of Hayti, which has since been formally annexed to the Spanish dominions, Spain pledging itself not to re-establish slavery there. — In New Granada the desultory war which has been waged for more than a year has been brought to a close by the capture of Bogota, the capital, by the revolutionary forces under General Mosquera, who has assumed the office of Provisional President. He proposes a reconstruction of the old Republic of Colombia, by the re-union of New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador. — Civil war has again broken out between the different provinces of the Argentine Confederation. At the latest dates from Buenos Ayres, which are of July 15, that province had sent an army into the field against the National Government. The army of the Confederation is stated to amount to 20,000 men, with 12,000 in reserve. The Congress has declared Buenos Ayres to be in a state of insurrection.

EUROPE.
The American difficulties, in their commercial relations, form the staple of our European intelligence. In Great Britain especially the attention of the manufacturers and of Government is turned toward the opening of new sources for the supply of cotton. They hope that a considerable part of the present deficiency from America will be supplied from other quarters, India being the principal; and that in a year or two they will cease to be dependent upon America for this article.