ills

Pictures and Illustrations.

Enos Cook Kennedy, Circa 1875. 8th Regiment Illinois Cavalry

Muster-In Roll, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, October 31, 1861, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, November and December, 1861, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Letter of December 10, 1861. Page 1.

Letter of December 10, 1861. Page 2.

Muster Roll, January and February, 1862, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Map of Old Town Alexandria

#75 Duke Street, Alexandria.

Duke Street, Alexandria.

Muster Roll, March and April, 1862, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Troop Embarking Area at Alexandria, Virginia.

Muster Roll, May and June, 1862, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Union wounded at a field hospital at Savage Station during the Seven Day's battles on the Peninsula. July 1862.

Battle of South Mountain, August, 1862.

Federal attack near the Dunker Church in the bloody Battle of Antietam, as pictured by Thure de Thulstrup. August, 1862.

Battle of Malvern Hill, from the Union Position. July, 1862.

Major General Winfield S. Hancock and his Illinois Corps division commanders: Barlow, Birney and Gibbon

Chickahominy Swamp. A nightmare for McClellan's Union Army.

Wagon trains en route from the Chickahominy to the James River during the Seven Day's Battles, July, 1862.

Union Forces retreat over the Stone Bridge after Second Bull Run. From drawing by Rufus F. Zogbaum. August 1862.

Muster Roll, September and October, 1862, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, November and December, 1862, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, February 10, 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Map of Stafford County, Virginia.

Historic Sites in the County of Stafford, Virginia.

Pontoon bridge at Benham's Wharf. Belle Plain. Virginia.

Pontoon train en route from Aquia to Falmouth (Harper's) After February. 1863.

Shoes for the Ray Baby.

Shoes for the Ray Baby.

Muster Roll, March and April, 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, May and June, 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Battle of Cedar Mountain as seen from the Union Lines. May 1863.

Close fighting at Chancellorsville. May 1863.

Cavalry charge at Brandy Station Virginia. Though they retired from Bus fight, Union cavalry gained self-confidence. Edwin Forbes Drawing. June 1863.

Casualty Sheet, June 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Mower U. S. General Hospital

Hospital Muster Roll, May and June, 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Numbered Prescriptions from Mowar Hospital.

Numbered Prescriptions from Mowar Hospital.

Numbered Prescriptions from Mowar Hospital.

Numbered Prescriptions from Mowar Hospital.

Numbered Prescriptions from Mowar Hospital.

Numbered Prescriptions from Mowar Hospital.

Muster Roll, July and August 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Paulina's Housing at Chestnut Hill

Muster Roll, October 31, 1862 to February 28, 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, September and October, 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, September and October 1863, August 3, 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, November and December 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll, September 1863, Enos Cook Kennedy.

Muster Roll.

1

Enos Cook Kennedy Life Timeline (During War.)

Dates 8th Illinois Cavalry Attached to Place Activity
9/10/1861 Colonel Farnsworth Division Mustered into 8th Cavalry at St. Charles, Illinois as a private. Age 23.  
9/18/1861   Transferred to Volunteer Reserve Corps.  
10/23/1861   Camp Farnsworth, Wash., D.C. Drill
11/1/1861   Camp Farnsworth, Wash., D.C. Drill
11/12/1861   Camp Farnsworth, Wash., D.C, Visit by Gen. Stoneman to verify which men would stay in service. Writes Letter of Proposal to Paulina.
11/18/1861   Camp Illinois, Wash., D.C. Drill and guard duty. Receives letter of proposal acceptance from Paulina on November 17.
11/24/1861   Washington Drill
11/28/1861   Washington Drill and guard duty
12/6/1861 Sumner's Division Army of the Potomac Dec 1861 — March 1862 Washington D.C. Guard duty
12/15/1861   Camp Illinois (six miles from Bull Run) Built tree house, guard; refers to difficulty between Enos & Father.
12/30/1861   Camp California Tent, guard duty
1/3/1862   Camp California — on road; soldiers to and from Alexandria Guard duty
11/10/1862   Camp California  
1/20/1862   Camp California Expecting Orders to go to Manassas
1/25/1862   Camp California Mud, Mud, Mud
1/30/1862   Alexandria Fine house on Duke Street #75
2/5/1862   Alexandria Dress parade
2/19/1862   Near Alexandria Scouting, pine limb house, picket
2/22/1862   Alexandria Picket outside city
2/25/1862   Alexandria Picket outside city
3/4/1862   Alexandria Picket outside city
3/7/1862   Alexandria Picket outside city
3/14/1862   Bull Run, March to Brimstone Hill Control of Manassas
3/17/1862   Fairfax Station (4 miles from Bull Run) On front line
3/22/1862   Alexandria Sick Leave

2

Dates 8th Illinois Cavalry Attached Place Activity
3/31/1862   Fairfax Station Message Bearers, line, makeshift houses
4/3/1862 Cavalry 2nd Army Corp. Army of Potomac. March '62 - May '62 Alexandria  
4/10/1862   Alexandria Awaiting Regiment
4/14/1862   Headquarters, Reg. Ill, Alexandria Awaiting Shipment
4/18/1862   Alexandria Review by Generals
4/20/1862   Left Alexandria to Shipping Point, VA On river one week with their horse boat; through mouth of Potomac, across the Chesapeake Bay, to fix camp ground.
4/30/1862   Shipping Point, Virginia (few miles from Yorktown)  
5/4/1862   Williamsburg Battle of Williamsburg Fort McGruder
5/18/1862 Stoneman's Light Brigade. May '62 - June '62 16 miles from Richmond Scouting / Richmond
6/5/1862   Camp near Mechanicsville Picket /yell at Rebels
6/12/1862 Averill's Calvary Brigade, 5th Army Corps. June 1862 - July 1862. Mechanicsville Picket; urges family to find help for Eliza — Soldiers Hospital or insane asylum. Plans to visit old Pennsylvania school mates on June 13.
6/20/1862   Mechanicsville Drove teams to White House
6/21/1862   Mechanicsville  
7/4/1862   Charles City Landing Hard fighting, beat the Rebels with Gates Falanx from Chicago
7/10/1862   Camp near James River Battle of Gaines Mill
7/12/1862   Harrison Bar Baggage trains
7/22/1862   Harrisons Landing, James River Scouting
8/9/1862 2nd Brigade. Stoneman's Cavalry. Div. of Army of Potomac. July '62 - Sept. '62 Harrisons Landing Battle at the "Hill"
8/14/1862     Promoted to Corporal
8/26/1862   Yorktown Awaiting orders
9/16 - 17/1862     Wounded left foot, Battle of Antietam. Treated by Dr. Crawford, Regimental Surgeon.

3

Dates 8th Illinois Cavalry Attached Place Activity
9/27/1862   Sharpsburg Fighting at the lines
10/1/1862     Promoted to Sargeant
10/5/1862 1st Brigade. Pleasonton's Cavalry. Div. Army of Potomac. Sept. '62 - Feb.'63 Sharpsburg Eliza dies, father ill, Enos Sick
10/17/1862   Knoxville Father dies, Enos sick and downhearted
2/12/1863   Washington via Harrisburg and Baltimore  
2/13/1862   Washington  
2/14/1863   Camp 5, NY Bat., Va. Boat to Aquia Creek, cars to Stoneman's Switch
2/16/1863   Belle Plain (after transporting straggles, Chicago to Baltimore to Washington) Find Regiment
2/17/1863   Belle Plain Picket
2/18/1863   Aquia Creek Rain
2/19/1863   Aquia Creek Worked roads — mud
2/20 - 21/1863   Aquia Creek Worked roads
2/22/1863   Aquia Creek Snow
2/23/1863   Camp, 8th Ill. Cav. Back / forth to landing
2/24/1863   Stafford Court House Roads, covered house
2/25/1863   Camp, 8th Ill. Cav. Landing for grain
2/26/1863   Camp near Stafford Court House Started for Warrenton
2/27/1863   Camp, Lay House 5 miles of Falmouth, crossing two creeks
2/28/1863   Stafford Court House Around Camp
3/1/1863 1st Brigade, Army of Potomac. Feb.'63 - April 64 Camp near Stafford Court House Building Corduroy roads, hears Vicksburg is taken.
3/2 - 3/1863   Camp, 8th Ill. Cav Around Camp
3/6 - 9/1863   Camp, 8th III Cav. Around Camp
3/10/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Picket
3/11/1863   Dumphreys Picket
3/12 - 15/1863   Pignette Line Picket Duty
3/16 - 20/1863   Picket Line Picket Duty; hears "considerable firing" at Kelly's Ford.
3/21/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Picket Duty
3/22/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Picket, urges mother re-estate
3/21 - 31/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Picket Duty / toting; Gets "Baby Ray" spirit shoes. Hopes for Stewardship in the Hospital
4/1 - 2/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Landing for forage / supplies

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Dates 8th Illinois Cavalry Attached to Place Activity
4/3/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Inspected by Gen. Davis
4/4/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Drill, Dress Parade
4/5/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Snow
4/6/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Falmouth with Cavalry Inspection with Lincoln
4/7/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Dress Parade, Picket
4/8/1863   Pignette Line Ashby / Brentsville / Dumphreys, Picket
4/10/1863   Pignette Line  
4/12/1863   Camp near Hope Landing Prepare forward movement
4/13 - 15/1863   On the March to Warrenton General Stonemans great raid, guarded mule trains, scout, skirmishes
4/15/1863   Crossed Rappahonnack River, battled, recrossed.  
4/16/1863   Camp on Rappahannock  
4/17 - 18/1863   Virginia Foraging
4/19/1863   Virginia Dress Parade
4/20/1863   Waterloo On the march
4/21/1863   1 mile from Waterloo Moved camp, foraged
4/22/1863   Warrenton Pickett
4/23/1863   Warrenton Raid, Pickett
4/24/1863   Warrenton Enos' Birthday, Fatigue Duty
4/25/1863   Warrenton Guard Brigade forage / rations
4/26/1863   Warrenton Guard Duty
4/27/1863   Warrenton Picket
4/28/1863   Kelly's Ford Getting Ready to march
4/29/1863   Culpepper Skirmish
4/30/1863   Rapadon Ford Captured Quartermaster Stock; camped in mud.
5/1/1863 Gen. Averill — Temporary Cedar Mountain Battle of Chancellorsville
5/2/1863   Rapadon Ford Skirmish
5/3/1863 Pleasanton's United States Ford Ordinance
5/4/1863   United States Ford Helped in Hospital
5/5/1863   On the March; Falmouth to Kelly's Ford Rain; rode between lines
5/6/1863   Kelly's Ford, Pignette Line Rain, establish Pignette Line
5/7/1863   Kelly's Ford In camp
5/8/1863   Kelly's Ford In Camp, Rifle Pits
5/9/1863   Potomac Creek Inspection of Arms
5/10/1863   Potomac Creek Received 6 months pay
5/11/1863   Brooks Station Inspection of Arms
5/12/1863   Brooks Station (stayed over one week) Had picture taken for Paulina

5

Dates 8th Illinois Cavalry Attached to Place Activity
5/28/1863   Camp, 8th Ill. Cav. Captured Rebels, boats and Suttlers
6/3/1863   Camp near Potomac Creek In Camp
6/9/1863   Beverly Ford Wounded; shell wound right eye. Treated at Fairfax Station.
6/11/1863   Catlett Station Brandy Station Battle
6/16/1863   Fairfax Seminary Hospital Kicked by horse, eye wound; Taken to station where he waited to be shipped to Philadelphia.
6/18/1863   Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania Admitted Mower Hospital, Bedded in Ward 2.
6/20/1863   Chestnut Hill Hospital, Pennsylvania  
6/23/1863   U.S. General Hospital (Mower) Reference to Enos' father being doctor.
7/7/1863   Dispensary working
7/17/1863   Dispensary Wants Paulina to come to Chestnut Hill, Pa.
7/19/1863   Dispensary Working
9/29/1863     "Shell wound right eye, expiration of term of service, disability 1/4, discharge recommended as being disqualified for Veterans Reserve Corps",
11/30/1863     Transfered to VRC, Spec. Order #530, 134th Co., Capt. H. Meyers.
Dec - April 1864   On detached service at Mower General Hospital, Chestnut Hill, PA. Transfer to Invalid Corps.  
6/18/1864     Discharge from military service.
12/10/1864   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Birth of daughter, (Bertha Delores)
Jan - Feb 1865   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Letter to mother about birth of daughter; states they have taken Polly's suggestion for naming the baby.

6

1861.

Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Pvt.,
Capt. Conklin's Co., 8 Reg't Illinois Cav.
Age 24 years.
Appears on
Company Muster-in Roll
of the organization named above. Roll dated
not dated. 186_.
Muster-in date Sept 18, 1861.

Joined for duty and enrolled:
When Aug. 30, 186_.
Where St. Charles.
Period 3 years.

Bounty paid $___ 100; due $___ 100
Valuation of horse, $___100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ______

Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

7

History of the Eight Cavalry Regiment.

HISTORY OF THE EIGHT CAVALRY REGIMENT "INTRODUCTION" TO MORNINGSIDE EDITION, ABNER HARD, M.D., MORNINGSIDE BOOKSHOP, 1984.

Like so many other units from the growing American mid-west, the Eighth filled its ranks with the farm boys from the Illinois prairie and the workers from the industrial and commercial enterprises of the new metropolis, Chicago. The counties in which the various companies were raised form a virtual tier across the northern end of the state . The story of their coming together to form the regiment is again, typical of the way it was in that summer of 1861. It begins with politics, for that is what Mr. Lincoln knew best and so that is where he turned to find the thousands of men the disaster of Bull Run had told him he would need to preserve the Union.

Among the many men of influence who petitioned the beleaguered president for military authority during the first year of the war was John F. Farnsworth, a Chicago lawyer and devoted abolitionist. After first opening his practice in 1846 in the village of St. Charles, northwest of Chicago, Farnsworth had moved into the larger city in 1852. From there he was elected to Congress in 1856 and reelected two years later. During these terms he quickly and firmly aligned himself with what would come to be known as the Radical faction of the new Republican party. However, possibly as a result of the temporary climate of moderation produced by the gathering clouds of disunion, Farnsworth was defeated for renomination in 1860 .

With the outbreak of war one year later, the political philosophy of Farnsworth and those who shared his views was once more the object of popular support. Thus the ex-congressman found a ready ear when he sought from his old friend, Mr. Lincoln, the authority to supply some of the soldiers the new president was urgently seeking. The commission was issued on August 11, 1861, and by the 20th of the same month the first company had been formed. It was not just coincidence that at least twenty members of this initial unit were employees of the influential Chicago Tribune and that the company's captain was William H. Medill, brother of the papers illustrious editor, Joseph Medill. Farnsworth and the journalist were strong political allies, and the many laudatory articles which appeared in the Tribune that Fall describing the regiment's formation and activities give ample evidence of Joe Medill's assistance in filling its ranks.

To provide a gathering place for the regiment he was recruiting, Farnsworth returned to his former home St. Charles. There on land he himself owned, he established Camp Kane, named for the county in which the Village is located. By September 18th, 1,164 men were on hand to take the oath administered to them that day by the mustering officer. The Eight Illinois Cavalry thus became a part of the United States Army, enlisted for a term of three years service or the war.

"By the first day of September, 1861, a part of the regiment were at the rendezvous. Having been appointed surgeon of the regiment, I repaired to St. Charles on the second day of September and found Company B, Captain Whitney, in quarter at the Howard House. Recruits for the regiment came from all parts of this Congressional District, and even some from Michigan, Indiana, and Iowa. They came to camp so rapidly that is was difficult to find shelter for them. The tents, camp and garrison equipage not having arrived, they were quartered in vacant houses in St. Charles. Soon, however, these necessary articles were obtained, and on the 2d of October, there was a grand gathering of the friends of the regiment; speeches were made by a number of officers and others, all of a patriotic nature and well calculated to inspire the troops with courage. The contract for supplying the regiment with rations was let to J. S. Van Patten, of St. Charles, at the very low price of sixteen cents per ration, and was fulfilled by him to the entire satisfaction of the government and the regiment. It is believed that no regiment of Illinois volunteers were supplied with as little expense to the government as was the Eighth Illinois Cavalry. Thanks to the economical management of Colonel Farnsworth."

"After a happy meeting and a sad parting of friends, parents and sons, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters, camp discipline was again established, and we were found drilling, studying army regulations,

8

and thus learning the art of war. Few had any knowledge of military tactics. But if we were lacking in military discipline and experience, we were not wanting in what makes up an army of veterans on whom "Uncle Sam" could rely in the hour of danger. There were among us men of all callings and vocation, men who could perform almost any labor that occasion might require; could build railroads, run engines, publish newspapers, manage flour and saw mills, build carriages or repair almost any kind of machines; and in the course of the war these various accomplishments found opportunity for usefulness.

"The mustering officer and surgeon took their positions a few feet apart, and as the names were called, the men were required to pass between them. If any defect was noticed, they were stopped and examined, and if sufficient cause presented itself, rejected. This was the only examination the recruits were required to pass. Had examinations been made in conformity, with the army regulations, much suffering would have been avoided and the government saved a large expense. But patriotism ruled the hour. Nearly all were ignorant of military matters, and although some were mustered in who were physically unfit for the field, as a whole, no regiment in the "War for the Union" was made up of a better class of men, mentally, morally, or physically, than the Eighth Illinois Cavalry Volunteers."

Letter, October 23, 1861.

Washington City, Camp Farnsworth, October 23, 1861

Dear Paulina, if I dare use such a familiar phrase,
Perhaps you think that I have forgotten you, but it is not so. This is the first time I could get to write. We have been cooking since we arrived in camp and it keeps us busy. I have not wrote to our folks yet. We arrived here the next Friday after we left St. Charles. We are all well except myself. I am trying to be sick today. We are now in the midst of the enemy without arms. Our good times that we had when we were in Illinois are no more. We have plenty to eat and that is good. But we are kept strict and I can say this much. If I had not enlisted, I should not now do it. But then, I am satisfied and contented. We are encamped near a piece of woods where our guards are liable to be shot any night.

Oh Paulina, you cannot imagine the feelings that Timmen and myself experience when we parted with you in our tent and it is my humble prayer that I may not ever have such feelings again. But away with such thoughts at the present and think of the future.

Tell Celia that my lips are entirely cured if they were not I should send for some more salve. Also, ask her what she has done with the key, and I wish to go home. I take considerable comfort in viewing a certain likeness which I have in my possession. It being all I have to look upon of those I have left behind, perhaps forever, but I hope not.

Now I will give you a short history of our travel. We left St. Charles Monday afternoon, got to Chicago in the evening, took the cars for Pittsburgh, where we arrive Wednesday morning and met with a reception from the ladies. God Bless them. From there we went to Baltimore and from thence to Washington where we arrived Friday morning. Then we formed in ranks and marched to the Capitol.

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From there to the White House where we saw the President. From there to the Camp ground. When we got on the ground we were tired out, but then a soldier can never rest. We had to put up our lent which took us till ten o'clock at night. Then we bunked in till four the next morning. So you have a sketch of our travels.

I hope you will excuse these few broken sentences. My seat is the hard ground and my writing desk is my blanket. I lay at full length on the ground with my writing material before me. I shall now have to close and take care of my horse. I wish you would write often. Do not wait for me to write as I cannot find time every day to write. Hoping to hear from you soon, I will subscribe myself your Devoted Friend,
E.C. Kennedy

P.S. Direct your letters to Washington, DC, Company A, Captain Jennings Farnsworth, Cavalry,

Note on outside fold of the stationery: If you see Harrison, tell him to stay to home and let fighting alone.

Goodbye for the present. Enos C. Kennedy. The Boys all send their love.

Note: half sheet as follows:
Bye Bye my child, it is hard to part
With one that is so near my heart.
Your Country will you must obey
I think we will meet another day.

Muster Roll.

11

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kenneday
Pvt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for dated Oct 31, 1861.

Joined for duty and enrolled:
When Sept. 10, 186_.
Where St. Charles, Kane Co..
Period 3 years.

Present or absent not stated
Stoppage, $___ 100 for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ______
See enrollment on card from muster-in roll.
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

12

Letter. November 1, 1861.

Washington City, November 1st, 1861

Dear Friend Paulina
I once more endeavor to communicate with you by way of mail not receiving an answer from you to the letter that I wrote to you. I made up my mind that you had not received it. We are all well and feeling well, Timmen and myself has throwd up cooking and gone into the ranks. I have been within hearing of two fights since I have encamped here. Paulina, it puts the war spirit into a man as he hears the distant booming of the cannon which tells him perhaps the Enemy are gaining ground and that we will be subject of their prey. Oh that these wars might end so that we might all return to our families and live in peace. But then I fear that we shall never live to realize such times. It may be that I will be back in two weeks. I am to be examined this afternoon and the boys think that they will not take me on account of my foot. If they do not take me, I shall either come home or go into the navy, and my mind now is to go into the navy as I have had a chance to go.

Now I will give you a history of camp life. When we arrived here, we put up our tents which took us until ten o'clock at night. Then we threw in five or six straws and bunked in. In the morning we were up early and went to work. The first thing in the morning while the cooks are getting breakfast, we have to water and feed the horses. Then we fall into ranks and march to the table and receive our rations, then drill until dinner, and after dinner we drill three hours and then play euchre until it is time to feed the horse. Then after supper, we go to our tents and play euchre until it is time to go to bed. Then we all make our beds and retire for the night. And so goes camp life which is tip top.

Well, I have been out to be examined and I guess I shall be kept in the army. Thank God. It is now eight o'clock in the evening. Our boys are playing cards and the next tent is having prayer meeting. Those that are in our tent are as follows: Corporal McKinley, L. J. O'Kenyon, B. VanDike, B. McGough, Tom Brown, R. Gardner, G. Jennings and myself. So you see, we have a jolly set. You would think so if you was here. Sometimes when they get on a bust, not a whiskey bust, for we all swore off drinking strong drink, but we get on dry sprees. Oh yes, by the way, I should like to know if you and Celia makes a practice of going to the saloon and getting on a spree as usual.

Well, you see I cannot put my thoughts on one sheet of paper for this reason. They are so simple and conglomerated that it wants a fife and drum to call them together. Well, what shall I write next? Let me see here. It goes tomorrow we all draw a new suit of clothes. Won't we put on airs. Haven't we got a good Uncle Sam. The Boys are making such a fuss that I shall have to stop writing. I want you to answer this in double quick time as I am very anxious to hear from you and the next time I write, I will try to write something that will interest you if it is in my power.

We all join together in sending you our love especially myself. "Amibo ti Semper" is my motto. I should like to spend a few moments in conversation with you face to face, but then that cannot be. Perhaps never hoping you will excuse this nonsensical letter and write immediately, I will close by subscribing myself as ever, your friend till death.
E. C. Kennedy.

Direct to Washington DC., Farnsworth Cavalry, Company A, care Captain Jennings.

Enos

13

Letter. November 12, 1861.

Washington, DC., November 12, 1861
(Picture of Flag on stationary) "Here's what we fight for"

Dear Paulina,
Yours of the 7th has just come to hand and I am glad to learn that you are enjoying one of gods best gifts and that is good health. I can say the same of myself. But tonight finds me pretty tired. We were drilling all the forenoon and this afternoon we were busy pulling up tents and setting them over, which took up till night. And then I put for the commissary in order to write this letter to your honorable self.

You say that if I am not accepted that I must come home, not go into the navy. Paulina, you do not want me to come home more that I want to come, but I could not conscientiously, and do justice to my country. Tomorrow, General Stoneman visits our company for the purpose of making another examination of us Boys, and then we know who is accepted and who is not. I am in hopes that next spring will find me at home nevermore to part with those that I love. But before spring, I may be numbered with the dead. But enough of this. Those letters that you and Eliza wrote were good whether you were on a train or not. Timmen and me has had a good laugh over them. I should like to receive more just like them. Paulina, you are not more anxious to receive letters from me that I am to receive them from you. Paulina, I will ask you one question which I wish you to answer candidly and you decision tells me whether I will return to Illinois or not, and it is this. If I return the same as when I left, will you become my partner for life?

If not, let us cease our correspondence as it would be like a bullet to my heart to read letters from one that I love as myself and know that my love is not returned. If you decision is in the negative, I would ask one favor of you, that you will keep this a secret and remember that you have one friend and well wishes till death.

Tell Celia that I do not talk like taking anyone to a dance at present, but would like to meet you and her to a dance some night when you least thought I was there.

14

But it is getting late, and I must close. The Boys are all well and in good spirits. Please lose no time in answering this as I shall watch the mail closely as I receive one. This is from your more than friend.
Enos.

Letter. November 18, 1861.

Camp Illinois, Washington D. C, November 18, 1861

Dearest Paulina,
I received your welcome letter yesterday. Glad to hear from you once more and learn that you were still enjoying good health. I stood guard last night for the first since I have been here, and my thoughts were with you as I was walking up and down my beat between the hours of three and five. Would that I could of been along with my thoughts at that hour of the night. Don't you see, I like very well to think of the pleasures perhaps of the past, but then again, when I think that such pleasures perhaps will never be realized by me again, I feel as though I was a wanderer in an outcast. But then such thoughts are foolish. Still, I enjoy myself well. I keep such thoughts from my mind as much as possible and have made up my mind to return to those I have left behind. Your advice is all good and appreciated by me. Well Paulina, I should like very well to peep into your maids hall and see you and sister Celia as you sit there thinking and talking of the past. When Harrison makes you a visit, if comes with my horse, see that he does not forget and let him stand hitched to a post all night. Tell Celia that I am glad if she does appreciate my advice and hope that she will follow it and not busy herself too much about my trade, but to tend to her studies, or she will never be admitted to the bar. Also, not to stand in the door nights, as it is injurious to the health. Give her my love.

You may expect some money before a great while as soon as I can get to the City to make arrangements to send it there, being so many of us to go and we have to take our turns in going. But, if I can get any bills, I will rush it in a letter. I do not think I shall be home until the war is ended, as we have to bear our own expenses, and I do not feel able to pay out sixty dollars to go and come.

The Boys are all out on drill and I am alone this afternoon. I must go and drill. I have got a splendid little horse, one that the Captain picked out for me. He is a particular friend of mine.

Now, as I am waiting patiently from my last letter, I will close by subscribing myself as ever, your more than friend.
Enos.

Muster Roll.

15

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos Kenneday
Pvt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for Nov & Dec, 1861.
Present or absent not stated
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ____
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

16

Letter. November 24, 1861.

Washington, November 24th, 1861

Dear and Beloved Paulina,
Yours of the seventeenth came to hand last night while I was eating supper.

Paulina, the moments that I spend in reading that letter were the happiest moments of my life. I feel now as though I had something to live for and may God hasten the day that I may return nevermore to part with you until parted by Death.

Paulina, — and I will do all that is in my power to make you happy and comfortable. I cannot do as much at present as I wish I could. You may expect some money as soon as I can make arrangements to send. We have not drawn any pay yet, but we expect to every day. The Boys have all just started for Church and I am now alone. I wish you could peep into our tent and see the roaring fire which is comfortable as the weather is pretty cold.

Letter. November 28, 1861.

Washington, DC, November 28, 1861

Well Girls,
Tim wants me to write enough to fill up his envelope and as near as I can learn, the Cuss has been writing you a sober letter. Now he is not writing his feelings. If you had of seen him and me last night you would of thought that we never knew what it was to be sober. We were guarding a spring about a half mile from Camp. It is where we get our water, and we have to keep a guard there all the time to keep the Enemy from poisoning it. Well, there we sat, during the night, carrying on as if there were no Sesesh in fifty miles of us. We had a big fire all night so it would not of been very hard for the Enemy to of put a ball through our heads. But, them that knows nothing, fears nothing.

Today is Thanksgiving with us. There was two loads of oysters just come on the ground so you may be sure we will have a time this afternoon. You better come and help us eat them. We get our oysters here in the shell. Oh, what a cracking of shells there will be this afternoon.

I suppose Tim has written all of the news so I will close and go to bed. Maybe you think we don't have beds here. If you do, you are greatly mistaken. We have dug adown in our tent, and made bedsteads and took sack and made us a straw tick as we don't use feathers, and we bought a stove to put in our tent so we are independent. The occupants is as follows:

Tom Brown Hank McKinley
Oliver Kenyon Tim Kenyan Barney McGough Enos Kennedy 
Bent VanDike George Jennings

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Well, I shall have to close and go and give our Negro cooks a blowing up. Please excuse these few hasty remarks and accept my love.

Letter. December 6, 1861.

Washington DC., December 6th, 1861

My Own Paulina,
Yours' of the 28th was received last night, and a welcome messenger it was. I feel in a little different spirits than I did when I last wrote you. Then I was laboring under a considerable pain, but now I am well. Last night I stood guard again at the commissary, and Timmen stood police guard.

Tonight we nearly killed ourselves eating oysters. We cooked two cans of them and eight of us ate them. While the rest of the boys are lounging, I took my writing materials and went to the Captains tent and him and me are writing, he to his wife, and me to you. Know who I am? Glad if you had a good time while Harry was there, but never mind, we will all have a good time when Uncle Sam gets through with us. Oh, how I pity those stove doors and what a time you must have had all to yourself. Tell Celia I can't hardly understand about her knitting baby stockings.

I do not see how she can spare a pint of love for me, in this case in reference to our being drilled. We have not had much drill, but we hold ourselves in readiness for battle at any time, and I should not think it strange if we went into action before four weeks popped over our heads. We have part of our arms and next week, we march into Virginia, there to face the Rebbles. We are ready and willing with the death weapons in our hands to meet the Enemy and try them hilt to hilt. We may never meet them, but once

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there, balls may make us bit the dust. We are fighting for a glorious cause, and should I die on the battlefield, I have faith enough to believe that I shall meet you in heaven.

But enough of this sadness. While sitting here writing, I am interrupted by the noise of a fiddle or a banjo, a shoemaker, a preacher, and card players mixed with the bark of a dog. Oh, what amusement we have here in camp. It is enough to make a cat laugh. Oliver is not very well. He has got a bad cold, but is able to be around and be on duty. The rest of us are well and full of all kinds of mischief, such as stealing out of camp and hunting for vegetables. This afternoon, I went out of camp and chomped on a large cabbage head. Oh, won't I have something to eat tomorrow. I shall play steal away from drill and cook it.

I must now hasten to close. It is getting late. Oh, but for what would I give to be in the place of this letter next Sunday, but that can't be. You may expect some Washington paper once in a while. Hoping to hear from you soon, I will close. I remain, your till death.
To Paulina From Enos.

Letter. December 10, 1861.

Page Image
Page Image

Note that Enos has marked the location of Company A tent, the saddler, and the blacksmith on the etching at the top right of the letter.

Washington, DC., December 10th, 1861

Dearest One,
I just bought this sheet to write a letter to you on and having no place to keep it, I had to sit right down and write. I am well and in good spirits. I am on guard today and tonight. We have not moved yet from our old Camp, but are waiting with all expectation to do so. We are spoiling for something to do.

Well, I have just had a letter handed to me and it is from you. I will open it and read.

Well, I am sorry to see that you should feel so bad just because we are going to move toward the Enemy. We don't feel bad about it, but then I can set you at rest in reference to one morning. I don't believe that we shall move very soon. They are fetching so much feed on the ground for us. The story was yesterday that they were agoing to give our horses to one other regiment, and send us back to Illinois to buy more. But, we don't believe that nor are we willing. We do not wish to return to Illinois till we get our discharge. We have now got most of our arms, so we are nearly ready for war, but I begin to think that we will stay here all winter as the officers are not willing to move. The time is not far distant when you will see the Lodi Boys all home.

Tell Celia to keep on joking you when you are writing, and not feel bad because we are talking of following up our enemies. I hope you will have a good time in Lodi on the Holy Days. You may be sure my thoughts will be there with you.

In reference to anyone being brought home dead from our Camp, is a mistake. There was one of Captain Whitney's men got to sleep while on guard, but he was pardoned. His name was Loey. We have got a little of one pay. Just enough to keep us in postage money. No, I was not aware that Celia and Harry were engaged, but am glad to learn it. So tell her. I would like to give her a brotherly kiss just now, if she has no objections.

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Letter. December 15, 1861.

Camp Illinois, December 15th, 1861

Dear Paulina,
Yours of the eighth is now before me, and with pleasure have I just finished reading it. We have moved within a few miles of the Enemy . We passed through Alexandria, the place where Ellsworth was shot, and we hold ourselves in readiness for fighting any moment. Our arms consists of Sword, Carbine, and Revolver. We are quite a respectable looking lot of soldiers when we are mounted, if I do say it myself.

We are within six miles of Bull Run . The last time I wrote to you, I thought they were agoing to stop in Washington, but we were doomed to be disappointed, but today, we find ourselves in the Enemy's country all right.

I feel very tired today as we were very busy yesterday fixing our tent. We got all the trees that the Sesesh had and built us a house and put our tent up the top of it for the roof. But how long we will remain in it I can't tell, as we shall now be under marching orders until the war closes. Last night, Tim and myself stood horse guard, and today, we were on Pickett duty, and I have stole this time to write to you. The Boys are all in ranks practicing the sword exercise. We are all well and in lip top spirits and are anxious to get after old Jeff Davis, which no doubt we will have an opportunity to do before long.

Paulina, I am of the opinion that the time is not so distant when we can rest from this Negrolie life to live with those we love better than the sword.

As soon as I get this is letter done, I am going to be passed out of camp and take a scout around and see what I can find, as I am getting tired of being cooped up in camp.

Paulina, I can't tell you whether Tim and Eliza are engaged or not, as I can get nothing out of him but devilment, which we are all well stocked with. We never think of war a moment, nor do we care. We have no fear of death. I feel just as contented here as I did in St. Charles. Tell Celia to keep writing. Also, tell her I am proud to have so good looking a sister as she is. Paulina, perhaps — time to move at present, but will make my next one longer and more interesting if possible.

I will draw this to a close. This verse I bought on purpose (verse on the front of the stationary he used). For this from your affectionate
Enos.

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Letter. December 30, 1861.

Camp California, December 30th, 1861

My Dear Paulina,
I have just received yours of the 20th this evening. Happy to hear from again and glad to learn that you spent your Christmas in Lodi. I should like to of been with you of Christmas night, but instead of that I penned up in my tent while you was in the Hall thinking of me. If I was not there, my thoughts were with you until sleep overpowered me. But my thoughts were there the first thing in the morning.

Well, today I received that garment you gave to Harry and if I don't give him as good as he sent, then my name isn't Kennedy. While I am writing this, I suppose you are having great times at the Soiree in Lewis's Hall, at least, I hope so.

I should like to have been there to beat some of you folks playing euchre. Well, I suppose Celia and Harrison are having great times, but just wait till I get back and they will be as mum as they was before I left. You say that you can't see how we enjoy ourselves and be so cheerful. That is very easily explained in these few words: We never think of any danger; we feel as safe here as we would at home. We expect to be in actual service before long, but we have no fear of danger. We may be killed and we may not be. We enjoy ourselves finely by times, but most of the time we have so much to do that we have no time to think of danger. Tonight, we are very busy cleaning up for inspection as tomorrow is General Inspection Day, and if everything is not just so clean, we will catch particular thunder.

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Paulina, I suppose that my parents feel bad about my being in the Army, but then Father can lay part of it to himself. You may think this strange, but it is so, and if I live, you will someday know why. Or ask Eliza and she can tell you. She has always been to me as a sister and she generally knows my secrets. Not, Paulina, that I have any ill will towards him. No, God forbid, but he never used me as he ought to by times, and being of an irritable disposition as it may be, I enlisted under those circumstances, and you are the first one that is ever told thus much. So perhaps, you may think I am severe, but Paulina, you have only to ask Eliza and Mother and you will know the whole thing. Please let no one see this but yourself. I thought you, above all else, should know why I had left my home to fight.

Tell Celia I can cure her lips if she will follow my advice and it is this; not to let them come in contact with Harry's so often. In reference to Eliza and Tim, I had suspected that they were engaged by what he told me one night when him and me were sent out to guard a spring. Well, well, well, did I ever. Harry has spoke for a suit of small clothes already. Tell Celia if she will only let me know what kind she wants, I will send them to her and Harry from the Capitol. Tim is writing to Harry and I expect he is giving fits to him about that garment, but who cares, not Enos. My time will come.

Let me tell you what the Boys of this tent are doing just now. Tim has just finished a letter to Harry and I judge that he is writing one to Eliza. Bent is asleep on the bed, and so is Oliver. Tom Brown is under the Bed and so Chris McGough. Henry is sewing stripes on someone's pants. Barney is cleaning his saber, and George Jennings is just coming in at the door and Enos is sitting by the provision box writing to someone that he would like to be with tonight.

Paulina, I was out of camp the other day with some of the other Boys and we tore down a School house and fetched it home on a wagon to make floors in our tents. It was a Sesesh Schoolhouse. Oh, we have great old times when they give us a chance to go and rally on Sesesh.

Well, I must prepare to close as I am sure you must be tired of reading such nonsense as I have been writing. But please, excuse these few broken sentences as it is next to an impossibility to make sense of anything when you have so many harrum scarrum Boys to bother a fellow when he wants to write. We make it a plan not to let anyone write in comfort in this tent.

I expect to spend my New Years here in Camp. Oh, how I wish if they are agoing to let us fight at all that they would let us do it at once and then go home. Hoping to hear from you soon, I will close. This is from your lover.
E. C. Kennedy.

Direct to Alexandria, Fairfax County, VA

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Piece of Letter. Approximately December, 1861.

...Two in the hospital, one with the fever, and the other got thrown from his Horse while out on dress Parade and was hurt very much...I will draw my letter to a close. Give my love to Celia. This from your affectionate Enos.

1862.

Letter. January 3, 1862.

Camp Call, January 3rd, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
Having just received a letter from you, and having one at hand not yet answered, I embrace these few leisure moments to answer them. I will now note these contents.

I think that you and Eliza must have been on a spree when you wrote the first one, but Paulina, I am glad if you were having a good time at Lodi, and I know that I should enjoy myself if I were there with you. But alas, I am not and may never be.

Paulina, your letters, let them contain what they may. They are joyfully received and read by me. You say in your letter that perhaps I may think you do not think as much of me as you ought by sending such letters to me, and that you are light and frivolous. No Paulina, I entertain no such idea. I am glad if you can enjoy yourself in anyway. That letter was interesting to me, and many a good laugh have I had over it.

If England wages war against the United States, I suppose I shall have to stay my three years out, and I can do it with a better will that I can at present. Then I will not be fighting a brother.

Now, in reference to Harry's enlisting. If he must go into the service, I want him to come and take my place, as it is not right for us both to leave Mother. But he never can stand it six weeks. If he will not take the advice of one who knows, let him go, and he will see that he will wish he had.

It is a pity that Mary and Celia is not old enough to keep from jumping while people are writing. The poor little things. Oh yes, tell Celia I am much obliged to her for those mottoes she sent to me by Eliza, but I can not appreciate them, they was not to the point,

January 4th, 1862
Good Morning. It is now about five o'clock and I must finish this so it will go in the mail this morning. I will now tell you how I enjoyed myself on New Years. I mounted guard in the morning and stood by the road all day watching soldiers as they passed to and from Alexandria. it was the hardest New Years I ever passed through. Often did my thoughts wander back to Lodi during the glorious day, and her, whose picture lays before me while writing this.

Tell Celia her picture is smiling at me, just as though it knew what I was writing to you. Well, I shall have to finish on another sheet. I know you must get tired of reading such nonsensical letters.

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Letter. January 10, 1862.

Camp California, January 10th, 1862

My Own Paulina,
I received yours of the 5th this afternoon while engaged in playing Dominoes and now as I have got supper out of the way and my dishes done up, I sit myself down to answer it.

To begin, I am well and feeling tip top. I am very sorry to learn that Mother is sick, but hope she may soon recover. I am glad you had a good time at the Dances at Lodi. I am sure I should of enjoyed myself with you. I hope you will improve the opportunity to enjoy yourself whenever you have a chance and may the chances come often and be improved.

Paulina, in reference to the question you ask, I would say if you think that you can enjoy yourself and make it a home and be contented, I would say by all means to go. You may be sure that you will be welcome and it has been my wish ever since our engagement that you might go there and live. Paulina, rather than have you go into a shop to work, I will send you every cent of my wages because you never can stand it and then I would rather you would not. I think that before Harry and Celia get married that they had better give up their childish actions and act like men and women. But I suppose they think that they are as wise as anybody. — they think that they have got a good joke on me. Perhaps we had better let them think so for fear of making them sick. I look upon it as mere Tom Foolery why they are throwing away their time with such nonsense (beans?)

And let them see this. To think, too, that Eliza is saying a little too much for her own good. She wrote to Tim in her letter that you had so much about me and got so nervous that Father had to give you some medicine to quiet your nerves so you could sleep. Now, I would say to her, she need never fret about Tim as I heard him say today that he never saw the Girl yet that he would marry so her chance is slim. And I am not sure, but that Tim has fell in Love with some of these Southern Ladies. He has considerable to say about them. Also, ask her if she has forgot red head and the time that she and him blacked up Mother's tablecloth with the snuffers.

But then, there is poor little Celia. If she can't stand to ring out a few clothes without making her hands rough, what will she do in days to come. The poor little Duck! Make her some gruel and soak her feet and put her to bed for fear she may go crazy. Tell them for me, if they don't dry up, I will make them break from the right to the rear to march to the left in double quick time.

Tell her that she need not feel so nice because her fellow has not gone to war, but to just wait until the soldiers return from war and she will say Oh How I wish Harry was a soldier, how nice they do look, just look at them. Please tell her that she need not fret about keeping late hours when I return, but tell her to learn Harry to follow his file leader.

Last night we had a dance in camp. Bent was my partner. We had a good dance and a good time. Us soldiers has some gay old times once in awhile. The boys are trying to bother me so I can't write, but never mind, I will pay them back if I am able, don't you see. Today we made our Captain a present of a sword which cost us seventy dollars. It made him feel as though the boys thought something and they do. He says that no Secesh can have that sword and they cannot as long as the Boys of Company A has one drop of blood left in their veins. Oh, we begin to feel bloodthirsty. We shall soon make a charge on something if it is nothing more than a mud turtle.

I will now turn over and write something on the other side. You can see by this what a nice Camp we have. It is marked A. Oh yes, Harris wrote to me and wanted to know what was in that letter that him and Celia wanted to see, and I told him to find out by his learning. He said he wanted to know so as to carry on a joke, I hope they won't fret themselves sick trying to find out.

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Enclosed, please find one dollar. I would send more, but this is all the bill I can get in Camp, but will send more in future. Also find a portrait of General McClellan. Paulina, keep a stiff upper lip and enjoy yourself Friday. Timmen, Oliver and myself are agoing to the City on a spree as we have been cooped up here so long. You may be sure we will feel like a bird set free from its cage. Oh, how we will fly. Well, I must close, hoping to hear from you often. Remember, you can't write too often. Give my respect to Celia, and accept abundance of love from me. No more at present from your devoted. E.C. Kennedy.

Letter. January 16, 1862.

Camp California, January 16th, 1862

My Own Paulina,
I just received yours of the ninth, and hasten to reply. Oh that I might be permitted to return home so I could be beside my Mother in her sick hours, but it cannot be. I must be content only to hear from her, and Paulina, I ask as a favor that you will write often. You know not what my feelings have been since I first heard of her sickness. Perhaps I may never be permitted to see her again myself, and then I shall blame myself. I am glad to hear that the rest of you are all well. As for me, I've never enjoyed better health in my life then I have since I have been in the army. I am sure Father would be glad to see me come back again. And you need not be surprised to see me walk in some morning about breakfast time and the day is not far distant. We have enough to do, that is certain, but within the last week, it has been such bad weather that we have not been very busy. But today is so pleasant that we are agoing to drill again.

Tell Eliza she might as well give up that saw, for Tim is only fooling her. Oh Paulina, never entertain the idea that we shall never meet again, for it cannot be, or at least, I hope not.

I hope that the wedding may come off, as it will only make Harry contented and stay at home. But I must stop till after drill, then I will finish.

Well, here I am again. Our drill proved to be a scout. We had a great time going through the woods. We ran horses through the woods as fast as they could go in every direction. Some of them got scratched. Tim for one got his face scratched all over. Tell Eliza that Tim is wounded. Tell Harry and Celia that I will save my old clothes for them as they can be made smaller, but my boots, they cannot make them over, but maybe, Harry can wear them. Tell them never to govern their children by the Almanac. Tim says he's agoing to govern his in a military light, don't you see.

Paulina, your letters are all interesting but it would be far more interesting to me to help you write some of them. There is no news of any importance in Camp at present. Paulina, if you will only write twice as often while Mother is sick, I will give you permission to scold me as much as you please. And in fact, you may scold anyway.

Well, I can think of nothing more of importance to write. My motto is "Aut Conquer Mori", and with these few lines, I will close in return for your kiss. I send you two. This from your ever faithful
Enos

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Piece of Letter. Approximately January 18, 1861

Tell Celia to have faith and patience for I am in a difficult study and tell Eliza there is but very little hope for her. I've just been having lots of fun. Bob Gardner came here for the Captain to give him a pass to go uptown. The Captain not being here, I wrote one for him and away he went. You see, my pass is not good. It may get the Boy in the guard house. We are up to all deviltry, but we have to have fun in some shape if it is to the expense of some of the boys.

I will now draw this to a close, and drop Harrison a few line. Write often and long. You can't imagine what comfort it is to me to sit and read your letter when alone. In return for that kiss, I send you three and hoping to hear from you soon, I will subscribe myself, as ever, your affectionate, E.C. Kennedy.

Letter. January 20, 1862.

Camp California, January 20th, 1862

Dearest and Beloved Paulina,
Yours of the 15th found its way to my tent about ten moments ago, and after perusing its contents twice, I sit down with a heavy heart and a trembling hand to answer it. I am again enjoying good health, one of Gods best gifts. Paulina, if I could only be permitted to visit the sick bed of my Mother and watch by her during her sickness, then could again return to my duty. I know she has the best of care, but then the thought that perhaps I may have met her on Earth for the last time. Oh, can it be? Must it be? Gods Will be done.

Paulina, never for a moment entertain the idea that this regiment will be dismissed from the service until the war is ended, for it will build your hopes upon a rotten foundation. We are too well armed and drilled to be discharged, and in reference to the South settling this war, you may rest assured that they never will settle it. Only by the sword, and the day is not far distant when we shall commence the settlement.

We are expecting orders every day to march on to Manassas to attack them. It is one of the strongest fortifications that the Rebbles have, and God only knows whether we will be able to stand their fire or not. I never wish to be dismissed from the service until the war is ended, but I am afraid our discharge will come from the Rebbles guns.

Paulina, I think it would be the best thing you could do to stay in Lodi. Everyone must look to their own interest. I know that it is the wish of my parents that you should stay there, as well as mine. If Celia is agoing to be so lonesome, I would advise her to immigrate to a different state at once.

Tim is certainly crazy and he is to be excused for the stuff that he writes, for he is calling every child he meets in Camp his son, and even talk love to Eliza in his sleep and will yell out to her to "forward guide left" and last night he jumped up in his sleep and throwed his arms around Oliver and commenced calling Eliza's name.

Oh but we have mud. A plenty of it has got so deep that we have got to stand guard mounted on horseback! It has been raining all day. Tomorrow comes my turn to stand guard.

I have not heard from Benton since he was taken from our tent. He is in the hospital in Alexandria. We have only two hundred and fifty-six of the sick ones. We have not one Officer in our company that is able to do duty, and it is a wonder that the whole Regiment isn't sick. Such a God Forsaken hole as it is.

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But, I must close, hoping soon to return. When I can tell you my thoughts by the word of mouth, then will I be happy and contented. Write often. This from one that has his thoughts always upon you and wishing to be with you. From one that will prove true while life remains.
E.C. Kennedy.

Well, I've just come in from Carbine drill and I will finish this. We are not having quite as much excitement here in the City as when I wrote last. The Cesh have got scared out. Yesterday, our company had to attend the funeral of Lieutenant Blanchard. He was our second Lieutenant. His father was here to take care of him during his sickness. He leaves a wife to mourn his loss. They were married the Friday before we left St. Charles. The health of our Regiment is better since we came into the City.

Paulina, I am happy to learn that you are agoing back to Lodi, for I am sure you can enjoy yourself better there than in Elgin.

I hope you will excuse this heterogenenous stuff, for the Boys has been making such a fuss that I have got it all mixed up so that I can hardly make it out myself. I received those things that our folks sent by the Chaplain yesterday. Enclosed please find a piece of something which I got in a house near the Rebel Pickets — the same house where the Girls were. When I picked it up I told the Girls that I should send it to my Woman as a specimen of Southern Gold. Well I must close and get supper as it will take me home for I have got to bake alot of buckwheat cakes for supper. Write often, and I will write as often as I can. This from your devoted Enos.

Direct you letter in Care of Captain Forsyth.

Letter. January 25, 1862.

Camp California, January 25th, 1862

Dear and Beloved Paulina,
Being the only occupant of our tent, and somewhat lonesome, I knew of no way to enjoy myself then by writing to you. Yesterday, we had orders to pack up and march to Alexandria, and when we were already, the order came to unpack, so we had our trouble for nothing. But this morning, while we were all busy playing cards, the order came to pack up again and be ready to march, leaving one man in each tent. It fell on me to stay and a lonesome time I'm having. Our Regiment will stay in Alexandria until the weather is fit for us to march on to attack the Enemy, and then we may not be called on.

Paulina, it is very difficult for me to write, as I have only the use of one eye, the other being swelled shut by a boil that is on my temple which pains me very much. We have had hard times for the last three weeks in the mud. We could not move out of our tents without getting into mud over ankles and our

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horses had nothing but mud holes to stand in. But, we have got good stables for our horses and houses for ourselves in Alexandria.

Paulina, I would advise everyone who thinks that the soldiers have a good time to just come and try it. Just look at it for a moment. It is true we enjoy ourselves at times, but what is that enjoyment to a comfortable home where you are at liberty to roam as you please and have good society to mingle with. And when he is sick and afflicted, he has kind friends (to care for) his aching head, while here, he is ushered off to the hospital to get treatment as is generally got my strangers, although I must say we get better care when sick then any other Regiment that I know of. We have the best of medical aid and great nursing.

Paulina, it seems to be as though the people are wild in the State. There whole cry is for us to rush at once on to the Enemy. All I have to say is just let them come and take the musket and we will go with them to Manassas. But no, they dare not. All they wish is to see us slaughtered like sheep. If they will only keep their mouths shut, the victory will be ours, but with little loss of life.

General McClellan knows how to prosecute the war better then those cowardly abolitionists of the North. It makes me angry to see them sitting there at home by their firesides, and saying, "Why don't they rush our men to the muzzle of the cannon?". Oh consistency.

Paulina, I sent ten dollars to Harrison. Five of it was for you, which he will give to you when he receives it, and you may expect more next payday. Oh yes, I wish you would let me know how George Jennings' wife gets along, and who doctored her when she was sick. He is a poor miserable man. He spends his money foolishly, and I have an idea that his wife is in want by what I can hear. Please let me know the particulars.

We have some over three hundred sick at present, and quite a number has died. Everyday last week we heard the death march played as the body of some poor fellow was taken from our Camp. But I think that we shan't have as much sickness now since we have got out of this mud. Benton is getting better.

Paulina, I must draw this to a close before I am ready as the word is for me to pack up and go to Alexandria. After we get settled again, I will try and write you all the particulars. Also, I will try to make it a little more interesting. Tell Eliza to keep a stiff upper lip and hope for the best. Also, ask Liza how she likes the scripture. Write often and tell me all the news. Yes, my respects to all. More at present except my love. This from you own dear
Enos.

Well Paulina, a few words more. The order is countermanded and I have to stay here all night. Captain Jennings' little boy is all the company I have. I was at the Captains all evening, and I had a good visit with Mrs. Jennings, and when I got ready to come away, she made me some tea, but I did not get.

Tell Eliza that Tim is constantly singing these verses:
Once I kissed Eliza Kennedy
Beneath the Doctors tree.
Once I kissed Eliza's mouth
And she promised to marry me.

Paulina, I should think that those children would get tired of writing about us. Well, as it is getting to be about eleven o'clock, I must prepare to retire and wishing you a good night sleep and pleasant dreams. I will bid you good-bye for a short time.
Enos

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Letter. January 30, 1862.

Alexandria, January 30th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
I received your welcome letter of the sixteenth in due time but this is the first time I could get to answer. I am well and in good health. We are now living in the City in a three story house built of brick . Our room is on the third floor and it is well furnished. We have two bureaus, two bookcases, one fall leaf stand, one wash stand, one stand with marble top which I am writing on. We have three splint bottomed chairs and I have a rocking chair. We have a good stove and three mattresses, and one large looking glass. The house was occupied by slaves. Their Master and Mistress ran away to Richmond when the war broke out, so we drove the Black Devils out and took possession of it ourselves. We are having just the best times you ever saw, but how long it will last I can't say. Yesterday, I was detailed to go into the Hospital to work . I went up and stayed over night and in the morning I told the Doctor that is was no good place for me, so I mounted my horse and rode back to town where I have spent the day on patrol through the streets.

I think that I can beat you or father playing war, but then that game is too common for soldiers. We play poker. I think that one look at Eliza's smiling face would vomit instead of —. My advice to her and Tim would be to keep quiet and not have quite so much to say about us (their betters).

January 31st, 1862
Good Morning. I hope you had pleasant dreams last night. Today we have to clean up all of our arms for inspection. Paulina, we have conquered in getting a Captain, so you can direct your letters after this in care of Captain Beach, Dick Van Vlack is our second Lieutenant.

Well my dear, I must make this short and away to duty. Tell Harrison if he hasn't time to write that I will get him an excuse.

Paulina, you may think that some of my letters are gloomy, but always write just as I feel whenever I feel down-hearted. I know my letters are not worth reading sometimes. I feel as though I should never return. I would like soldiering if it were not for Mother and you, but the thought that I have perhaps parted with you forever is more that I can stand, but enough of this. Write often. This from you loving.
Enos

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Letter. February 5, 1862.

Alexandria, February 5th, 1862

Dear Paulina,
Your most welcome letter of the 28th came to hand yesterday while I was on Guard at the House watching Prisoners, and it was read with pleasure while walking my beat. Oh, Paulina, I wish Mother would not feel so bad about me. I am doing well and have no fear of war. I have great faith of returning by the First of May, and Paulina, I ask as a favor that you will stay with her and comfort her and whenever you want money, you shall have it. Don't be afraid to let it be known and look upon me as your provider.

Paulina, you and Eliza ought lo go to all the dances and enjoy yourselves. Never mind us poor privates here in Alexandria. We are doing well. You say it makes you angry every time you think of this War. Oh, wouldn't I like to see you when you are angry. You must look awful savage. And, for us being kept here until we are all laid in our graves, never will be. Yes, it is music to us to hear the roar of the cannon, it being the only music we have to dance by. Oh, Paulina, you would look well sharing a soldier's life. You would live just about two weeks. No, you are doing your share and may God hasten the day that I shall return to claim one who is more than worthy of my love.

You spoke about you Girls getting quite sober of late. What do you wish me to understand by it? That you are sad or that you are sober for want of something to drink? You must not feel sad. Cheer up and enjoy yourself for the time is coming when us Boys will again make old Lodi ring with our merry voices. Paulina, I can't think that I was naughty for not answering Miss Bennetts' Letters.

Well, I have been out on Dress Parade this afternoon, and now I will finish this letter, Tom Brown, Barney Henry, Chris McGough and myself hired a Negro woman to cook our vitals. We pay twenty-five cents a week. Oh, don't we enjoy it. To once more sit down to a table. They was a Negro woman just came into our room with apple dumplings and didn't I eat an awful big one. Oh, by gracious, what a lot of black people there is in this place.

Tell Celia I have got a gay of my own so I can go home when I please. Tell Eliza that I feel sorry for her. Tell Harry he had better stay at home and raise an Infantry Company. There, I have just lit my pipe. Tell Mother to lite hers and we will have a smoke. Barney is laying on the mattress and he says to give the Girls his respects. Benton is getting better. He has quit taking medicine and will be with us in a few days. Isn't that good news? I look upon Bent as a tip top Boy.

(to be continued)

Will endeavor to say a few words more before closing. First, I will tell you what Uncle Sam has given us since we have been in the Service. He has given us two pairs of Pants, two pairs of socks, two shirts, two pair of drawers, one hat, one box, one coat, one blouse, two blankets, one pair boots and has let us a horse saddle, bridle, sword, carbine, and revolver, which we will make good use of. Our house is but a few doors from the House where Ellsworth was shot and the flag that he planted there is yet waving over the House, and woe lo the Rebel that dares to take it down.

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I am just now alone in my room, the Boys all being down below in the large room listening to one of our number who is playing the violin. And I shouldn't wonder if by the noise that they were dancing, Paulina, if you were here now, what a nice visit we would have, but I hope, yes hope, that we may all soon return home. Hope sometimes, hope singeth so plaintively "tis like despair, her smile can make dull melancholy grow transparent to the secret hope below".

I see by today's paper that we have gained a glorious victory in taking Fort Henry. As I can think of nothing else to write, I will close and spend the balance of the evening in reading. So, bidding kind good night, I will close by sending you all a kiss apiece.
Enos

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Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Pvt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for Jan & Feb, 1862.
Present or absent present
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ______
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

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Old Town Alexandria.

Page Image

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#75 Duke Street, Alexandria.

Approximately January 30, 1862, the 8th Ill. Reg. was quartered in nice homes abandoned by residents who sympathized with the Confederates and had fled south. Homes were only a couple of years old at the time. They were built on land which had been newly created by pushing earth from upper slopes of Alexandria down toward the Potomac River. #75 Duke Street is on the first block of Duke Street toward the waterfront.

Duke Street, Alexandria.

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Letter. February 14, 1862.

ALEXANDRIA, February 14, 1862

Dear Paulina,
I received your most welcome letter of the 6th yesterday, and with joy was it received and perused. When I wrote to Harry, I told him that we were agoing on a grand scouting expedition, but owing to the excitement, it was given up. We are having some pretty hot times here in the City hunting out the Secesh and raising the Stars and Stripes over their Houses.

General Montgomery said yesterday that he would have the first man arrested who attempted to raise another Flag, the old teaster. But he can't scare us Illinois Boys. We will raise the Stars and Stripes over the Secesh Houses if we have to do it at the point of our Sabers.

Last evening we had quite an exciting time. We had orders to leave the City in just one hour from General Montgomery. We had to run over the City to get our washing, then we had to pack up and got to our Stables and saddle, which we did inside of one hour. We marched about four miles to General Summers Headquarters where we had orders to march back to the City and hold ourselves in readiness for a march at any moment and we kept our things packed, ready to start at a moments warning. Where, we know not, but perhaps towards the Enemy. We have just got orders to fold our overcoats and be in readiness to escort General Summer to his Headquarters so good bye till we return, when I will give you all the news I can find out and more too.

February 15, 1862

Paulina, I will now endeavor to finish this letter. We had quite a gay time yesterday in escorting our General to his Headquarters. And this afternoon we have been scrubbing our rooms and making things look nice. I think that we shall stay here in Alexandria until pleasant weather comes. We are getting awful sorry of late. We enlisted to fight for our country, not to be abused, and I guess they are beginning to find it out. We have a big name all along the Potomac, but the Secesh are all down on us. They hate us worse then they do all the rest of the Regiments that are here, and God knows they have cause too, for we make everyone of them hunt their habs. We show them no mercy, but woe unto us if we are ever taken prisoner by them. We are known in the South to be bloodthirsty, but we will all die to a man before we will ever be taken. We still continue to hunt them up here in this City and raise the Stars and Stripes over their heads.

The Boys are making such a noise that it is impossible to write anything worth reading, but I hope you will look over this letter, and I will endeavor to make sense of the rest.

Paulina, we can't see these Southern Ladies. They ain't the style for us Northern Boys. They are too aristocratic. All they know is to flirt.

Near or far forever more
Know that I till will be
In life or death weal or woe
As true as now to thee.

When the dear loves that crown thy life
Their holiest tendrils twine
I know of one sweet inner room
No hand unlocks but thine.

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I must now close and let Oliver write. I suppose he is going to write to some girl. The more I get acquainted with Oliver the better I like him. Tim say tell them he has just got the dishes washed up and is as mad as hell. He says that he wants one of you to come here immediately to keep house for him. I suppose he means Eliza. I can think of no more at present so goodby this from your affectionate Enos.

Letter. February 19, 1862.

Alexandria, February 19th, 1862

My Dear Paulina,
Yours of the 12th came to hand yesterday, and with pleasure did I peruse its welcome contents, and now I hasten to reply. Since writing to you last, I have been out on a two day scout and what a time we had. It rained all the time we was gone. The first day we done but little, and at night, we slept in a house made of pine limbs and of all the time you ever saw, we had that night. We hollered and yelled at night and at daylight, we were in our saddles and scouring the country in search of Rebbles and we drove in some of their Pickets and took one prisoner and two guns and then returned home . And in twelve days, we go again. We were at Pohick Church. It was built in 1776, and was then called Washington Church.

My dear, I think the war is nearly at a close. We begin to feel as though we were nearly out of prison. Paulina, I am glad that you do not wait to receive a letter from me before writing. I am happy to hear from you at any time. I have but very little time for writing at present, as we are busy nearly all the time. We are intending, if the weather ever comes pleasant, to clean out the Rebbles in this part of the country and then return home. Cheer up and drive away sad thoughts, for the time is coming when we shall enjoy ourselves. Better than in times gone by. Always write just as you feel, as sad thoughts are my feeling part of the time. But of lately, I begin to feel tip top. I should have liked to be with you to some of the spelling schools with you, for I am a great hand to attend such places.

Oh Paulina, what a jolly time I did have with the Southern girls when I was out scouting. They sent me to search a house, and when I got there, I found three girls there. I asked them if there was any men about the house, and they said no. But I was not satisfied, so I went to searching the house, and you ought to have seen them girls watch me and when I got through, they asked me if I could not believe them, and I told them that I could believe no Southern people, whether male or female. And then they commenced to abuse me, so I walked up to one of them and told her that she must go with me and then you ought to have seen her beg to a Yankee, as she called me, to let her stay at home. She promised never to insult a Northern man again, so I left her and put up the balance of the company and told them the fun when I thought they would die laughing.

Yes Paulina, the art of writing is one of the best gifts ever bestowed upon the human race. By the means of it, we can communicate to each other though we are hundred of miles apart. Ah, what a blessing.

I would like to know if it is not enough to make anyone feel grand to have good sleeping places and marble topped stands to write on after lying in the mud until we were nearly dead. Paulina, never entertain for a moment that I get tired of reading your letters. They always bring something to cheer me in my lonely moments.

I think Harry must have been a little crazy when he wrote. We have three or four men who do get drunk occasionally, but there has been a stop put to that. Paulina, you wished to know the feeling that exists between Tim and myself. We have had some difficulty, but it was caused by his getting drunk and trying to impose upon me. I bore it as long as I could when I grabbed the young man, and had it not been for Oliver, I might have done what I should of been sorry for. But, it is passed, and we are friends again. But

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Paulina, he is not the man I took him to be when I first became acquainted with him. He is very careless and provoking and self-willed. I hope you will take no offense at what I have said.

I wish you could seat yourself in my rocking chair, and pass away a few hours as pleasantly as (torn) were passed the last time that you were in Lodi.

I met with quite a loss the other day while out on drill. My revolver came loose from my belt, and I lost it. It will cost me between thirty and forty dollars.

We did not get Beach for our Captain as we expected to, but got one that suits us better. His name is Forsyth. He is from Chicago. I guess it will puzzle you some before you get this letter read, as it is written in haste as we are busy now all the time. And for fear you cannot read it, I will prepare to close and if you fail to read it, lay it away until I return, when I will read it for you.

Received a letter from Harry yesterday, and he said you had gone to Elgin. I hope you will return to Lodi where you can enjoy yourself. You ought to look to your own interest before anyone else. Hoping to hear from you soon, I will close this. From one that will prove true while life remains.
Enos.

Letter. February 22, 1862.

Alexandria, February 22nd, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
Having a few moments to spare, I will spend it in writing to you as it shall be the last chance I shall get before the middle of next week. This morning the bugle sounded at quarter to four for us to fall out and prepare ourselves for a fight as we expected the Enemy was agoing to attack us. And at six o'clock, we were marching from the city with the expectations of a bloody fight. We marched to our line of Pickets where we were kept with a regiment of infantry as a reserve. We were drew up in a line of battle where we remained during the day waiting patiently for a chance to wield the saber. But we were doomed to be disappointed as the Enemy dare not show themselves, and at sundown, we again turned our heads for the city. And as we were leaving the field, the thought occurred to my mind if we had of had a battle, how many of us would of been living and who would they be. Paulina, if you had of seen and heard the loud hurrahs that rang from our throats on the announcement that we were to be engaged in actual service, you

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would have thought that we delighted in taking the life of our fellow beings. Tomorrow morning, we again leave the city to be gone three days. That is our company; we go to stand picket guard and scout, and I am now cooking provisions to take with us. Ah, that we could be doing something all the time. It is much pleasanter than to lay around our quarters doing nothing. Paulina, our Regiment will never be exposed to much danger. We are kept as a reserve. We have the name of being the best Cavalry regiment in the service, and the Old General gives us the easiest part. Don't you see, that is what is the matter.

It is now nine o'clock at night and the Boys are at the stable making preparations for tomorrow, while I am cooking. Won't I be glad when I get home so I can have someone to do my cooking for me. Ah, Home, how sweet is the name and may God prolong my days so that I can again enjoy the comfort of a home, especially one of my own (there, there). I have just took a drink of whiskey, which the Boys put into the room. Don't tell anyone will you. Well my dear, what do you think of the Illinois Boys now? Can't they fight! Just look at Fort Donelson. Didn't they fight there. Well, I must close and I have a good deal to do before going to bed and when I return again, I will tell you our exploits. Write often, I will close by enclosing you a half dozen kisses. This is from your devoted.
Enos.

Letter. February 25, 1862.

Alexandria, February 25th, 1862

My Own Paulina,
In my haste to get ready for scouting, I forgot to send my letter and on returning I found two from you, so I thought I would answer them and send it all together. I will now answer the first one.

I am still of the opinion that I shall see Illinois in May. While you was writing this letter, I was scouting within half a mile of the Rebel Pickets and while Celia was popping corn, I was trying to pop Rebbles. Tell her she had better read the Bible. If I was in Illinois, I should advise you to sit up nights and keep a fire rather than freeze and I would help you.

You better not get too sober, especially because we are exposed to a little danger. We begin to enjoy ourselves finely. I have quit letting black women cook for me and tell Celia it does not soil my hands to cook neither.

Now for the second letter. I am sorry to learn that you are not enjoying good health and hope to hear in the next that you are well again. Ah, how my heart aches to see how many lives have been lost just to please a few Abolitionists.

But now for something else. Last Sabbath morning, we started for the Pickets Lines. We had our Horses loaded with hay and oats and blankets, topped off with ourselves. When we arrived at the spot, we unpacked and hitched our horses and built a large fire and went to cooking our dinner. Then we sent eight men on Pickett and the rest of us kept our horses saddled, ready for action any moment, there we stayed all day, raising thunder and at night, we went to an old barn and slept. The next day, we stood Pickett till noon when we went out scouting and the wind blew so that we could hardly sit on our horses, and at night, we went again to the old barn where we liked to froze to death. But we just raised particular thunder till morning when we stood Pickett till ten o'clock when we started for home. And we have been busy all day and tomorrow we have to be ready for inspection at nine so we are kept busy all the time.

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Now my dear Paulina, it is getting late and I must close. I will try and write oftener after this as we shall not be so busy after this. Oh, yes, we had a gay old dance here tonight. I done the calling and Bob Gardner done the fiddling, and yes, we have just got the best Captain in the Regiment.

No more at present. This from your devoted
Enos.

Letter. March 4, 1862.

Alexandria, March 4th, 1862

Dear and Beloved Paulina,
Not receiving a letter from you for over a week, I thought I would improve the present opportunity in trying to find out what the reason can be. Anxiously have I watched the mail for the last week, but it brought no news from you and today, when they announced that there was nothing for me in the mail, I turned away with a downcast head thinking that perhaps you were sick and suffering. If that should be the case, get someone to write and let me know it for I have come to that pitch that I can bare anything. But, I hope that in my anxiety to hear from you that I am mistaken.

Yesterday, we extended our Pickett six miles nearer the Enemy so you see, we are gaining a little on them and next Friday, our Company goes out on Pickett again. We are now under marching orders. We have everything packed ready to march at a moment's warning. We have got to have a Battle here and the sooner the better, but when it will be we know not. We may be ordered out tonight or tomorrow or in two weeks, or perhaps, never. We know nothing about it. We do know that we are under marching orders.

But take it altogether, we are having nice times. The Boys are most all down below, dancing and have nice times. Last night, the Union Ladies of this City presented our Regiment with a flag worth fifty dollars, so you see that there is still a little Patriotism existing in the South.

Paulina, soldiering is poor business in bad weather, but it will do very well when it is nice, pleasant weather, but we have not seen any for a long time. As we are not doing much at present, I cannot find any news to write. We have been very busy for the last two weeks.

Tell Mother I should like to hear from her and Father. Tell Celia, or I should say, Sister Celia, that she can have something to say if she wishes. I wrote to Eliza so I suppose she will say something. Not having time to write anymore, I must close this from one that will ever prove true.

Accept a kiss or two, so good night.
Enos

Letter. March 7, 1862.

Alexandria, March 7th, 1862

My Only Dear,
Yours of March 1st I received today, and gladly did I break the seal and peruse its contents. I was glad to hear that you were gaining. I feel exceedingly glad that you are where you will have good care. How much better it is when one is sick to be in a private family than it is to be tucked in a hospital with four or five hundred, there to get such care as falls to your lot. I should like to have been there to of enjoyed

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myself with those young Kennedy's. But I would rather be there to speak words of comfort and bathe your burning temples, then to be here filing sabers for the purpose of butchering human beings with. Yes, it would be far pleasanter to me. I am getting tired of fire arms. It is pleasant to think that the war will soon be over, but it will be pleasanter if it only proves true. I can't think that is wrong to have pleasant thoughts. If they never come true Paulina, never let the thoughts trouble you that I shall not be permitted to return. You know that time can ease all great troubles. But then, I know your feelings by my own. Oh that I were at liberty to return, and with you, live a happy life. If I should be spared to return, I shall then be happy with you.

Tomorrow our company goes out to Fairfax on a scout. We shall stay out five days. We are all very busy getting ready, for we have to be in our saddles at half past six in the morning. It may be that we shall see a little fighting before we get back. We are going for that purpose, providing we can meet any of them. We want to get Company A's name up as a fighting company, don't you see.

Tell Eliza if her teeth bothers her much, to have them extracted, as it will preserve Tim's face if he ever returns. And as far as her face bothering her, no wonder, it is so confoundedly ugly, it can't help but bother her!

Paulina, keep a good cheer, for there is a good time coming. Oh yes, I had a first rate visit today with a preacher's wife from New York. She was out here to see her Husband who is a Chaplain in a regiment here. It seemed like old times to sit and chat once more with someone besides a soldier. Well, I must prepare for tomorrow. Write as soon as possible and I will close with kiss. This from your affectionate and devoted.
Enos.

Letter. March 14, 1862.

Bull Run, March 14th, 1862

Dear Paulina,
With the greatest of pleasure did I receive yours of the fifth while on the march to this place. Eagerly did I tear it open and read its contents, thinking that perhaps you might be worse but were gaining. Paulina, were I back there, never would I wish to leave you and return to the army again.

I will now answer that question about Tim losing his money. His money was stole from him and I think I know who stole it, but I will mention no names at present for the one that got it is known (to) you all.

Well Paulina, the next time you go to rehearse your pieces, don't think of me, for we are having gay times after the Enemy. Tell Eliza that I saw those lies that she sent Tim about me, and will answer them as soon as I can find time, but I think that if she had persevered, that she might of had truth learned by this time.

But I will now give you a slight description of our march this far . Last Sunday morning, our company was ordered out on a Pickett and on Monday, the Army of the Potomac commenced to advance on the Enemy, taking our company as the advance guard. The first day, we marched eight miles to Brimstone Hill, and the next day, we went three miles and our company was first on Pickett for the night. And the next day, we came here to Bull Run, where we are now camped. We have the best of times. We take what we want from the Sesesh. We go into their yards and shoot hogs and cattle and go into their houses and take what we want and tell them to charge it to the government. The Enemy have all left here in wild confusion, leaving their tents, provision wagons, and everything behind, making a worse stampede that was made at Bull Run. They has got scared and where they will stop, we know not, and how long we shall be here, I cannot tell. But I am in hopes that they will let us follow on after them. Oh, it is fun for

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us, but death for them. Hurrah! If they were not cowards, they would never have left the place that we are in now. We have got possession of Manassas and everything around it. You can tell the people there how they mount their Forts. I visited one today that was mounted with logs painted, so they looked like cannons, but they can't scare us with their toys. We have got possession of everything here without firing a gun.

Dear Paulina, don't entertain the idea that we are down hearted. For a better feeling set of Boys you never did see. We are having the gayest of times just — yourselves, for it is the joyest kind of fun to chase those Rebbles. We get from five to ten prisoners everyday, also horses and mules. Yesterday, I went to an old Sesesh house and knocked on his door, took two horses, and fetched them into Camp.

...Well, I think this sheet will finish my writing for today. I am also getting hungry and all I have got to eat is a dry, hard cracker and cup of cold water. We are pretty hard up just now for eating.

I begin too lose my Patriotism again. I will you would come and do some washing for me for my clothes are all dirty and I have no time to wash. I can't see any prospect of our getting any pay very soon. I have eight months pay due me. Well, I can think of no more to write.

Give my respects to all. Write often and drink a good strong cup of tea for me. Hoping to hear from you often, I will close by subscribing myself, as ever, your true and loving husband. E.C. Kennedy.

A Kiss.

Bye Bye my Child, it is hard to part
With one that is so near my heart
Your Country will you must obey
I think we will meet another day

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Letter. March 17, 1862.

Fairfax Station, March 17th, 1862

Dear Paulina,
Again will endeavor to write you a few lines. We are now encamped within four miles of Bull Run. The talk now is that we shall go back to Alexandria and take the river to Norfolk, I hope it is true. Night before last, we laid out in the mud and it rained, thundered and lightning all night. You ought to see our houses. They are made of our saddle blankets and sticks. They are nice houses. We have got the best captain in the branch. He lays in the dirt with us. Oh, we are a happy set of Boys right from Illinois. I am sitting on the ground with my back against a tree while I am writing this letter. It would be quite a site for you to see us here in the woods and to hear us holler whenever we get orders to move, especially if it is orders to move towards the Enemy. We are all anxious to pitch into them. We expected a fight long before this, but they ran, so we could not get a chance at them. Tell Harrison not to enlist, but go the Pennsylvania if he must go anywhere, for this is no place for him. Tell Mother I am well and hardy and shall live as long as government provides plenty of short iron crackers for me. Tell Father I can just knock the socks off him playing euchre. Tell Celia and Eliza to hurry up and learn their catholic prayer. I hope, dear Paulina, you will excuse these few broken lines, for as we are doing nothing of any account, I can think of nothing to write. Only to let you know where we are, and that we are alive. Boys from Lodi are all enjoying well health.

Paulina, if we should be so lucky to go down south with Burnside, I will write you a good long letter before starting, as it will be sometime after we start before you will hear from us, but then we are not sure of going. Well, I will close, for I guess it will take you sometime to make this out.

Write long and often.
From your loving Enos.

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Letter. March 22, 1862.

Alexandria, March 22nd, 1862

My Dear and Beloved Paulina,
Your most welcome letter came to hand this morning, and caught me in bed, and gladly did I receive it and peruse its contents before getting up. And the reason that I was so late in getting up this morning was that I have been quite unwell for the last three or four days, and came back here to the city to recoup a little bit, but I shall return to the Regiment again on Monday, as I am now able for duty again.

You people there in Illinois seem to think that we are in danger out here, but I guess you are laboring under a mistake, for I can't see it. Why, Lord Bless your dear soul, if you could see the way the Rebbles ran here from Manassas you wouldn't think there was any danger unless it was in breaking your neck running after them. They begin to think that the damn Yankees, as they call us, are a little too much for them. I don't doubt that you all wish that I was back with you, but you know the old saying is that a bad penny will return, so look out, for I am coming.

You say that you don't hear from me half often enough. Paulina, I would write a great deal oftener, but we are marching from one place to another so that we cannot get our letters to the office. We may be in one place today, and tomorrow, we could be ten miles from there.

Paulina, I concur with your remarks in reference to our happiness if I am ever permitted to return. Oh yes, I heard all about our being married at St. Charles some time ago, but just ask them to be patient until my return, when we will show them a nice trick, as the Pink Eye and Miss Sheldon did.

Well Paulina, the stories that you have heard in reference to our not having to fight is so true. We have been twenty-five miles beyond Manassas, and saw no one who wanted to get into a mess, and I think before long, we will step down to Richmond and see if we can raise a row there. You see, we must kick up some kind of rumpus before coming home or else we shan't get our pay for coming out here.

Oh, If I had them all in a bag, wouldn't I make them squeal. The most of us out here begin to feel the truth of the following: "Now is the winter of our discontent", a thousand miles from home and not a cent. I will now draw this to a close until morning, as it is now twelve o'clock, and my light is most out, so goodnight.

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March 23, 1862
Good Morning Paulina,

I have just now got out of bed, and I will endeavor to finish this letter before breakfast. I had one of the gayest old dreams last night you ever heard of and it was all about you. Oh, would that it were a reality. This is one of ole Virginia's nicest mornings. The sun is shinning in all its' splendor, and it being the Sabbath day, and I being a Christian, I shall take my bosom companion, that is my saber, and trot down to church. Paulina, happy will Enos be when he can cast off that deadly companion and get one that is more congenial to my taste. Paulina, I shall have to stop writing, as there has a couple of drunken men came up here into my room. You can see the effects of it on this letter, so good-bye for this time. This from your affectionate.
E. C. Kennedy

Letter. March 31, 1862.

Fairfax Station, March 31st, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
Do not think because I don't write often that my thoughts are not with you, for it is not so often as I lay down at night do my thought wander back with you, and there they rest until sleep carries me off to the dream land when I often meet you. As it — (large water stain) a dream — and we may — we are many miles apart — we cannot get our — the Office only once in a great while — have not received a letter for ten days, but I suppose that my letters are all with the Regiment and that is some forty miles from us. Our Company is being kept here to act as message bearers and God only knows whether we will even get with the Regiment again or not. But I am sure I don't care. We are having good times and easy ones. We are laying in the woods on a side hill. You ought to of seen me yesterday and last night. Yesterday morning, I was sent to Bull Run and Manassas with dispatches. Well, away I went. I got to Bull Run without any trouble, and done my business there and started for Manassas, but I could not get across the river without swimming my horse. So I went to a bridge that the Rebbles had burnt down and drew my horse over with a rope and when I came back, I got off of her and pushed her down off the bridge. She rolled over some four times before she reached the bottom. When she got up — (water stain) — eight o'clock it commenced to thunder, lightning, and rain, and Oh, how it did pour down and I could not get her to go only as it would lightning. Then sometimes, I would find myself in the ditch, but at last, my horse stopped and I found myself by a house so I made the man get up and put my horse in the barn and feed him and give me a bed. He did not like to do it, but I told him that it must be done and the sooner the better. He, being a Sesesh, did not like my style, but I got a nice feather bed to sleep on with my saber and revolver for bed fellows, and Mr. Sesesh couldn't help himself.

The Boys in the mess that I am in are building a fire and yelling at me that it is time that we had supper, but I can't hear them just now, although they are a howling like a pack of wolves. The Boys that compose our mess are Sergeant L. G. Pierce, Sergeant C. P. Hoskins, Corporal H. A. Humphrey, and Privates Alonzo Hall, Joseph Shield, Perry Hubbard, Thomas J. Brown, and myself. You can see that I am not in the same crowd that I usually have been in, I have played out with them, all but Tom Brown, and he was my partner.

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Paulina, — (water stain) — if you could see how we live. We have this house — furnished. The houses are made of rubber blankets in the shape of barrels and are furnished with saddles, bridles, curry combs, tin cups, spurs, blankets, tobacco, revolvers, sabers, carbines, and hard crackers. The door to my house is made out of a corn sack and a horse blanket being on hinges made of pins. We should like to send for you girls to come and keep house for us, but the truth of it is we haven't room in our large mansions to accommodate any more people. Besides, it would make you proud and aristocratic to live in such houses as ours.

Paulina, tell Harrison and Eliza that I will answer their letters just as soon as it is convenient. Tell them to write if I don't. The reason why I don't write is because I can't get my letters to the Office, it being eighteen miles. It may be a week before I can send this and it may not. Tell Mother I often think of her and would like to write her often, but cannot. Tell Father that he is also remembered in my prayers. Tell Celia that she has my best wishes for her future happiness, but be sure to tell Paulina that there is someone in the State of Virginia who is longing for the time to come that he can once more be by her side as of days gone by. Ah, how pleasant it is to look at the past and to think of those whose society you have spent many agreeable hours in and to look at the future, and think that the time is coming that we shall meet, never to part again, until separated by death. Ah, yes, it is pleasant to dream upon, but far more pleasant to realize. But Paulina, here I be to the end of my paper, so I must prepare to close, hoping soon to be so near thee that I can communicate my thoughts to you by some other mode than by a small piece of pencil. This from one that will prove true to the last. E. C. Kennedy

Hard (93-94).

March 28th: Now for a taste of war. Today our cavalry was ordered to take the advance, and the men were up early. A reconnaissance was to be made under General O.O. Howard. The command consisted of the Eighth Illinois Cavalry, Fourth New York Mounted Rifles, Sixty-ninth and Sixty-first New York Infantry, Fourth New Hampshire Infantry and a New York Battery, composed in pan of men from Illinois. We marched along the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, three miles, when we came upon the rebel cavalry, who disputed the ground, but fell back as we advanced...... Occasionally, the battery would open upon them and shell the woods, when they would suddenly disappear, burning the railroad culverts and bridges, the forage, hay and wheat, as they retreated. Unused to war as we were, this destruction of property seemed terrible...... On arriving near the Rappahannock, we found the bridge and depot in flames. They had run the last train over the bridge and then fired it.

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Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos Kennedy
Pvt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for Mch & Apl, 1862.
Present or absent present
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ______
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

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Letter. April 3, 1862.

Alexandria, April 3rd, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
I have just now received one of your more than welcome letters, and glad was I to hear from you again. But Oh Paulina, I fell after reading its contents I was one of the most miserable beings ever inhabited Gods Earth, I wished at that moment I could be crushed out of existence. Oh Paulina, to think that any man that has been in my society since I have been in the army should write such damnable stuff as has come to your ears. Paulina, I have heard it from one beside yourself, and that one was Mother. I will take an oath before high heaven that I have never made the acquaintance of any young lady or female of any kind since I have enlisted. And now Paulina, I grant as a favor if you should never grant me another one on Earth to let me know who the individual is that wrote such stuff.

I have my belief who it was, and if you do not tell me who it was, I shall find him out and have my revenge. No man can write such stuff about me and go unpunished. Paulina, how can I feel like writing to you in that old familiar style that I am want to do, and hearing such news as you do. And then, if I should never be permitted to return, you might be led to believe that it was so. But, I will drop this subject for the present.

This is one of the nicest days I ever saw for this time of the year. It seems like a July day. Tell Mother I am thankful for the few lines that she wrote, and that in a day or two, I will write her a good long letter.

Paulina, you must excuse me for not writing more, but if you knew my feelings, you would say stop, and I guess I will, and take a stroll by myself and give vent to my feelings. Paulina, write as soon as you receive this, as I shall wait patiently until I get out this.

From your affectionate
E.C. Kennedy.

Letter. April 10, 1862.

Alexandria, April 10th, 1862

My Own Dear Paulina,
I again seat myself for the purpose of writing you a few lines. Yesterday, our company arrived here in the city for the purpose of being shipped to Newport News, and we are now waiting for the regiment to come in.

Oh such weather that we have had for the last three days. It has rained and snowed and rained. Yesterday, we marched all day in the rain, and when we got into town, we were nearly froze and starved. We had nothing but an old warehouse to go into. But, we got along finally. We got up some stoves and the captain went out and bought a pile of stuff for us to eat and we were soon cozily situated and raising thunder.

Dear Paulina, imagine yourself in the midst of some sixty men and the news should reach them of such a glorious defeat as that of Pittsburgh Landing, and they should let up such a howl that would drown the roar of Niagara itself. Such a scene was enacted last night in Company A. We were tired and angry, but when those news reached us, we made such a noise and raised thunder till the Captain said he would have us all throwed into the river if we didn't stop.

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Paulina, do you know who this Captain Whitney is that is in our Regiment and of how he stands in society when at home? I ask these questions because I look upon him as not being a very likely man. (Records indicate Capt. Lorenzo H. Whitney resigned July 15, 1862)

Dearest Paulina, I think that I have ferreted out the person who wrote such a false fabrication about me, and am only waiting your answer to see if I am right.

Paulina, well is it for Harrison that he stayed at home, for two weeks such marching as we have had would lay him in his grave. Besides, he would commit a great sin, for it is enough to make a point — to be ordered from one place to another. We never marched yet unless it rained like the devil, and then there is another thing that irritated us. We have not had any pay for over three months, and they say that we will not get any before we go down the river. If that is so, I doubt whether they get me aboard the boat. If Uncle Sam don't live up to his bargain, I don't know as I shall live up to mine. But, I must close.

You must now direct your letters to Washington, and they will be sent to the different army corps from there. Give my love to all. Write often. This from your loving and affectionate.
Enos

Letter. April 14, 1862.

Headquarters, 8th Cavalry, Reg III, Vol Camp, Alexandria, Company A, April 14th, 1862

Adored One,
Yours of the 6th and 8th lays before me to be answered, and with pleasure do I undertake the task. Paulina, you spoke to me in your first about my not writing oftener, but is has been impossible to write, and God permitting, I will try and make up lost time. So, you had come to the conclusion that I might be a prisoner. Well, I am, but not to the Southerners.

Paulina, never give yourself any uneasiness because I do not write, for the time may soon come when you will not hear from me for a month at a time, for when we get down South, we may not have a chance to write, but be assured, if we do it will be improved by me to you.

Well, I am glad to hear that Harry and Celia attended Church. It is something that I haven't done for four months until yesterday when I went to the Catholic church in the afternoon, and the Methodist in the evening. How exceptional your company would have been to me.

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Well my dear, you wonder how I dare to go into a Sesesh house to stay. All I calculate that I am good for — any one family took my arms to bed with me so I could be ready if anything should happen. You know the saying is "Any port in the storm".

Dearest, I have come to the conclusion that you may look for me home about next New Years and not before. It is agoing to take some time yet to subdue those Rebbles, and some pretty hard fighting, but I feel as safe here amongst them as I would at home. Yes Paulina, the time is coming when these dreams of the future will be ended in stern reality, and when that time comes, happiness will come with it.

Paulina, I will forgive you for not answering that question, but I swear by Him who reigns above, to hunt him out which I am pretty sure I can do ere long. And them, him or me will be finished. Paulina, I never can overlook such an insult.

We are having splendid weather at present, and I have such a splendid place to write. I am sitting in the door on the third story right close to the river, and it is filled with boats, and my table is a board which I hold on my knees. It is hard work for me to write. There is so much to take my attention, but were it not you, I should care but little whether I wrote or not. It is likely that we shan't go down the river before the last of this week or the first of next.

Tell Harry I wrote to him the third, and will try to write again this week. I will now close and prepare for inspection. Hoping to hear from you soon, I will subscribe myself as ever, your affectionate
E.C. Kennedy.

Letter. April 18, 1862.

Eighth Cavalry Illinois Volunteer, Alexandria, Company A, April 18th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
Yours of April 14th came to hand about an hour ago, and found me on inspection parade, and after reading its welcome contents, I sat down on a carbine box for the purpose of answering it. We are having the nicest weather you ever saw. The peach trees are all in bloom and some roses are bloomed out. It is hot enough to fry the grease out of us Northern people, and yet, we are in Alexandria, and I can see no prospects of our leaving very soon.

Paulina, you have got a curious idea in your head about my getting killed. Give it up. You seem to think that if ever I get into a fight, I will never come out alive. Cash such thoughts from your mind. I feel more sure of returning home then I do of getting into a fight. You will see me at home ere long. It is true you know nothing about the hardships of a soldier, nor do I wish any of my family to. Our hardships amount to nothing. Only when we are on a march, then we have some pretty hard times when it rains, but excitement casts all of these from our mind, and when we get after the Rebbles, we have fun enough to make it all up.

It is a difficult matter for anyone to tell when this war will be ended.

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Well Paulina, you spoke about not keeping late hours until I came back. I am afraid that you will find me a — bad to sit up late. I could sit up only two hours at a time. You see, we learn to sit up two hours and sleep four, but were I there, I could soon forget my military habits and again resume customs of former days.

Yesterday we had quite a time. We had a General review us. We were drawn up in line, and while there, several thousand infantry passed by us, and after them, came the generals, and they all called us the best looking Regiment in the service. Oh, don't that make us feel proud.

Tell Mother that I am much obliged to her for offering to send me some money, but tell her that she need not send it. It is true I am without money, and have been for nearly two months, but the government is now indebted to me nearly four months pay, If I can't get enough out of that to keep me, I will have to come home. Let the consequences be what they will if Uncle Sam does not live up to his bargain. Don't believe they can make me live up to mine.

I am very thankful for those stamps, as I was out and in debt, but I think that by first of May, we will get our pay which will amount to $52.00 if we gel all that is coming to us.

Letter. April 21, 1862.

Elgin, April 27th, 1862 Alexandria, April 21st, 1862

(Editor Note: Letter unsigned. Unlikely to be Enos. Different handwriting and poor spelling)

Dear Father,
I hasten to write you a few lines to let you know we are well and enjoying ourselves very well. We expect to ship next Wednesday down the river, our teams for to ship tomorrow. I can't tell at what point we shall stop. We may stop at Yorktown where the great battle is to come off. It is believed here that the Battle at Yorktown will be the winding up of the war. We have learned by the Richmond Inquirer that the Rebbles have made up their minds if they can't have Yorktown, they might as well lay down their arms and give up. They nave got all of their best fighting men there, and the large forces they have nearly two hundred thousand men and five hundred and fifty — of cannon and the same of the larger calendar. How large our forces is I am not able to tell, but they must out number Rebbles. If not, it will be a tough battle, for we get to fight them in their trenches and forts. They have breast works fifteen miles in length. I think that we must have two hundred thousand men. If we have, we should probably out flank them and take their whole army. General McClellan has been down there eight weeks with General Sumner planning for the coming conflict, and there is no doubt but they will make short work of it when once they engage in the great conflict. There was large fleets went from this wharf everyday for four weeks, laden with soldiers. You can gauge they must have a large army and there is thousands waiting to go.

Dear Father, I am afraid I shan't be able to send you any money right away. They say that — won't pay us until we get four — bed and that be only 10 days, but it will be a month yet before we get my money, and where I shall be I can't tell. May not have the chance to send on to you to have it go safe if we go down the river. — by their time. Dear Father, direct my letters to Washington DC. In the field, and our letters will be sent to wherever we may be.

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Alexandria.

TROOP EMBARKING AREA AT ALEXANDRIA

This area is at the base of Duke Street, Alexandria. On approximately April 20, 1862, troops boarded steamers to go down the Potomac River. Each of the boats accomodated hundreds of men and their horses. Lithographs shown on the walls of the local restaurants in the area record the specific data of the boat names and capacities.

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Letter. April 30, 1862.

Shipping Point, VA, April 30th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
Once more I find time to write you a few lines. We are now within a few miles of Yorktown and within four miles of the Rebbles. We got paid for two months, and some ten days ago, we were shipped. We was on the water just one week, and yesterday, we came ashore and today we have been very busy fixing our camping ground. We can hear the roar of cannon all day that our men shoot at the Rebbles and the Rebbles at us. You see, whenever the Enemy shows themselves, our men throw shells at them and the way they skedoddle back is enough to make dumb men laugh. But we had a hard time while we were on the boat. Horses and men cannot live very well together on the boat. Our route was to the mouth of the Potomac, from thence across the Chesapeake Bay where I now find myself in my little dog kennel writing to you.

Tom Brown, my roommate, being on guard, leaves me alone, but I have plenty of neighbors close by. It has now been some two weeks since I have had a letter from anyone, but I think that we will get our letters in the course of three or four days. We have a very large army lying here, all waiting patiently for the word to pitch into Yorktown. It is raining pretty hard here right now.

May 1st, 1862

I will now hasten to finish this letter so it can leave in the mail this morning. I find myself in fine spirits this morning, and it bids fair for a fine day.

When we were loading our horses in Alexandria, I got knocked overboard and lost my revolver, but did not get hurt. When we were going ashore, Barney McGough got kicked and had his jaw broke.

Tell Harrison if he sees any of the Van Vlack's people, tell them that Van Vlack is well and he will write when he has time. I must now close as they are waiting for my letter. I have more to write, but do not have time. I will write again soon. Love to all our folks, keeping the news for yourself. This from your affectionate
Enos Kennedy

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Letter. May 8, 1862.

Headquarters 8th III. Reg. Cav. Vol., Williamsburg, May 8th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
I have a few spare moments and I will endeavor to write you a few lines to let you know of my whereabouts. I am now in Williamsburg. We have had as hard a battle here as has been fought in Virginia.

It commenced a Sunday noon and lasted until Monday night when the Enemy commenced to retreat. Our men had to stand right before their fortifications to fight and they cut us down like sheep, but we stood and fought them until they could stand our fire no longer, and when our men rushed into their forts and chased them out at the point of their bayonets and they took up their line of retreat. Such a shout as rose all along our lines was never witnessed before. It was eight miles from our right to our left and we were fighting the whole length of those lines. But the greatest sign was the next morning after the fight as I rode over the Battle Field, I had to guide my Horse from right to left to keep from riding on the dead. It was covered with dead bodies.

We only lost four men out of our Regiment, and they were taken Prisoners. The next day after the fight, our company was sent six miles to the York River to see if it was clear of the Rebels and while we were on our journey, we were chased all day by four Companies of rebel cavalry, but we did not know it or else we should of given them a chance to try us on. The next day our Company went in pursuit of them, but we could not find them. We took thirteen prisoners in our tramp and, in fact, we are having a gay old time after them. We lost the most men in the fight. One of our Regiments licked three of the rebel regiments. We are now within sixty miles of Richmond.

Paulina, I never feel downhearted, and I do look for better times in the future. Tell our folks to write as I would like to hear from them. I have received no letters that were written since I left Alexandria nor do I know when I shall. We are seeing some pretty rough times, but then we have fun enough to make it all up. I must now close as it is all the paper I have in God's world. I expect that tomorrow morning we will take up our line of march again. Since I wrote the last sentence, we got orders to pack up and march, so I must close. Give my respects to all for I must away. This from your loving Enos.

I will write again the first opportunity.

Hard.

I have been particular in mentioning this Sunday's fight for the reason that no historian of the war, that I have read, has noticed it. All begin the Battle of Williamsburg on Monday, and seem, to know nothing of this battle of May 4th, 1862.

Monday morning was rainy in fact the rain fell almost all day. Our men had "stood to horse" all night; only relieving each other for short intervals, and the animals had not been unsaddles or fed. About ten o'clock firing, both musketry and cannon, began upon our left, where Gen. Hooker's command was stationed. It was terribly severe and continued utmost unabated during the day. The country was heavily wooded, therefore, our artillery and cavalry could do but little, and the roads were blockaged with army wagons for miles .... and the same wagons came near causing another defeat, as they did at Bull Run. Little did we appreciate the service we were doing our country, when General Kearney came excitedly to our Colonel and asked for a company to clear the roads for him to advance. Captain Forsyth of Company A went to perform the duty which was quickly accomplished by overturning wagons, thus clearing the road of all obstructions.... The army remained at Williamsburg from the 5th to the 9th

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of May, for what reason we could not devine; but our regiment was sent out in detachments to scour the country in all directions, in which service they captured several prisoners.

Letter. May 18, 1862.

Sunday, May 18th, 1862

Paulina Dear,
Your kind and welcome letter of the 7th came to hand some three days ago, and this is the first opportunity I could get to answer it. I understand that the report has went back to all that I was very sick, but it is a mistake. I have not experienced an hour's sickness since I was at Fairfax Station. I am enjoying tip-top health and am in fine spirit.

I received a paper from Harrison the other day which I was mighty glad to read. Tell him to send along some more for we do not get any reading matter since we commenced pursuing the Enemy. There was a few papers come into Camp the other day, and I gave twenty five cents for one.

We are now camped within sixteen miles of Richmond, and yesterday, one Company was out scouting and we went within ten miles of Richmond, and I suppose tomorrow the Army will make another grand move. We have moved very slow for the last four days. We went about two miles a day. Our Regiment has been on the advance for the last ten days, but I think that we shall be relieved tomorrow. It is mighty hard work being in the advance all the time. We were obliged to lay on our Arms two nights for we expected to be attacked, but every man had his arms ready so that he could buckle them on and be in line at the least alarm.

The reason that we were expecting an attack was we had a traitor in our midst who had let the Enemy know how we were situated. But, thank God, he is under an arrest. He is a Major in the Sixth Regular Cavalry and is a Nephew to the Rebel General Lee. I think most likely by what we can learn that the Rebbles will make a stand this side of Richmond. They were intending to make a stand at Chickahominy Swamp ten miles this side of Richmond, but our Army is nearly around the Swamp, so I don't think that they will make a stand there. I am in hopes that their stands are about played out. They say now that if we clean them they will go to Brazil and have a Government of their own. There is just Negroes enough there to suit them.

Some of our Regiment was within six miles of Richmond yesterday. They were fired into by a small party of Rebbles. The Rebbles keep coming in every day and giving themselves up. They say that they won't fight because the Yankees are too smart for them. The first thing that they want to know after coming in is where is the 8th Ill. Cav. They fear us and do not like to — us. They do not like the looks of our carbines.

Paulina, the reason that you do not hear from me any oftener is we get no time to write for we are in our saddles the most of the time from daylight till dark, and I suppose the reason we are not on the go today is because it is Sunday. You may be sure that every opportunity I have shall be improved in writing to you all if I can manage to get paper and envelopes. This paper that I am writing on now is some that I picked up on the way. I have not heard from many of you but twice since I left Alexandria. Anxiously do I watch the mail each day as it comes to Camp, but am doomed to be disappointed as no letter reaches me. You ought to see me sitting around like a bump on a log wondering if I won't get one tomorrow. Then I betake myself to my meal which generally consists of hard crackers and coffee.

The other day I was out on Pickett and I went into a Negro Hut and got a good square meal of ham and eggs, and the way I filled myself was a caution to all small people.

56

You mention in your letter that you supposed we were among those that were in pursuit of the enemy when they evacuated Yorktown. Your supposition was true. We were in the advance in the forenoon, but at noon, the Sixth Regular Cavalry went by us and about four o'clock, we came upon them near Williamsburg, where we waited until the Infantry and Artillery came up when we gave them a confounded thrashing for running away from us.

Tell Father just to wait 'till I gel home before he undertakes to thrash me. Tell him thrashing is my best (—olt) (torn away). That is the business I am following (torn) and if he wishes to undertake that job, he had better commence preparing for the job just now, for if he don't, I will make him break by fours from the right to the rear to march to the left.

We get plenty of feed in the country for our horses. Wheat is all headed out and whenever we come to a field of it, we turn our horses into it. Also, there is plenty of nice clover all in bloom, but Uncle Sam's horses eat it close to the ground. And the planters have plenty of corn in their cribs, but Uncle Sam's men take it all for their horses. Such a set of men as Uncle Sam has got. They take everything they want if it belongs to the Sesesh.

And this part of Virginia is just as nice a country as ever man trod on. There is such nice plantations, These Southern Planters have everything that man could wish, but the Army is spoiling the look of this Country, but who care for their land. Our motto is "Aut Vincere, Aut Veni"

I should like to know what has become of Harrison and Celia. I don't hear any more about them. Have they given up keeping late hours or what are they doing? Also, how does Eliza feel on the question of matrimony? Tell them if ever I get time agoing that they may expect to hear from me. Oh, it is so awful hot I can hardly write. The Sun pours down in the daytime, and it is cold as thunder at night.

Dear Paulina, I have wrote everything that I could think of and I ain't sure but a little more, and if you can read it, you can do better that I can. I will now close and clean up my Arms and then lay down and take a nap and prepare to eat my allowance (torn out) Iron Crackers. Whenever you write, tell where Eliza is teaching. And now, hoping to hear from you soon, I will subscribe myself as ever yours until separated by death E.C. Kennedy.

A little note added: "All well. Put both letters in one to save three cents. Polly"

Hard (107, 108-119)

The country was low and swampy, and in order to make the roads passable, they had been corduroyed; that is, poles or logs had been cut and laid side by side across the rod, thus making a log road, over which, wagons went bouncing and pounding: and over just such roads, our sick and wounded had frequently to be transported for miles. The reader who has never been in the army, will please recollect what a corduroy road is.

On reaching Head-Quarters, we found the army stretching across this narrow peninsula, from York to James River, and besieging Yorktown. Long ditches, or trenches were dug at night in zig-zag form, in which our soldiers lay during the day: in front of these were rifle pits, confronting the rebel works. Above these, a man did not dare show his head for fear of the rebel bullets. At proper distances were forts of earth-works, mounted by heavy guns, between which and the enemy's works cannonading was kept up almost constantly. Every day some were wounded and several skirmishes had taken place, but no general engagement, although daily expected.

The night of the 3d was more pleasant than usual, and the enemy began a heavy cannonading which continued until about one o'clock A.M. Their pieces made the ground tremble to a great distance, and we felt that something was about to happen, when early in the morning it was announced that they had evacuated Yorktown.

57

... Pushing forward over muddy roads, made worse by rebel retreat, we came to Lebanon Church, an old brick building in the woods, at the crossing of two roads. Here the regiment formed for battle. The regular cavalry with a battery under General Stoneman, had taken the advance, and came upon the rebels about two miles from the place mentioned. They made a charge in which they suffered severely; the enemy being partly concealed in the woods. it is said that one of the captains distinguished himself in this fight. The horse of one of his men being shot down, a dozen rebels charged upon the dismounted man and beat him terrible. Seeing this the Captain charged singly on them, discharging his revolvers and then drawing his sabre, he actually drove them from the field and rescued his comrade.

Early next morning (May 6th) we advanced over the battlefield and occupied Williamsburg. In passing over the scene of the fight the dead were seen lying everywhere. Judging by the marks of shot and shell, it would seem that no man could have survived who was in range of the fire, as every tree and shrub was battle scarred. Passing through a dense woods, thick with undergrowth, we came upon the "slashings", where the trees had been cut down in every direction to impede our progress, and give an opportunity to fire from the forts and at this point, seemed to have taken place the most desperate fighting.

Passing by Fort Magruder and several other strong earth works, and by rows of rebel huts, now filled with the wounded and dying, we soon came to the old city of Williamsburg, the pride and the capitol of Virginia in colonial times, where her House of Burgesses had resounded with the eloquence of noble ancestors, now a dilapidated village. We encamped upon the common, in the suburbs of the town.

The army remained at Williamsburg from the 5th to the 9th of May, for what reason we could not divine, but our regiment was sent out in detachments to scour the country in all directions, in which service they captured several prisoners. The battle of Williamsburg being the first great contest in which we had participated, or even witnessed, many sought an opportunity to look over the battlefield.

May 10th we moved forward to New Kent Court House, and after a short halt, again started in pursuit of the enemy. The regiment was now divided into two columns. One under Colonel Farnsworth, moved directly forward, and when about two miles from New Kent, came upon the enemy. The detachment under Lieutenant-Colonel Gamble moved in the direction of Bottom's Bridge, on the Chocohominy. They also encountered the foe and did some lively fighting but with no loss on either side, the rebels retreating as our men advanced. Night found us in camp at New Kent.

Sunday May 11th was spent in camp by some, while a part of the regiment were sent to the front, and waked up the rebel's batteries again. Monday, May 12th, we remained in camp until night, when we marched two and a half miles to Cumberland, on the Pamunky River, and the next morning up the river seven miles to the celebrated "White House", the former home of the enchanting widow, Mrs. Martha Custis; afterwards Mrs. Washington.

The infantry were now coming up by thousands, and covering the vast plain bordering the Pamunky. On the 14th, we moved forward two and a half miles. We scouted as far in advance as Black Creek, a small but deep stream, over which both the bridges on the railroad leading from West Point to Richmond, and the wagon-road bridge, had been destroyed by the retreating army. Here we remained until the 17th, when we moved forward two miles farther. General McClellan and staff arrived at the White House on the 16th. Our long delay in this locality was to us a great wonder, and in company with Colonel Farnsworth, I went to General Stonemans headquarters, and there learned, to some extent, the cause of our detention. The bridge over Black Creek having been destroyed. West Point engineers had taken a survey of the spot, its bearings and distances, had made a profile view of the structure to be erected, with proper estimates, etc., had even re-surveyed it and sent their estimate to headquarters for approval, which had consumed much valuable time, and was likely too occupy many days more; while this immense army was waiting to cross the stream.

"I expect they will be ready to commence work tomorrow" said General Stoneman.

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"I can take a few of my men and construct a bridge in half a day" remarked Colonel Farnsworth.

"Will you do it?" said Stoneman.

"I will with your permission" was the reply.

"You can have a detail of all the men you need" said General S.

"I want no detail but my own regiment" replied Colonel F.

In this brief manner, the question was settled, and early next morning, a small squad of the Eighth Illinois Calvary went to work, and in two hours and a half, constructed a substantial bridge of logs across the stream and at once crossed over, and soon captured a prisoner. General Stoneman crossed, and then dispatched a messenger to General McClellan stating that he was "beyond Black Creek and moving forward to Richmond. I mention this incident to illustrate the fact that much of the delay in the movement of the troops was due to a want of lack of aptness in the officers to do things in a rational manner. In army parlance, there was too much "red tape."

Letter. May 27, 1862.

Norwich Mass, May 27th, 1862
Col Farnsworth, 8th Ill Cavalry. Washington

Dear Sir,
I have orders to write you by the wife of Henry McKinley, a soldier in your Reg. Company A. His wife has not heard from him in three months. You will confer a very great favor to her is you will give her what information you can in regard to her husband. Please direct to Postmaster "Norwich Mass".

Very Respectfully
Harmon Burnett

59

Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos Kennedy
Pvt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for May & June, 1862.
Present or absent present
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ______
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

60

Letter. June 5, 1862.

Camp near Mechanicsville, June 5th, 1862

Dearest Beloved Paulina,
Your kind and affectionate letter of May 28th I received in due time and a right welcome visitor it was here in the woods of Virginia, and it also brought the news that you were enjoying good health, which is one of Gods best blessings. I can say in return that I never enjoyed better health in my life that I do in the present time, and am in good spirits although we get no spirits to drink! Therefore, I am leading a very temperate life.

I think that Eliza must be very easily discouraged of late. Timmen still lives in hopes of immigrating before long (torn) a glorious old state of matrimony (torn) that if Celia and Harrison (water mark) try (torn) a soldiers life for a short time (water mark) they would retire at an early hour, but then I knew in (water mark, water mark), children, (water mark) themselves in the best way they can. I (watermark) to be there and (watermark) some of the (watermark) pleasant evenings with you, for I am (watermark) would be more pleasant with me. (Watermark) spend than (torn) camp (watermark). It is (watermark) at present (torn) as for my falling in (watermark) with miserable (torn) country (watermark) never can be. It has no attraction for me, nor could I be induced to live amongst such ignorant people. Why, the while inhabitants here does not know as much as their cursed Negroes! Paulina, discard the idea that you still entertain of your fears of my never returning, and try to make yourself believe that you will soon see the members of the Eighth Illinois Cavalry return to spend the remainder of their days in peace with those that they love.

I should hate to have you share my short iron crackers with me for fear that in a weeks time you would (torn) teeth, then I should have the (torn) of you, but I had (watermark) living the (torn) day.

I was out (watermark) near a (torn) and (watermark) was (watermark) kind to me. She cooked chickens and (watermark). In fact, I had everything that I could wish for (watermark) for eating hard (watermark), yet here at Mechanicsville during (watermark ) but to stand (torn) to General McClellan says all he (torn ) us now (watermark) catch the movement (torn) the Rebbles on our right and we are (torn) tip top times standing Pickett. Sometimes we are close enough to their Pickett to talk to them, and day before yesterday, we got to shooting each other. We could reach them and they could not reach us. We would get on top of a stump and yell at them to shoot or else to show themselves, but they would crawl on their hands and knees under a brush. And in fact, we had a gay old time all day. I never have enjoyed myself better since I have been in the army. We go on Pickett again tonight (torn) and tomorrow, when I expect to have another (torn) good time.

Our forces along the swamp are skirmishing every day. Sometimes, we have a pretty hot fight which ends in one for us with the loss of lives or many on both sides.

I am informed of the fact that Hank McKinley is a married man and was when he left Lodi. Colonel Farnsworth has received two letters from his wife's friends in New York. They are wanting to know where he is. They say that his wife has not heard from him for three months. I read the letter myself, and I shall get them and send them home. I have the promise of them. Hank is at Fortress Monroe sick.

What has become of the good Templer Lodge. It is now nearly noon, and I must prepare my dinner. Just call a wand and dine with me. We shall have the best that the house affords. I feel very grateful for that kiss and will send one in return for all the kissing that I enjoy is with my faithful old horse, which is the best friend I have here in the army. He talks to me every morning as I emerge from my tent, asking for corn which he gets, but (torn) must close. Write all the news that you can. This is from your affectionate Enos

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Hard (128, 129)

(May 29) Our regiment now guarded the right wing of the army for ten miles along the Chickahominy and Virginia Central Railroad, having picket stations and reserves at various points.

On the 31st of May and 1st of June, was fought what is known as the battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks:
On the south side of the Chickahominy between Bottom's Bridge and Richmond, and within six or seven miles of the latter place. The ground was low flat and heavily timbered.

... Many of the incidents connected with picket life on the Chickahominy were very amusing, as well as instructive. The inhabitants who had ventured to remain on their farms were opposed to dealing in United States currency, known as "Greenbacks", but would readily dispose of anything they had to spare for Confederate Notes. By some means, I know not when or how, our boys became possessed of a considerable sum of currency of this description, with which they carried on quite a lively trade with the country people.

Letter. Summer, 1862.

(Editor Note: Date approximated due to reference of Hank McKinley)

Summer, 1862

Dear Paulina,
I was happy to hear that you were in good health. May you ever be blessed in that way. I suppose Barney (Barney McGough?) puts on a good many airs and tells some big stories, but let him go. He never will amount to much. He is too afraid of powder.

Oh yes, Hank McKinley is back in the company again.

Well, I am glad to learn that you are getting pious, for I only hear preaching about once in two months. Tell Bridget I will pay her a visit as soon as possible. Tell Celia I had rather have a pickle than a stick of candy. Tell Father not to pinch you again, or I will handle him rough. Tell Harrison that he is getting into a muss by bothering you girls, for I am coming home someday.

Paulina, I hope you will excuse these hasty lines, for it is now nearly twelve o'clock at night, and I have been writing all day. I have been doing company writing, making out reports and muster rolls, and I have all the company writing to me now and my hand is so tired that I must slop.

Hoping to hear from you soon, I will subscribe myself as ever your affectionate and devoted
Enos.

Paulina, don't wait for me to write, but write often, for sometimes we are out ten days at a time and do not get a chance to write, so write often.

62

Letter. June 12, 1862.

Mechanicsville, June 12th, 1862

Dear Paulina,
Your welcome letter of the first is now before me. Also, I have just received one from you that was written April 25th. It has been on the road sometime. We have just come in off from Pickett where we have been forty-eight hours. We had a gay old time while we were out. I was guarding a house and you better believe I lived well while there. I had baked chickens and green peas three times a day and all the sweet milk I could drink besides a nice parlor to sit in during the day. Wasn't I some about then. Oh no, I guess not. I am glad that you are bound not to let me complain again. Let them come, they can't come too often. Paulina, the Rebbles are getting below par.

I now begin to feel as though I should soon get home. Tell Mother not to send Eliza to an insane asylum, but to send her to a soldiers hospital, for I think that she will recover.

Notice in yours of April 25th that you had quite a time with Harrison in putting a night dress on him, and I should like to have been there, but I guess you would have a good time trying to dress me up. Tell Harrison that I do not care if Rhoda is married, for there is, I think, there is better than waiting for me. I will accept your invitation to go awalking on the railroad if you will extend it to a more convenient time.

Tell Celia that if she does get hung on the rails, she won't have me there to laugh at her. Tell Mother if it does not seem right for me to be gone, I guess I will come home.

Paulina, it will be a very easy matter for you to break me of that military habit that I have got of sitting up two hours at a time. I think it is a very foolish practice. Everything has been quiet along the lines far the last three or four days. No fighting taking place. We are having very quite times for us. Tomorrow I am agoing to visit some of my old Pennsylvania school mates that are about three miles from me.

I am very much obliged for those envelopes and paper. I am afraid that I shall be worth but little when I get home. I am getting so confounded lazy that it is hard work to enjoy good health although I am blessed with the best of health. So, I will close in return for the kiss you sent, and send you in return. Hoping you will excuse these few lines. I will close, but subscribing myself and ever, your devoted and affectionate
E.C. Kennedy.

Letter. June 20, 1862.

Mechanicsville, June 20th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
Your kind letter of June 8th came to hand some time ago, and perhaps ere this you may think that I am getting indolent and in a "don't care way" or else I would reply sooner. But it is not so. When your letter came, I was away. I had charge of three teams and was gone after provision and as soon as I got back I had to go on Pickett where I remained until last evening, and this morning I find me writing.

I hope that you will have a gay time on the Fourth. You must play your part and mine also. I suppose that Barney has some great stories to tell of his soldiering, but he hasn't seen anything of it yet. What he has been through is nothing but child's play to what we have seen since leaving Shipping Point.

I should think Father was not very patriotic by his talk. Yes Paulina, we have had some pretty hard fighting down this way lately, and we intend to have some more before long. Paulina, night after night as

63

I lay myself down to sleep does my thoughts wonder back to the few pleasant days that we were permitted to enjoy each others society. Then the thought arises in my mind how long it will be before we shall again be permitted to get better acquainted. But, I am always at a loss to tell.

You said that you and Harry had just come from church and was pious. Likely that is the reason why you are not agoing to attend Irwin's party. Let other friends come home, but when yours come, they will come to stay. I shall never come home until I have my discharge.

I should very much like some of those greens that you are cooking, but then you will think that I am green enough without any if I should be permitted to come home. I have had very good living lately. I got fifty weight of flour and the way the iron cakes suffer isn't slow, and now and then a chicken gets in my way and an odd bushel of potatoes. I have made up my mind that I will live as long as I can forage.

Tell folks to write. Enclosed, I send a letter which tells that Hank is a married man.

I hope you will excuse me for not writing often. I write as often as I can find time. I will now close and saddle, as I must away. I am in good health. Write often. This from your devoted
Enos

Hard (136)

It would be well now to take a view of our position before describing the exciting events which are to follow. We reached this place on the 23rd of May, a little more than a month previous and although we had scouted and reconnoitered the country for miles in all directions, virtually held the same position we then took. From day to day, we expected to capture Richmond, yet no attempt to that effect had been made. We had fought a severe battle at Fair Oaks, but had made no advance in that direction. We labored night and day on picket and camp duty, and in taking care of the sick, whose numbers were daily increasing.

... This immense army had to be supplied from its base at White House Station. Most of the forage and other supplies came by railroad, but we brought ours by trains from Dispatch Station, some eight miles distant, and occasionally had to send a train to White House Landing, twenty-five miles distant. The roads were very muddy as the showers of rain had been copious.

... Stonewall Jackson's success in driving the federal forces from the Shennadoah Valley was immediately followed by his marching with a large part of his army to reinforce the troops defending Richmond. This may or may not have been known to General McClellan, but it was not known to us, who had not given up hope of entering the Southern Capitol.

Letter. June 21, 1862.

Mechanicsville, June 21st, 1862

Dear Paulina,
I received a letter from you some four days ago while I was on my road to the White House (Landing) with the teams, which was joyfully received. It finding me in good health and fine spirits, not alcoholic spirits, but of another sort after coming back from the While House.

I went out on Pickets and have just come in feeling pretty good after the large amounts of cherries and apples that I consumed while I was out. Early apples are beginning to get ripe. How I wish you could share them with me. I never saw such a country for fruit as this is, and me being on the advance, have the benefit of it.

64

There is no fighting going on at present of any account, although we expect it soon. We are throwing up Breast Works all along the lines. The roar of cannon has become a common thing here, for we hear it from morn till night. We are looking every day for McClellan to make an attack, but you may rest assured he never will until he has everything arranged so that we can go in victory without loosing as many lives as we should if we went according to the wish of the people in general. How I wish that those who are so anxious for us to fight without making preparations could be made to take the advance from here to Richmond. Then see what they would say about hurrying up the army. They ought to know by this time that we are not fighting children, but that we are fighting men that can fight. Has it not proved at every battle (Ah Consistency, Where Art Thou God).

Dearest Paulina, the Fourth of July is nearly at hand and the thought has occasionally entered my mind where and how shall I spend it. Will it be in camp on Pickett or will it be on the Battlefield, or perhaps before that time comes, I may go to meet those dear friends, who with me, have offered their lives to maintain those glorious stars and stripes which now float over nearly every state in this one happy Union. What mourning there will be this Fourth to what there was last. Young men that graced the ballroom with their presence then have since proudly died on the Battlefield for their Country. "Oh, Days of Bliss, Mansions of My Father".

Well, I am in hopes that you will have a gay time on the Fourth and enjoy yourself, for I shall try to let me be where I will. I was sorry to learn that you are not well, and I am in hopes that your next will bring better news. Paulina, if I were only with you when you are unwell, I should then be satisfied.

I feel a little out of humor today, the reason is because I hurt my horse so I shall not be able to ride for a week or two and shall have to take another and which I don't like to do.

Tell Mother that I am looking for that letter she has promised, but haven't seen yet.

I will now endeavor to close. Give my respects to all and excuse this miserable got-up letter. Hoping to hear from you soon. I will close by subscribing myself and ever. Your affectionate Enos

Letter. July 4, 1862.

Charles City Landing, July 4th, 1862

Dear Paulina,
This is the first opportunity that we have had to send letters since we commenced fighting. We have had some of the hardest fighting that we ever witnessed or want to again.

We whipped them at every place, but one time we commenced, then one man broke and left the field, but through the busy exertions of our Regiment, we rallied them and took possession of the field again. After whipping them in the daytime and driving them, we would retreat at night. But now we have got reinforcements and we are agoing into Richmond. We have commenced advancing on them again. Day before yesterday our Company was at the rear of the retreat and the Rebbles run onto us. We turned and fought them three hours. When we could not get at them mounted, we dismounted and fought them. We killed quite a number. We got one of our men wounded by the name of Fuller in the side and four were taken prisoner. Their names are Elijah Hall, Tom Pender, Peter Simmons, and Barney Carlin. John Ryan is also wounded in the knee.

I have spent my Fourth in the saddle. I am in tip top health and good spirits. The Gates Falanx from Chicago got here yesterday and had a little fight with them and took four cannon from them (the rebels). Hurrah for Illinois Boys. There is lots of them coming here.

65

Tell Harrison to send Ira Robertson to Van Vlack to tell them that Dick is well and feeling good.

We are all in fine spirits. Write often. I will write you soon. No more at present for I must away to duty. From your devoted
Enos

Hard (145, 146, 158, 159). Battle of Malvern Hill.

Before daylight of June 27th, our forces were withdrawn from the line of Beaver Dam Creek, and formed a new line near Gaines Mills Creek, whose banks were high and formed a good defense on our right. But toward the Chickahominy receded and left a large tract of bottom land which led to the swamp bordering the river... About noon the enemy were seen approaching our new lines, and the Eighth Illinois Cavalry were mostly placed to support the batteries.

Not a man in the cavalry but waited the order to "charge" but it never came. These that were rallied were soon in compact line, and moved forward with but the bayonet as a defense. The coming stragglers halted, thinking these were fresh troops, and joining them formed a second line and waited an attack. Cheer after cheer arose from this line as they advanced. The enemy threw shells in our midst, and one bursting among us struck our color-bearer, John Ryan.

Colonel Farnsworth, with his regiment, was put in charge of the immense train of wagons which were moving on two or three different roads. The regiment was stretched out on these roads to protect the trains and keep them moving, and on Tuesday, July 1st, most of the train was brought to camp, while the battle of Malvern Hill was in progress.

One of the finest things of the week was the bloodless capture of a rebel battery of four guns, and some three or four hundred prisoners by an Indiana regiment, (I think the 13th), of General Shield's Division, which had been landed scarce twenty-four hours.

Somewhere in the vicinity of Haxall's or Malvem Hill, Peter C. Simmons and Barney Carlin, who were with the "led horses," delayed too long when the command fell back, and were captured by the enemy, or, in army phrase, were "gobbled up" and carried prisoners to Richmond. The regiment was kept busy scouting, picketing and arranging the lines, while no small number were acting as orderlies for the different Generals, carrying dispatches to all parts of the command day and night.

The Fourth of July passed quietly, with no magnificent demonstrations. The soldiers were too weary and disheartened to indulge in great rejoicings. The weather was extremely warm; the thermometer frequently rising as high as one hundred and two degrees Fahrenheit, in the shade.

Part of our regiment were on picket all the time.

President Lincoln visited this place, rode along the line of defense, and was heartily received and cheered by the troops.

66

Letter. July 10, 1862.

Camp near James River, July 10th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
Your kind letter of June 28th came duly to hand and its contents read with a great degree of pleasure, but I am sorry to say that I sit down to answer it in the worst kind of humor. It has been raining all the morning. I will tell you the reason why I am so angry. Someone stole a strap off my saddle and stole my ink and I lent my watch last night and it came back broke and if I did not swear a little, then it is a wonder.

Well Paulina, our standing Pickett and having such a good living has played out and we have returned again to crackers and coffee.

I was sorry to learn that our folks were so afflicted, but all I can do is to hope for the best.

Yesterday, we were out scouting and took two prisoners, a horse, saddle and bridle. I hardly know what to make of this War lately. We have had the devil drove out of us, but our Army is recruited and are in good spirits and we shall soon make a push for Richmond. We shall go, I think, along the River under cover of the Gun Boats.

Well, the fourth is past and gone. It found me in the saddle all day watching Rebbles and I hope you had a good time. Often did I think of Lodi and Paulina during the day. Paulina, I have seen the horrors of War. The Battle of Gaines Mill was enough to make the blood run cold in one's veins — to see men pile the dead before him for breast works and fire from behind them. Our artillery piled the rebs up in Winrows — such a slaughter I never witnessed before and I have seen considerable fighting in the last six months.

But I will bet four months pay that we will take the Sesesh Capital inside of three weeks. We have lost nothing by this retreat, which if we had of been reinforced when we mounted, then we never would of made.

Ask Eliza to describe to you Enos's Posish when angry. Paulina, I hope you will excuse me for not writing more. I will endeavor to do better next time. Give my love to all. I am well. This from your affectionate and loving.
Enos

Letter. July 12, 1862.

Harrison Bar, July 12th, 1862

Dear and Beloved Paulina,
Your most kind, welcome and affectionate letter of the sixth I received this morning while preparing my breakfast. Right glad was I to again hear from you, but sorry to learn that Father was no better. Ah, that I could be with him, but this present moment finds me some half mile from camp in a thick forest of pines, but no companion but Forneys War Press, which I have been perusing for the last half hour, but have thrown it down and stretched myself upon the ground to ponder over the past two or three weeks. Weeks in which we saw nothing but marching and fighting. An oh, how my heart ached to see those poor Infantry who were nearby nearly worn out with long marches and hard fighting striving to get to a place of safety, but always ready to meet the Enemy, although they were out numbered three to one. But thank

67

God, small as our army was, we drove them and held them at bay until our baggage trains were out of the way. But now, our men are rested and recovered and you can hear the playing of bands and the shouting of soldiers in every direction and all are again in good spirits.

We send out scouting parties every day to reconnoiter along the Enemies lines. I was with one of those panics yesterday, and we ran upon three regiments of Infantry, one of Cavalry and a Battery. We exchanged a few shots with them and then fell back and watched them till night. I think that they are all falling back on Richmond again. We paid but little attention here in camp to the glorious Fourth of July, the most of us being so very busy. There was the usual salute, fired by the gun boats and artillery.

But, I will now endeavor to answer the contents of your letter. In the first place, I am happy to say that your fears in regard to my safety is groundless. It is true we were in two engagements, but we all came out safe with the exceptions of a few that got wounded, and I am at the present, healthy and rugged as I ever was, and in as good spirits. Tell Father not to worry about me, for something seems to tell me that ere long I will be at home. Tell him to keep up courage, for the Union must and shall be saved. Paulina, never do I want England to take sides with the South. If she did, and should whip us out, then death would be sweet to me dearly, and I love those who I left behind. Our Men did fight bravely and good credit is due them, also one General McClellan, Sumner, Porter, Henselman (Heintzelman) and others.

Paulina, I'm sorry that you did not enjoy yourself any better on the Fourth, for I assure you that my thoughts and best wishes were with you nearly all the day. But never mind, there is a good time coming.

What has become of Eliza, has she dried up and blown away, or is she pining herself away on account of a certain soldier who goes by the name of Tim? If she is, tell her I say joy be with her. And what has become of Mrs. Woodard, and in fact, what has become of everybody in Lodi and what is everybody doing and saying.

Tell Celia that patience and perservance will accomplish wonders if it should happen to be found on the stairs or fastened on the railroad. Tell Eliza that Billy Mour sends his respects to her. I learned today by way of the mail that someone should have wrote to Lodi that Barney got scared and was agoing to run away once when we were out skirmishing and that he says if ever he comes back to the regiment that he will make some of us run for writing such stuff. I would say to Barney that running has played out here and that he might get his other jaw broke if he gave any of his lip. Whether he was agoing to run or not I can't say. But it looked very much like it. I will close now, hoping to hear often Paulina. Please accept an abundance of love from you affectionate Enos.

Hard (159)

Our sick list became larger each day, applications for furloughs were very numerous, and their refusal caused much of the discontent which was manifest. On the 16th of July, Major Jones paid off the regiment for March and April.

Letter. July 22, 1862.

Harrisons Landing, July 22nd, 1862

Dear Paulina,
Your kind letter of the 19th is now before me for the purpose of being answered. I was glad to learn that you were well and that Father was getting better.

Such awful hot weather as we have here is hard to endure. There was four Companies of us out scouting the other day and we ran into the Enemy. They shelled like thunder, killing one horse and wounding one man in Company H.

68

Paulina, as to your patriotism, I do not doubt it in the least, for it is natural for anyone to wish their friends at home out of danger. But I have a work to perform before I can come. Our Camp is situated on the banks of the James River in a beautiful piece of woods and we are cleaning it up today. I have been pretty sick but am now quite well and enjoying myself again in the best Soldier-like manner.

We all feel very well here in Camp but it would seem nice if we could only have about sixty days to visit the North where we could lay down without being armed and where the noise of a gun would not make us pick up our ears and look for Sesesh. But, then, we look forward for the day to come when we can say we served in the War of the Rebellion but how we lay down the deadly weapons and return home to live in peace forever. And when that time comes, if spared, ah, how happy I shall be. But if I never live to see it, I have only consolation that I died in a cause that will fetch no disgrace upon my friends nor myself.

Please excuse me for not writing oftener for I have not the time. We are busy all the time. There is no show for idlers in this place. Write often as possible. This from one who is absent but true.
Enos.

73

Letter. July 29, 1862.

Harrisons Landing, July 29th, 1862

Dear Paulina,
Yours of the 15th and 22nd is now before me for the purpose of being answered. We have just come in from Pickett and feel pretty tired but not so tired but what I can write to you. Paulina, I can stand it to go through a dozen more such battles as we have had here before Richmond if there is any signs of victory which I think there is. Paulina, as long as there is life there is hope. I have a great anxiety to live to see you once more but if I am not spared to, remember that I died in defense of the glorious Stars and Stripes.

I am sorry to learn that you have got a sore mouth. If I was there now I would be sure that you could not bite me. Paulina as you lay awake those two nights thinking of me I was treading my lonely beat in Camp one night and sitting on my Horse the other night watching for Rebbles and thinking of the night-after-night is spent in this way by me, and I think it no task at all. It is true, Paulina, I have to enjoy the Society of those who are below the notice of any decent being but such things are not looked at here. We are all Brothers in one noble cause. You seem to think that I have passed through more than I can again, but I have not. I can go through the same again and come out feeling tip top. Paulina, we are agoing to be Victorious and congress the South. I feel it. I know it. Let those who wish to senture McClellen do it, for they know not what they are doing.

Tell Eliza it is useless to blow astride of Tim's neck for he has all he can bear and women are not allowed in this Army. I am sorry for Mrs. Woodard, but can't help her a mite. You must be rather hard up for young men in that vacinity but never fear, you will see some day or other a lot of men come into that Town dressed in blue. Then you will have plenty of company. I think I shall go into the Navy if t can get a chance. Then I will get a chance to see something if I can get aboard of a Gun Boat. What do you think about it?

I must now prepare to close, hoping you will excuse me for not writing oftener. Hoping to hear from you soon, I will close by subscribing myself as ever, your affectionate. Enos

Letter. August 9, 1862.

UNION FOREVER (In hand printing)
Harrison Landing, August 9th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
Your kind and affectionate and welcome letter of July 29th came duly to hand last Sabbath evening just as I had retired to bed and quickly did I arise and peruse its welcome contents. But early the next morning, we were ordered out for a great reconnaissance in the direction of Malvern Hill.

We went four miles and stood Pickett during the day. At dark we started for the Enemy's line. We went very near their lines and laid down until near morning when we attacked them. We drove them on the top of the Hill when they opened a battery on. But, we had cannon with us which soon silenced their guns and drove them from the Hill. In the fight, our Lieutenant Colonel (Gamble) was shot in the right breast and is pronounced dangerous. The Orderly Sergeant of Company L was killed and one man in Company C. also a few wounded. There was one hurt in one Company that night. We stopped in a small piece of woods and the next morning we went over the ground where the Battle of June 2nd was fought where we piled the Rebbles up like cord wood and it was quite a sight. The ground is covered with graves. In some of them, the heads of the dead are sticking out, and in some places, they are buried in windows, a hundred

74

or more in a grave, and the houses near the ground are literally filled with ball shot from our men's guns. We fell back off from the Hill again and ever since, have been watching for Rebs.

Yesterday, I came into Camp, not being very well, but when the Regiment will be in is more than I can tell. It may be in tomorrow and it may never be in. Paulina, the Soldiers in this Army, as a general thing, do not like the idea of giving those cowardly cusses so much money to come and fight while we have been here and took the blunt of it and get no extra pay. I say, draft them. That is the way to get them, and why don't they hurry up, not keep us here so long fighting three times our number. They must think more of their lives than they do of their country. Ah, consistency, where art thou? One year is nearly past since I enlisted and this War is no nearer to a close than it was then, nor as near.
(incomplete)

Hard (161-164)

On Saturday, August 21, the horses were kept saddled and ready for active service. In the evening all the regiment except three companies, who were on picket, reported to General Hooker. The latter, with infantry, artillery and cavalry, moved out to near Haxall's, where our men remained until about twelve o'clock, to support the batteries and be ready for any emergency. It was expected that our lines were to be attacked, but the enemy did not make their appearance.

On Sunday, the chaplain of the Thirty-ninth Illinois Infantry, addressed our men in the morning, and in the afternoon Companies H and K received orders to go out on a reconnaissance toward White Oak Swamp. The object of this expedition was to find some road by which a movement could be made around Malvern Hill, so as to bring a force between that place and Richmond, without being discovered by the enemy. The expedition was under command of Lieutenant Southworth. Leaving the lines about sundown they slowly felt their way up the Quaker road to a wood-colored church (leaving pickets at every cross road), when leaving the main road they pushed as far in the rear of Malvern Hill as possible. In order to learn the position of the enemy, some of our men entered citizen's houses, and pretended to be rebels who had just come out on picket duty, and by ingenious conversation with the women succeeded in learning the exact position of many of their picket posts, and all returned safely to camp, having thus obtained the necessary information.

On Monday evening nine companies of the Eighth Illinois, the Eighth Pennsylvania and the Sixth Regular Cavalry, reported to General Hooker, who with Generals Sedgwich, Kearney and Couch, moved out of their works with their divisions and four splendid batteries, which made up a fine army. It was evident that there was work ahead — Malvern Hill was to be attacked from the rear. The Eighth Illinois marched in advance until twelve o'clock at night without meeting the foe, and then went into camp. At daybreak, on the 5th of August, they again started, and after going a mile came to the Charles City road, where was found a heavy picket post, which was driven back towards New Market. Turning to the left, they moved down toward James river, directly in the rear of Malvern Hill; opposed only by a few pickets. On arriving at the point where our terrible line of batteries so fearfully reduced the rebel ranks at the first battle of Malvern Hill, the enemy commenced firing upon us. Benson's battery replied, and for two hours there was a furious cannonading. The fire of the enemy was well directed, killing and wounding a number of our infantry. After a time the fire was slackened and renewed at intervals, and then suddenly ceased; when it was ascertained the rebels had retreated toward Richmond. It appears there was a road nearer the River than that occupied by our forces, leading to Richmond. The general in command, though notified, for some reason neglected to occupy it, and the enemy taking advantage of this omission, made their escape, although our numbers were five times that of their own. When the firing ceased General Pleasenton sent the cavalry down to this road just in time to capture a few of the rear guard. Lieutenant-Colonel Gamble gave the order to "charge after the flying troops" and away our boys sped until checked by coming upon the enemy. The rebel cavalry which had hastily formed for a charge, fired and then broke in all directions; but their infantry which were concealed at a bend in the road poured in a fatal volley. Sergeant O.J. Moss, of Company C was also killed, and they were brought off the field as

75

we fell back, which we did as the artillery approached. Lieutenant-Colonel Gamble was shot in the chest and severely wounded. He came back looking very pale, but still rode his charger. Three others were wounded. Falling back a short distance to give Tidball's flying artillery the road, we had the satisfaction of seeing the rebels driven from the field. The total loss of our regiment was two killed and five wounded. The federal loss was not great, and the number of rebel prisoners was about seventy-five. The caisson was all the booty we know of. The command remained at Malvern Hill that night, and on Wednesday returned to their former camps, the Eighth Illinois forming the rear guard.

At another time while part of the regiment was on picket at Haxall's Landing, Companies A and F, with a company of the Eighth Pennsylvania, were ordered out on a scout in command of Captain Forsythe. I give the incident in the language of one of the party:
"We took the right, instead of going directly toward Malvern Hill; crossed Turkey Creek, and seeing what were apparently pickets at a house on a hill in the distance our column approached it. The two forward companies were rising the hill, having crossed the small bridge at the foot, when the third company was opened upon from a piece of woods on our flank, for a moment creating confusion, more among the horses than the men. We turned on the ambuscades and soon routed them out of their cover. Following them up through the woods we came out into the opening just in time to help repulse a charge on Company A and the Pennsylvania Boys. They having gone around the house and received the charge in front while we gave the enemy an unexpected reception on their flank as they passed. When they retreated we retired getting out without a scratch. Their papers reported a loss of two killed and several wounded. It was a brisk skirmish for a few minutes, and one of our wonderful escapes when pitted against superior numbers."

76

Letter. August 26, 1862.

Yorktown, August 26th, 1862

Dear Paulina,
I at last find time to answer your very kind letter of August 5th. You may perhaps think that I am negligent, and care but little about writing, but the fact is, on a retreat we get no time, nor can we get a chance to send a letter.

We was the rear guard all the way from Harrison's Landing to this place, where we are awaiting every day to be shipped. We are going again to Alexandria. Where we shall go from there, I know not.

We have had a tough old time since we commenced this retreat. We march mostly in the night time.

Well Paulina, I am sorry in one sense of the word that they did not have to resort to drafting, for by their not drafting those cowardly men will be left to laugh and gloat over those who has a little courage left. Although their courage had to be bought with money. And then I am glad too that Illinois has showed herself in this great and glorious cause without being forced into it.

Yesterday, Sergeant L.Y. Smith and myself took a ride into the country for pleasure. We strolled around amongst orchards, eating what apple, pear and peaches we wanted, they being plenty. At last, we espied a house at a distance in the woods. We at once made for it, and it proved to be a store and public house, we called for dinner. There was three young ladies of Virginia birth and we had a big time with them. They at first pretended to think considerable of the Yankees, but we could see they was telling us a lie, so we had considerable fun with them, and I am sure they were mighty glad when we left. Deliver me from Southern people of any color or sex.

I will now give you a list of officers that has resigned and gone home out of our regiment since leaving Illinois:
Company A Captain Jennings, Lieutenant Blanchard
Company B Captain Whitney, Lieutenant Siglen
Company D Captain Gearhart
Company E One Officer
Company F Captain Cleveland
Company G Not any
Company H One
Company J One
Company K Two
Company L Two
Company M One and one Major

Paulina, we have all just come in from eating peaches, and I will try to finish this. I am so full it is hard to write. Some of the Boys have just started for a stroll through the Breast Works, and wanted me to go, but I thought I could better myself by writing to you. This is an awful warm day, but we have very full nights.

The Boys from Lodi are all enjoying good health and feeling fine. We have now in our company one Lieutenant, one sergeant, and four corporals all from the town of Lodi.

Paulina, if I could talk to you one hour face to face, I could tell you more than I write in a week, and I feel that that day is not far distant. Here it is nearly a year since we last met, but it seems scarcely a month. Doubly, do I feel the truth of the old adage that time and tide waits for no man. Oh, how anxiously I wait

77

for the time to come when I can sit down to a meal prepared by some other hands besides my own, and that meal not be hard crackers, pork and coffee.

I have now quite a family under my charge. Every corporal has to have a squad to take care of. Mine is Tim, Oliver, Bent, Dave Filmore and Arnold Wallace and they are dutiful children.

Tell Eliza that as long as there is life, there is hope. Ask Celia how she likes Blackstone. Tell Mother that when I fill my pipe and sit down to smoke, I think of her.

Oh yes Paulina, the story is here that Barney is drilling the young ladies of Lodi. I would like to know what such tricks he uses. Cavalry or Infantry, I think that we have plenty of Cavalry. I had an idea that that was as far as the young mans courage went. If he puts on too much style, just ask him what became of his rubber coat when he was at Pohick Church.

We are now encamped about forty rods from the spot where Lord Cornwallis gave his saber to General Washington. We have received no mail since the First of August, nor shall we until we get to Alexandria. I must now close and prepare my supper, so good bye for the present. This from your affectionate
Enos.
Tell Father to let me read something from his pen.

78

Letter. September 27, 1862.

Sharpesburg, September 27th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
It is now a long time since I've written to you, this being the first opportunity since leaving Yorktown. But Paulina, my thoughts were with you day and night and I sincerely hope that I may be spared to be with you in person. Since leaving the peninsula, we have done nothing but fight. We have given the Sesesh to understand that the Eighth Illinois are not to be fooled with. We took twenty prisoners and their colors at our charge, besides killing quite a number. We have been doing but little since the last battle. Ole Jackson got enough of coming into Maryland. He lost over twenty thousand men by the operation and our men piled them up in winrows. Our regiment was supporting a Battery during the fight and the shells flew over up like hail, but hurt no one.

My health is not very good at present. At present I am just grunting a little. It may be that I am lazy.

The Captain has got back. He looks fine. He fetched me those flowers that you spoke of Paulina.

Keep up good spirits and hope for the best. Never despair. Tell Mother I think of her as I fill my pipe for a smoke. Give my respects to Celia. Tell Father and Harry that neither of them can hold a candle to me.

The Boys are all well. Charles Plopper was killed, but it was all his own carelessness. I will now close. Tell Harry to send me a few stamps, as I am out and can get none. This from you devoted,
Enos.
Write often.

80

Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
7th Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for Sept & Oct., 1862.
Present or absent absent
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: Absent on sick leave. Promoted from Corporal Oct. 1st 1862.
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

81

Letter. October 5, 1862.

Sharpesburg, October 5th, 1862

Dear Best Paulina,
I am yet alive, but not very well. I have been sick about two weeks. Not so I had to leave the Company. I was confined to my tent part of the time, but now I am again out and able to eat my allowance of potatoes. We are yet laying here in Maryland, close to the Virginia Shore, and we occasionally cross over and take a round or two with them.

I heard by a letter that Thomas Brown got, that Eliza, poor girl, had left this world for another and oh may it be a better one where she will not have to go through the trouble and trials that are endured in this wicked inhabitation of man. How well I should like to of been with her during her last hours in this world, but then, am deprived of such pleasures at present.

I also heard that father was very sick. Oh, what is to the destination of this family. That I could only be with them in their afflictions, but, Gods will be done, not mine.

Paulina, I feel as though, and I believe, that on the next Fourth of July, the Stars and Stripes will be flying unmolested over every state in our Union. Yes, our happy country will again be restored to peace. Some pretend to think not. but let them take my place where they can have a chance to be with and see the poor, dirty, hungry and naked soldiers of the South and they will think differently.

Something is agoing to be done and that shortly. Oh, the difference in the two armies. One is well fed and clothed, and looks like fighting men, and the other is dirty, ragged and half starved. It is a comparison worth seeing. Henry McKinley is a deserter. He left us the night we crossed into Maryland, and has not been heard of since. That was some six weeks or more ago.

We get but little mail since coming into this state. We have only received one mail once in the last month. You can see by this writing that I am yet nervous and my hand is getting tired, so will you please excuse these few lines, and I will try to be more punctual in writing hereafter. Give my respects to all. In hoping to hear from you soon, I will close by subscribing myself as ever, your — and devoted
Enos.

Letter. October 17, 1862.

Knoxsville, October 17th, 1862

Dearest Paulina,
I received your kind letter of the second, glad once more to hear from you, but it was rather tough to get such news. My health is a little better that it was. I have one or two shakes of the ague and that is agoing to cure me. I have been very downhearted since your last letter, but Captain will not allow me to do anything, not even to water my own horse. He says that I have had bad news enough to lay still. He is so kind to me.

I have just been promoted from a corporal to a sergeant Benton and Tim are promoted to corporals. Lodi Boys are taking the lead in this company. We have one lieutenant, three sergeants and four corporals that live in Lodi.

There is some pretty hard fighting going on about ten miles from here. It commenced yesterday. We have not been called in yet and I do not think that we will be. We have done more than our share this

82

summer and our horses are in no condition to fight. We have only four hundred men fit for duty. When we left Illinois, we had more than eleven hundred fighting men. Our men want rest.

While laying here writing. I can hear the booming of the cannon which sounds as natural to me as the whistle of the cars do to you, and it also tells me that human beings are being slaughtered by hundreds, by the death dealing balls that are thrown from its fiery mouth. Paulina, if a man wants to have his heart hardened harder that the adamantive rocks, he want to be in the same place that some of us has been in for the past year.

Tell Harrison I received a letter from him today which I will answer tomorrow or the next day. I should have answered yours sooner, but we moved our camp some fifteen miles, and it has kept us busy ever since.

Write often. It may be that I will succeed in getting a furlough. If I do, I will be home in a week, but I have no hopes of getting one before winter, if I do. Then I will now close this. From your affectionate
Enos

Hard (226).

During the winter, furloughs for fifteen days were readily granted, and many were thus enabled to visit their homes.

We now encamped in a field having marched eighty six miles in twenty six hours. Many of the men and horses had given out on the way and came straggling along all the afternoon. During the night, the more to add to our discomfort, we had a drenching rain.

Monday, 13th, we returned to Sharpsburg, a distance of thirty-five miles greatly fatigued, the whole distance traveled being one hundred and twenty-one miles. It is doubtful if better time or more rapid marching was made by any command during the war. The mistake, if any existed, was in our being sent round after the enemy instead of anticipating his course and intercepting him. All felt deeply the disgrace of allowing the rebel General to pass around our army and gather spoils, which he had now done the second time.

October 14th, orders were issued early in the morning to move camp and during the day the regiment marched to Knoxville, some five or six miles below Harpers Ferry without even resting from the effects of their late unprecedented march. But in time of war orders must be obeyed. Finding a poor place for the regiment to encamp, Major Medill ordered another move, and we went some two miles farther from the river, where we pitched our tents.

Hard (221).

The army now began preparations for winter quarters as the cold weather was upon us in earnest. After a few days, our regiment went into camp near Belle Plain. The remainder of the year 1862 was passed on picket duty and scouting. No winter quarters were built worthy of the name. A few tents were erected and huts built, but the men were on duty most of the time — in fact they preferred to stand picket in King George County, where they could forage freely, to remaining in camp and living on hard-tack and pork. Little could be done in the way of fighting, as the roads were now very muddy, and the weather cold, wet and unpleasant.

The line guarded was along the Rapahannock in the vicinity of Port Conway, a distance often or fifteen miles and across the neck of the Potomac. With the exception of sugar and coffee, most of the rations for the men and a large part of the forage for the horses, were obtained by appropriating such provisions as

83

could be found upon the plantations. Being intensely disloyal in sentiment, the citizens complained of such conduct.

Page ImageMuster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for Nov & Dec, 1862.
Present or absent absent
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: Absent on sick leave.
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

84

EDITORS NOTE: Enos does get a furlough. He and Paulina are married December 14, 1862.

1863.

Diary. February 12, 1863.

See Appendix A.

Washington, February 12, 1863

Weather pleasant — arrived at Harrisburg early in morning and took breakfast. Then took the cars for Baltimore and arrived there at two o'clock. Hired a hack and went to the Provost Marshall and then to Headquarters. From there to the Watch House, then to the relief and took supper. Then to the theater, then to the relief and to root and still I am lonesome. E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. February 13, 1863.

Washington, February 13, 1863

Weather very pleasant. Went to the ....ton House for my papers. From there, to the Adjutant Generals. From there to the Provost Marshals. From there to the Quartermasters and got transportation for myself and men to Washington and took the cars at three o'clock and arrived in Washington at five, and stopped at the Soldiers Relief Home. Sweet home, there is no place like home be it ever so homey. E.C. Kennedy.

First Clothing Draw for the year 1863:
1 pair pants 4.60 1 jacket 5.97 1 knit blouse 2.70 1 pair gloves 1 pair flannel drawers .95 1 pair boots 3.25 1 pair pants 4.60 1 blouse

Diary. February 14, 1863.

Camp 5, New York Battery, Virginia, February 14th, 1863

Weather pleasant. Left the Relief in the morning and took a boat at eight o'clock for Aquia Creek. Then took the cars to Stoneman's Switch. From there I went with William Pierce to His Battery to stay all night. I got acquainted with him in Baltimore. I took supper at the Fifth New Jersey Infantry. Retired at ten. I often think of those that I have left at home. E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. February 15, 1863.

Belle Plain, February 15th, 1863

It rained both in the AM and PM. Stayed all day in the 6th New York Battery and all night. Read most of the time during the day and retired at a little after nine. I wish to God that this war was ended for I am tired of it and longing once more to be at home where I can take comfort. Enos C. Kennedy.

85

Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
E. C. Kennedy
Pvt., Co. A, 8 Reg't IL Cavalry.

Appears on
Muster Roll
of Stragglers forwarded by Military Commander.
Chicago, Ill., Feb. 10, 1863.
Transportation has been furnished from Chicago,
Ill., to (?), 800 miles, at 2 cents per mile, $16.00
for Nov & Dec, 1861.
Present or absent not stated
Remarks: _____
Book mark: _____
Ballow Copyist.

86

Letter. February 16, 1863.

Belle Plain, February 16th, 1863

Dear Beloved Wife,
I seize this, the first opportunity since leaving home to write you a few lines, I am well and in camp. I arrived here this noon. The Boys are all out on Pickett but are coming in tomorrow. I will now give you a description of my journey here.

I arrived in Chicago Tuesday morning just before daylight and put up at the Briggs House, but Captain Farnsworth was not there, nor no recruits, so I went to Captain Pomroy's office and he gave me charge of twenty-five men to take to Washington. So you see, I had my hands full all the way through. They belonged to the 12th Ill. Cavalry and were stragglers that had been picked up through the State. I left Chicago in the evening and arrived at Baltimore Thursday in the forenoon and it took me until Friday night to get transportation for them to Washington. After I got them to Washington, I sent them to Alexandria to the distributing camp. The Officers in Washington were bound that I should go with them, but I slipped away from them and took a boat from Aquia Creek, from there went to Stoneman's Switch. I got there Saturday night and stayed with the 6th New York Battery all night and all day Sunday and all Sunday night. And this morning, started in pursuit of the Regiment. I soon found the Ambulance Corp and they took me to the Regiment and here I am writing to you. But, I would rather be with you than writing to you. I want you to write soon and let me know what mother had to say and if you was — and in fact, everything. How late did you stay to the dance after I left? Oh, wasn't I homesick on the ride here! Tell Harrison to stay at home, for it is no joke to be a Soldier. Give my respects to Celia.

It cost me seventeen dollars to come here, besides the five I started with. I had fifty cents left when I got here. I could not draw any money at Washington for want of time. I shall have to pay next pay day my transportation besides fifteen dollars I owe here.

I saw George Jennings here. If you have received any letters for me that you think I would like to see, please send them on. Tell mother to write me a letter for I should like to hear from her. Give my love to L— when you see her and tell her to write me a good long letter. The Army is demoralisus.
Enos

Hard (213).

Thus the winter passed until the 16th of February, when a change of base was ordered for the cavalry. Our destination was Hope Landing on Acquia Creek.

Diary. February 16, 1863.

Belle Plain, February 16th, 1863

It was pleasant all day. The sun out in all its' splendor. Left the Battery in the morning in search of the Regiment. Went to the 8th Penn. Then to the 6th Regulars, then to the Ambulance Corp and they took me to the Regiment. Saw George, Town and Jim. Wrote a letter to Paulina and two for George, One to his wife, and one to Enu. Received five dollars from G. Jennings and retired at nine. E. C. Kennedy

87

Diary. February 17, 1863.

Belle Plain, February 17th, 1863

Snowed all day. The Boys came in off Pickett most froze and very much pleased to see me. Played Euchre with the Teamsters. Bought some flour. I had to tell the Boys all I knew about Lodi and more too. Oh, how tired I got. Retired at half past ten. Drew a jacket and a pair of pants.

Hard (223).

As the day wore on the storm increased, ... and at dark we found ourselves in a pine forest on Acquia Creek with six inches of snow for a bed.

Diary. February 18, 1863.

Aquia Creek, February 18th, 1863

Rained all day. Drew a knit blouse and a pair of gloves. We started at nine for Aquia Creek. The roads were awful and oh, how it rained. I nearly froze. I had no overcoat. Oh, what a time we had. We neither laid down or slept all night. We kept a big fire and stood by it. It was the toughest I ever saw. E.C. Kennedy.

Hard (223).

All this time the weather was very unpleasant. Snow, six or eight inches deep, was followed by rain and mud — a few cold days, then rain again. The roads were indescribable. All day and night would the long wagon trains move slowly along through the mud and over she corduroy roads constructed by the army. Thousands of horses and mules died in transporting the immense army stores along these roads.

Thus the winter passed, until the 16th of February, when a change of base was ordered for the cavalry. Our destination was Hope Landing on Acquia Creek. Preparations being completed, the Eighth Illinois and in fact, the entire division, broke camp on the 17th and began to march in a snow storm. As the day wore on the storm increased, but by dint of searing and whipping, most of the wagons were brought through, and at dark we found ourselves in a pine forest on Acquia Creek, with six inches of snow for a bed. Pine boughs thrown on the snow raised us a little above it, and rolled up in blankets we slept, or tried to sleep, and arose in the morning from under a covering of three or four inches of snow which had fallen during the night. Such suffering and hardship as this the soldiers were becoming used to, and those who did not sink under them were surely hardy men.

The new camps arranged, supplies were obtained via Acquia Creek, and a new method of transportation was adopted. Wagons were again abandoned and supplies were transported on the backs of mules. The country was hilly, and up the hills and down the ravines these animals waded through the mud, loaded to their utmost capacity. In several instances the poor creatures sank in the mud and died, leaving nothing visible except a very small portion of their tails and long ears. Rain and snow alternating almost daily, on the Virginia soil, put the roads in a conditions it is impossible to describe, and yet all the rations both for men and horses must be carried some three miles from the landing on the back of mules and horses.

Diary. February 19, 1863.

Aquia Creek, February 19th, 1863

Weather lousy all day. Felt like Hell all day. Slept part of the day. Len and Tim and Bent went to the Landing for grain. Had a very good nights rest. E.C. Kennedy.

Was detailed to take charge of a squad of men to work on the roads the next day.

88

Diary. February 20, 1863.

Aquia Creek, February 20th, 1863

Weather beautiful all day. Up early in the morning and got my men ready for work. Started at seven. Laid around until ten o'clock and then went to camp. Bought an overcoat off friend Beach for five dollars. Retired early. E.C. Kennedy

Diary. February 21, 1863.

Aquia Creek, February 21st, 1863

Weather pleasant. Took my men again this morning for the roads. Drew two axes, three shovels and one pick and went to work. Camped at night near the road and woke up in the night and found five inches of snow over us. So ended the day. E.C. Kennedy

Diary. February 22, 1863.

Aquia Creek, February 22nd, 1863

Snowed most of the day. Up early and built a fire. Got a little whiskey for my men. We were ordered to camp at noon. In afternoon, helped fix quarters. It's rather damn cold. First eat supper and smoked and must now prepare to sit up all night for want of blankets. Oh, give me a discharge! E.C. Kennedy

Diary. February 23, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, February 23rd, 1863

Weather cold. Went to the Landing and got a sack of oats. Lost it coming to camp. Got an order of Lieutenant Beach and went back in PM and got some soft bread and flour. Sold my watch to Barney Carlin for ten dollars. Capt Farnsworth arrived today. Mud, Mud, Mud. E.C.Kennedy

Diary. February 24, 1863.

Stafford Court House, February 24th, 1863

Weather pleasant over head. Tim and me put a cover on one house. Oliver went to work on the roads. Bent and Len went for grain. Sent for 2.50 worth of tobacco. Heard of Conscription Act passing the House. Enos C. Kennedy

Diary. February 25, 1863.

Camp 8th Illinois Cavalry, February 25th, 1863

Weather chilly. Went to the landing for grain. Bought a quarters worth of apples, then came back and eat dinner and read some in a book and then wrote this and went to sleep. Then got up and got supper. Set around awhile and went to bed early. E.C. Kennedy

89

Civil War Significance of Stafford, Virginia. Editors Comment.

When the War between the States began, Stafford, Virginia, became at once an armed camp, and during the whole war, one army or another, occupied its soil. Hundreds of thousand of men camped in it for long periods, armies cut its roads, wagon trains five miles long rutted them, and soldiers foraged and forged over it until it was left desolate, devastated and poverty stricken.

Hardly had the news of the succession of Virginia reached its people when the Federals began to try to land on Stafford shores and the Confederates brought their forces to repel the invaders. The Federal gun boats approached Stafford from the Potomac with the objective of landing forces, and Confederate General Daniel Ruggles, at once hurried to fortify the mouth of Aquia Creek and Potomac Run.

At Aquia, Ruggles built gun pits for the small cannon he could get from Richmond and breastworks for the infantry. On the high hill back of this line, he erected a fortification of strength with deep pits for guns and men which can be reached from Brooke Station and is still visible.

The greatest Federal Hospital was at Belle Plains. Here were more than one hundred large tents for rows of wounded men, a thousand smaller for four men or two men, officer's tents, and surgeons' tents. The men fared well, for they were given jellies, oranges, all kinds of fruit, and the choicest foods. The half-starved Staffordians managed to get some of this by hook or crook.

When the war ended, Stafford was utterly devoid of stock, food, and forage, and the soil had gone down or grown up into brush. No county in the United States felt the war so harshly as Stafford. Soldiers had made it a camp and forage grounds until nothing was left. Hundred of homes had been burned, the records at Stafford Courthouse had been half destroyed, and those that remained were damaged. Churches had been burned and the roads were impassable.

Map of Stafford County, Virginia.

90

Historic Sites in the County of Stafford, Virginia.

91

Diary. February 26, 1863.

Camp near Stafford Court House, February 26th, 1863

Up at two o'clock in the AM and saddled ready for a march. It rained all day. Went to Aquia Church and cooked our breakfast. Then started for Warrenton. We camped all night by place called Morrison. I laid on two rails all night and thought of the good bed I left in Illinois. Oh, how it rained in the night. E. C. Kennedy.

Hard (224).

The cavalry lay in this position until February 25th. That night, in the midst of a heavy rain storm "boots and saddles" were sounded and the orders were to march. It was rumored that the rebel General Stuart was at his old tricks again. The men crawled from under their blankets, mounted their horses and started. They traveled some forty miles, to near Warrenton, without overtaking the enemy, who had twenty-four hours the start of them. Stuart had made an attack on the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, captured a number of men and horses and made good his escape. It is said that he paroled some of the prisoners, by whom he sent his compliments to General Hooker, with the request that he keep his horses in better order, as he depended on the Pennsylvania Cavalry to supply his demand.

Diary. February 27, 1863.

Camp, Lay House, February 27th, 1863

Weather pleasant all day. Up early in the morning, got breakfast. Saddled, fell in and started for camp. We crossed through two creeks that nearly swam our horses. We marched within six miles of Falmouth and camped. Tom Brown and me broke Cedar brush and made us a bed. I feel the truth of the old adage that "Time and tide wait for no man".

Diary. February 28, 1863.

Stafford Court House, February 28th, 1863

Weather rather cold. Started for camp at eight o'clock and arrived at noon. Got Dinner. Cleaned my revolver and wrote a letter to Harrison. Bent went on guard. Took Bob Gardner in our tent. Bought some ink and sand paper off the suttler. Was mustered for pay, but wished it had been muster out day. E.C. Kennedy.

Hard (225).

The division returned on the 28th, and resumed its former position. The principle duties performed by the cavalry, besides building roads and providing forage, consisted in picketing the country between the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, above Falmouth, a distance of twenty miles, and patrolling from thence to the Ocoquan, where they connected with cavalry from Alexandria. By this it will soon be seen that there were no idle bands; work day and night — constant work all winter. I wish those patriots who think they did their share by staying at home and spending their money, however freely in the good cause, to make a note of this. No money will offset the labor and suffering of one such winter.

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Pontoon bridge at Benham's Wharf. Belle Plain. Virginia.

Pontoon train en route from Aquia to Falmouth (Harper's) After February. 1863.

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Letter. March 1, 1863.

Camp near Stafford Court House, March 1st, 1863

Dear Wife,
It has been just two weeks since I wrote last and I have not heard from it yet. So, I thought I would write this and send it in search of the first. Since writing last, we have had tough times.

Yesterday, we came into Camp from a three day tramp in the mud after Steward, but we did not catch him. It rained all the time we was out. The first night we was out, I slept on two rails in the rain. It has done nothing but rain and snow here since I came back. One morning, I woke up and found six inches of snow on me, but I am as tough as a bear.

We have just succeeded in erecting a log house. We have a large fireplace in it and are as comfortable as pigs. Tim won't sleep with any but me. I suppose he thinks that if he can't sleep with you, he will sleep with the one nearest to you. He thinks he would like to live with us after the War, but I can't see the point, can you?

Yesterday, we were mustered for pay and in ten days we are to be paid. Out of my pay I have got twenty dollars to pay for clothes, ten dollars borrowed money, and seventeen dollars transportation. The balance I will divide between you and me. I have got a splendid horse to ride now, the second best in the Company. The Boys are all to bed and I, as usual, am selling up alone.

I feel as though I had lost my mate and many an hour do I spend alone after the rest are abed thinking of you. I have not had any guard duty to do since I came back. I have had charge of a squad of men building Corduroy Roads, nothing to do but boss the job. Today, I helped the Captain to build a house.

I heard today that everybody in Lodi had the Small Pox and that John Henry's wife was dead, also, Mr. Bly and that Harrison had it. Paulina, if you knew how anxious I was to hear from you, you would write often. I will endeavor to write as often as possible although my time is limited.

We have more than fifteen different kinds of weather here, inside of ten moments last night. It rained all night. Today the sun is out in all its splendor, but oh, such muddy roads. I was to the landing this forenoon helping to boat grain across the river, ate seven or eight apples and traded horses. Got an awful ugly one. He worked faithfully for one hour to throw me, but give it up at last and I think he will make a good horse. For we have not got our pay yet but expect the paymaster everyday and shant be sorry to see him.

My dear you are no more anxious to have me get home than I am to get home. It is not very pleasant to be seperated, for I know there is comfort in store for us, and Youth is the time to build up for old age.

I seem to feel the grasp of friendly hands, the thrilling tones of voices sympathetic guiding me from the dimly lying lands where sways grim yesterday, his word ascetic and join the noble army of the brave. How I wish I could shout forth my sentiments, and make those that are erring believe.

Paulina, I would like you to send me a few postage stamps, for it is a thing impossible to get them here. Well I wish you was here to cook my supper for me and then help me eat it. I am agoing to have for supper pork, soft bread, hard crackers, coffee, pepper, mustard, vinegar, and smoking tobacco. What do you think of it? Isn't it a good variety? Tomorrow I am agoing to do my washing. Tell Bridgett to keep a stiff upper lip for as soon as the war ends she will be made happy, the same that you was.

Well I declare if I haven't wrote over two sheets of paper and it all amounts to nothing. Please excuse this heterogenious mass for it is the best I can do. I must now get supper and do my chores. Write often and long. I will do the same when I am permitted.

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If I can't sleep with you tonight, I can think of you and wish I were there.

Kiss Georgie for me, keeping a package for yourself. No more at this time from your loving and true husband
Sargent E.C. Kennedy

Diary. March 1, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 1st, 1863

Rained in AM; sun shone in PM. Went to the 8th NY Suttler before breakfast and bought a pipe and some postage stamps. Helped the Captain on his house. Cleaned my carbine, changed my clothes. Heard that Vicksburg was taken. Wrote Paulina. Played Euchre in the evening. Retired at a late hour. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 2, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 2nd, 1863

Weather pleasant and sun shining in all its' splendor. Built a fire in the morning. Went to the landing for grain. Lieutenant Van Vlack returned to the regiment. Read a book entitled "Amelia Marton". Heard that Harrison had some of the small pox but had got around. Eat some cake made by Mrs. J.P. Smith of Lodi, Illinois (it being sent to Len). So ended the day. Retired early. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 3, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 3rd, 1863

Weather lousy both AM and PM. Built a fire after the Captain waked me up. Got breakfast. Turned over my horse and drew another. Cleaned a revolver. Gave Dick his and saber. Got a saber, saddle, and bridle. Got a letter from Paulina with her likeness. Heard that Vicksburg was taken with sixty thousand men. Help eat some oysters, eat two onions. Then went to landing to boat grain. Town and George called to see us. Wrote a letter to Joseph. It is now ten o'clock, and I must prepare for bed. E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 6, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 6th, 1863

Weather lousy. Tim and me eat breakfast before the rest was up. Washed for myself and Len and James Shields. Tim and Bob is on guard. Lost five cents playing old sledge. Read Boltons Magazine. Wrote a letter to Louisa Miner. Saw young Luther. Fell in at retreat roll call with all arms on. Had a roll call at eight in the evening. E. C. Kennedy.

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Hard (225).

The regiment was on picket in the vicinity of Dumfrees. The guerillas would occasionally fire upon our pickets; especially at night, and some were killed and wounded by this inhuman means.

We frequently made sallies into the country and at different times captured prisoners to the number of twenty. Numerous casualties occurred which were unavoidable, especially in a cavalry regiment. On March 1st, George Sullivan was thrown from his horse and had his collar bone fractured. Thus the time passed between weary days and sleepless nights; for not infrequently were the calls to saddle up, at all hours of the night. On the 5th of March, a portion of the Eighth New York and the Third Indiana, being on picket, were attacked and the whole command were aroused and ordered in pursuit.

Diary. March 7, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 7th, 1863

Weather lousy in AM. Rained in PM. Went to the Brigade Suttlers and bought 8 stamps and 30 cents worth tobacco. Built a wind breaker before our horses. Cleaned up our arms and clothes for inspection. The next day, give 25 cents for butter. Got an order of the Captain for sugar and coffee. Bought a paper. Wrote a letter to mother. Retired at eleven. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 8, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 8th, 1863

Rained in the AM. Chilly in PM. Cleaned up and went on inspection. Run my face at the Suttlers for $1.15. Got an order of the Captain for potatoes and went to Hope Landing. Drew a lot of mules. Received a letter from Paulina. Len and Bob got letters. Oliver on guard. Smoked and retired at an early hour. E. C. Kennedy

Diary. March 9, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 9th, 1863

Weather splendid. Sun shinning in all its' splendor. Cooked a pot beans, boiled some pork and stewed some apples. Fixed up and went on inspection parade. Bent got two letters. Was detailed for guard tomorrow. Eat some potatoes with Pierce. Drew a mule for our mess. Took a smoke and retired at early hour. E. C. Kennedy

Letter. March 19, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 10th, 1863

Dear & Beloved Wife,
I received yours of March 1st day before yesterday, and will now endeavor to reply. Today I am on guard, post my relief, then go and sit in my tent. So you see, I don't have it very hard. It is raining here today. Tomorrow we are agoing on Pickett. We stay a week at a time. I don't suppose I shall get a home to write again until we come in. We have as much mud here as you do there. We have to pack our hay and grain on our horses. Wagons can't run for much.

Paulina, I don't want you to stay there after they are married unless you hire your board. And, as for going to the Tavern, you ought to know best. I don't want you to go to any place unless it bears a good name. Paulina, I will hire your board any place where you are contented, but never as long as I live, shall you be a servant for (Blank line shown). I shall pay them for your Board as long as you stay there. I notice I had to pay well for every little trifle that I have had while at Home. My dear, if I should happen

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to get a berth in the Hospital, it will be with the Regiment so you could not come, as we are in the field all the time. You see, our Hospital moves with the Regiment.

I am very sorry to learn that they are agoing to sell May. I think it would be as little as Harry could do to take care of her, but then, it is none of my business what they do. If Mother has got to hire her kept, she had better sell her. I think that if Harrison had any regard and thought anything of Mother, he would do as much as to saw the wood. Tell her to hire it sawed, and I will send her money to pay for it. Oh, I wish I could be at Home to take care of my Mother. Paulina, if Harry and Celia gets married and you and Mother will keep house alone, I will furnish you ten dollars a month and that will keep you and her comfortable. I wrote a letter to your Sister the other day.

You asked the question, when will this War be closed. God only know, I don't. I can't see any prospects of its closing this summer. We are not united enough. The North is too much divided for us to make a speedy War of it. I hope this Conscription Act will be enforced for I don't think that the people at the North are any better than I am. We are into this War and let us put it through. I want to be at Home and I want to see the War ended so that I can stay in peace.

(Note on top margin of page) "I just now drew a new canteen to carry my whiskey in."

Volume No. 2, Third Edition

I guess you will get tired reading such letter, but I must pass the time some when I get to writing. I am enjoying first bunkum health, but what is that compared to being at Home.

Yesterday, I drew a mule for our mess to carry hard crackers on when we go on Pickett. Tim has just been detailed as Corporal of the Pioneer Corps that is to build roads for us to travel on.

Oh, yes, don't you want to say? If you do, you where to go. Van Vlack has got back and he talks some of resigning. We all hope he will, for he is of no use here.

Tell Mother that one of those Luthers that lived in Pennsylvania is in our Regiment. I must quit writing and post my relief. I will write again the first opportunity I have. My love to you all, you especially. How I long to be with you again, but I must be contented until that time comes. Write often and everything you can think of. No more at present. This from you affectionate Husband.
Sargt. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 10, 1863.

Hope Landing, March 10th, 1863

Stormy all day. Mounted guard at nine. Was on second relief. My guard was from Company's B, C, F, L, P. Tim got a letter. Stole potatoes enough from commissary to make our mess a meal. Went on guard at eleven, five, and twelve. We drew a pack saddle for our mule. Get to go on Pickett tomorrow. Retired at ten. E. C. Kennedy

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Diary. March 11, 1863.

Dumphreys, March 11th, 1863

Came off Guard at three in the AM and packed up ready for Pickett. We started at ten in the AM and arrived at Dumphreys just before sundown and camped for the night. Oliver and Len stayed in camp. Had to keep saddled all night. Slept cold. Slept with Bob Gardner. Got a poncho from town. Retired early. E.C. Kennedy

Diary. March 12, 1863.

Pickett Line, March 12th, 1863

Snowed by spells all day. Up at four and built a fire and got breakfast. Unsaddled, cleaned and got ready to move. Went out to the Pickett lines and relieved a Squadron of the 8th New York Cavalry. Put up a tent. Moved our headquarters in PM. Slept with Bob and slept cold. Retired early. Darn a soldiers life.
E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 13, 1863.

Pickett Line, March 13th, 1863

Weather might cold. Up before daylight it being too cold to sleep. Our company stood Pickett. I was in charge of the second relief and acted on patrol. My relief was Casman, Cavenaugh, Wallace, Smith, Brown, Martin, Coffier. Some of the company went scouting. The Captain visited the lines after midnight. E. C. Kennedy

Diary. March 14, 1863.

Pignette Line, March 14, 1863

Weather chilly. Slept none last night it being so cold. Came off Pickett at seven and slept some in AM. Some of the Boys went sentry AM on the second relief. On Post, Company C had a horse shot while on Post by the Rebs. Got a letter from Paulina. Wasn't very well E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 15, 1863.

Pignette Line, March 15, 1863

Weather cool in the forenoon. Thundered and Lightened in the PM and hailed and snowed and rained. I stood four hours Pickett most of it in the storm. Companies H & E had seven men captured while patrolling to Aquia Creek. Slept rather tough most of the night.
E. C. Kennedy.

Hard (225).

On the night of March 15th, Whitworth of Company C, had his horse shot. Captain Southworth, with a squad of men, went in pursuit of the cowardly guerrillas, but owning to the darkness, could find nothing of them.

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Diary. March 16, 1863.

Pickett Line, March 16th, 1863

Weather rather cold. Was on Pickett two hours in the morning. Then went scouting with Captain Farnsworth. Took a rebel Captain and two privateers prisoners. Had a good time also. Took a Boy for a pilot and four horses and saddles. Stood Pickett from 8 to 10. Then retired and slept first bully all night.
E.C. Kennedy.

Hard (225).

On March 16th, while patrolling from Dumfrees up the Ocoquan, a party of seven men belongs to our regiment was overpowered and captured. Captain Farnsworth headed a party and went in pursuit. They captured three rebel prisoners, an officer, two men and four horses. One of the horses had belonged to our regiment. A few days later four more of the enemy were captured.

Diary. March 17, 1863.

Pickett Line, March 17th, 1863

Weather pleasant during the day, but chilly at nights. Nothing of any amount transpired on the line during the day, but considerable firing between 8 and 10. Had to go out and stand dismounted in the woods. Was considerable cannonading in the direction of Kelley's Ford. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 18, 1863.

Pickett Line, March 18th, 1863

Weather cold. Went on post at ten in AM and six in PM and had to stand again at night dismounted. Received a letter from Paulina, one from Harrison, and one from Mother. Was champion in playing Seven-up. Tim got breakfast. I got dinner and Scop got supper. I hope we shall be relieved before long.
E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 19, 1863.

Pickett Line, March 19th, 1863

Weather mighty chilly. Was on frost twice during the day. Stood in the night with Barney Martin on the Center outpost. Scop fired his revolver three times at a noise. Came out best again playing Seven-Up. Am getting tired of standing Pickett. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 20, 1863.

Pickett Line, March 20th, 1863

Weather rather bilious all day. On frost as usual. Commenced snowing in the evening. Stood dismounted at night in the woods in front of the mounted Pickets. Like to froze to death. Received a letter from Joseph Howland and his wife. Had some chicken soup in the evening. Heard that we was agoing to be relieved by the NY Cavalry. E. C. Kennedy

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Diary. March 21, 1863.

Camp new Hope Landing, March 21st, 1863

Weather bad. It snowed and rained all day. Went on Pignette at 8 AM. Was relieved at 10 by the 8th NY Cavalry. We packed up and went to camp through the storm. Traded horses with Van Vlack. Got a big fellow. Received a letter from Paulina and one from Louisa Miner. Cooked supper and retired at an early hour. Slept the best I have for ten days. Amen. E.C. Kennedy

Letter. March 22, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 22nd, 1863

Respected Wife,
I have before me three of your welcome letters to answer. The reason I have not written before is that we have been on Pickett for the last two days, twenty miles from Camp, and we had no way of sending letters if we had of written them.

I was glad to hear that you all got along so well with the Small Pox, for it gave me a great deal of uneasiness. Paulina, I have no objections to your going and living with Bridget providing it suits you and place bears a good name. There is plenty of places in this World to live. If you only knew my friends in Ohio, I should by all means have you go there and spend the summer. I got a letter from Joseph Howland and his wife and they are bound that you shall come and stay with them while I am here. If I should get a Stewardship in the Hospital, it will be in the Regiment so you could not come. I should like to have you with me and would, if I could get into a permanent hospital. If you have not left when you get this, I want you to pack up and settle up with Harrison and leave, and, if you are in his debt, I will send along the money to pay it. How I wish I could be at Home. If things wouldn't take a different course there would be a fuss.

I hope to the very bottom of my heart that this Conscription Act will take affect and jerk those Northern blows down here. The sooner it is done, the sooner we shall get home. They can talk about resisting it and that is all it will amount to.

Yes Paulina, I will send my picture the first opportunity I have of getting it taken. I would advise you not to drink too much beer for I suppose that you are aware that it prods folks out in front, so beware.

I notice by your letter that you still object to my sleeping on the floor, but I will show you if I ever get home. I am in good health, but wore down after Picketing. We had a pretty hard time of it for ten days.

I notice by your last letter that Harrison still insists in making a brute of himself. I want you to leave there right away and take Mother with. I can take care of her and not abuse her either. Also, do not talk against his enlisting, I shall write him a letter and if there is any way of getting him here, I shall do it. I thought Harry had been in the effects of Liquor enough to let it alone and try to make a man of himself, but I fear he is lost and Celia is a damned fool, or else she would either leave or get married. Paulina, I want you to keep me posted in everything. I think Mother had better settle up the Estate if she ever wants it settled. We have not got our pay yet, but shall get it soon.

Paulina, I wish you and Mother would go somewhere and keep house. Tell her if she will that I will do all I can do for her, that she shall live comfortable while I have my health.

I am glad that you still keep your health. If you keep on, you will get ahead of me. You better get married once more, but then, nothing gives me more pleasure than such news. Yes, it is your privilege to brag, because you are out of Jackson's service and discarded the Colton Breastworks for Natures. My side has

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not bothered me many since I came back. I never had better health in my life. I just got a new pair of boots and I am cutting quite a swell.

I must hasten to close for Bent has got a kettle of beef soup made and I want my share of. I got a letter yesterday from your Sister. Here is that recipe for the itch:
Take of Barbadoes Tar 2 oz.
Take of Venice Turpentine 2 oz.
Lard Enough to make an Ointment. It is to be rubbed on where ever the itch is broke out

Write often and all the news and I will try to do the same. Well, I must quit or lose my soup. I will subscribe myself as ever, your loving and affectionate Husband.
Sargt. Enos C. Kennedy

Diary. March 22, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 22nd, 1863

Weather beautiful. Up late in the morning, eat breakfast. Took care of my horse then wrote letters to Paulina, Joseph and Wife and to Louisa Miner. Was on regimental inspection. Had preaching in PM but did not go. Bought a paper of pepper, a box of mustard and some pens. Had beef soup for dinner. Captain Forsyth was Brigade Officer of the day. Retired early, so ends this chapter. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 23, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 23rd, 1863

Weather mighty pleasant. Up to Roll Call. Took letters to the office. Had potatoes for breakfast. Fed and cleaned by horse. Helped to police our ground. Wrote a letter to Mother. Had beef soup for dinner. Lent the Captain two stamps. Drew Cycringle girth and pistol holster. Got another Revolver. Had an inspection of arms in PM. Played cards. Came out even. Read in a book entitled "The Irish Widow." E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 24, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 24th, 1863

Weather very pleasant, but rained at night. Up to Roll Call in morning. Went to Post Office before
breakfast. Made out a clothing list for one month for the Company. Had a Squadron Drill in A.M.
Received a letter from Paulina. Wrote one to Harrison. Put Davison in his tent he being drunk. Bob on guard. Played Seven-Up. Bought a dollars worth of bread. Had no tattoo Roll Call. Retired at an early hour. So ended the day. Enos C. Kennedy

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Diary. March 25, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 25th, 1863

Weather splendid. Sun shining in all its' splendor. Up early. Went with letters before breakfast. Went to the Landing in AM and helped to row across 40 bales hay and 80 sacks oats. Had a boot drill. Was not out. Played a game of ball. Wrote a letter to Paulina. Len and Oliver could not draw any oats until they fed two stolen sacks. There was considerable cards played in one tent today. Rained most of the night. Retired at an early hour. So may it be. Enos C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 26, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 26th, 1863

Weather changeable during the day. Went to Headquarters before breakfast with the mail. Got a pound of butter at the Suttlers. Was at the 8th New York Suttlers. Was out on Saber and Carbine Drill. Benton is on guard today. Had a good time playing euchre. Cleaned up all my arms. Lent the Captain a stamp. Went to bed at nine. Slept well. Dreamt that I was at home and abed with my wife. I wish it was true.
E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 27, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 27th, 1863

Weather splendid. Out to Roll Call. Oliver on guard. Done washing. Tim was at work on the roads. Danny Shield left the mess, so I had to sleep alone. Played ball. Was out on Saber Drill. Saw Doctor Crawford. Len was at the landing to work. He had some whiskey. Heard the report that we were agoing to Kentucky. The Boys had a dance this evening. Saw Joe Hards wife. I will now make preparations to go to bed. It is nearly nine, so I will say my prayers. E.C. Kennedy.

Hard (226).

Several of the officers, while lying in winter quarters, received visits from their wives or other members of their families, which somewhat relieved the dull and tedious duties of camp life.

Diary. March 28, 1863.

Camp, 8th Illinois Cavalry, March 28th, 1863

Weather bilious. Rained most all day. Up early. Eat breakfast and went to Guard Mounting. Came back and was so lonesome that I went to bed and to sleep thinking of Paulina. Received a letter from Paulina which done me good. Hanksladen returned to the company. Had bean soup for supper. Got five stamps of the Captain. Bill Monroe gave me a pair of small shoes for my first born. It is late, so I will say my prayers, read a little and go to bed. Amen. E.C. Kennedy

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Letter. March 29, 1863.

Camp new Hope Landing, March 29th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Yours of the 23rd came duly to hand last evening and found mighty lonesome, it being a mighty rainy day, but its joyful contents made quite a change in my feelings, and today, being Sunday, and my having nothing to do, I will write you a letter as I can spend my time in no pleasanter way. Situated as I be, I could spend it in a more pleasant way were I at home, but as I am not, I must be contented to spend it in writing to you.

I am now enjoying fine health which is an army blessing.

I will now note the contents of your letter. You say that Mother and Celia were sewing last Sunday. Please inform them that it is strictly against the Army regulations and never to be caught at it again. Tell Harry to dedicate his poetry to matrimony, and tell Georgie to eat a piece of pie for me while I'll eat a hard cracker for her.

I am glad that you are so well pleased with your new home, but stay no longer than you are contented, for you are welcome to go where you please, cost what it may. I don't wish to have you go home to live again for fear of making cost on their part. I can't blame you for feeling bad when you think of the good times that you have had at home. But never mind, if I am permitted to come home, you shall again enjoy yourself as of old, for I never will forsake you as long as I have my senses. Let others do and say as they may. Your home may not be as good as others, but it will be as happy. I think it a shame that our folks will allow May to be sold, but then I have given them the last advice I ever shall, but they all pretend to know more that I do, and no doubt, they do. At least I hope so.

I am happy to hear that Harrison is doing better. If he will only stick to it. God knows, I hope he will for Mother's account, if no one else's, and I also hope he will be get married for he has been at for long enough. You said that Curries was going to Iowa to live. Who has he sold to? Has Irwin gone to Chicago to live or not? I heard yesterday that he was there in Lodi yet.

Well, I will now say a few words about the war. I think that it is coming to a speedy close. I begin to see through the dark clouds that long have been hanging over us. A glimpse of light. The only obstruction that now lays in our way is the Northern Rebbles, but they have got to come to time. They have nearly come to the end of their rope. The Rebs of the South have come to two rations per day for their men, and one for their horses. Paulina, I look on this War in a different light than I did when I was at home, and I think it the duty of every man that is able and has nothing to keep him at home to at once come to the rescue of their country. Now is the only time and one or two good victories and the Confederacy is smashed. They are taking all their valuables out of Richmond, and taking them to Chattanooga, Georgia. I think it is altogether likely that we shall move before long. At least, I hope we have orders, when we do move, to send all baggage to the rear. The Boys here in our Regiment are all in good spirits and anxious for a forward movement. They want to fight and get through with it, although we are having good times here in camp, but then they want to get done fighting and them come home.

Oh yes, I had a present last evening from one William Monroe. It was a pair of small shoes for my first child. They were captured from the Sesesh and are a nice pair. I shall send them home the first opportunity, but it would be a joke on the shoes if the child never came to light. What say you? The Boys had quite a laugh when they saw my shoes, but I told them to keep quiet, for I would show them something to fill them, if it was nothing but a Ray Baby.

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SHOES FOR THE RAY BABY
Reference letter of March 29, 1863

"Oh Yes, I had a present last evening from one William Monroe. It was a pair of small shoes for my first child. They were captured from the Sesesh and are a nice pair. I shall send them home the first opportunity, but it would be a joke on the shoes if the child never came to light. What say you? The Boys had quite a laugh when they saw my shoes, but I told them to keep quiet, for I would show them something to fill them, if it was nothing but a ray baby,"
Sgt. Enos C. Kennedy

Note from Bertha: "These were given to my parents before I was born. Mother R."

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Tim don't hardly know how to give it up that we are married. He don't like to hear anything about it. He is doing his washing today. Bent is cleaning his arms. Bob is asleep. Len is getting wood for a fire and Oliver is out doors trying to steal some grain. Enos is writing a letter to One Paulina Kennedy of Lodi.

It is mighty hard work to write today on account of its being so cold that my fingers are froze stiff.

Oh, yes, how is Angeline getting along? We have had some good times over one or two of her letters. Len wrote a letter for Georgie to her, and he had considerable to say about being at home and abed with her, and she gave George fits in her reply. She wanted to know if that was all he cared about her just to satisfy his lustful desires. Don't you see, we must have fun of some kind. If I couldn't write, I would mighty soon learn or else have no correspondence with anyone (I want to). But, I guess I will wait until I finish this letter.

When we leave this camp, Bent and me are agoing to mess by ourselves. We have got sick of this old mess, and shall bedeck and form a mess under the name of Kennedy and Thorndike. Can't you see the point. I hardly know how to fill this sheet up. There is no news to write. We are doing nothing, therefore, there is no news to write. All we have to do now is to get up at five in the morning to Roll Call, feed, clean and water our horses, get breakfast, lounge till noon, then get dinner, then lounge till two o'clock when we spend an hour in drilling. Then we have nothing to do until five in the afternoon, when we have inspection of arms, then get supper and sit around until eight o'clock Roll Call and then go to bed. So ends the day.

I suppose there will be preaching in camp today. If there is, I should go for I haven't been to Meeting since you and me went to the Methodist in the snow storm. I wish we could go today.

Tell Georgie to eat some apples for me, for they are worth five cents apiece. Tell Mother I should like to see that letter that she has promised to write. Tell Bridget not to forget, but keep a stiff upper lip, for I know that good times are waiting to welcome old Rosin the Bow.

As I am about to the bottom of my paper, I must prepare to close, for no doubt you are getting tired of reading such nonsensical stuff, but please to excuse it as it comes from a nonsensical source. Write often and all the news and make your letters as long as you possibly can, for I never get tired of reading them. I only read them over four or five times. Hoping to hear from you soon, I will subscribe myself as ever, your true and affectionate husband until death and after.
Sergeant Enos C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 29, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 29th, 1863

Weather cold. Up early to roll call. Wrote a long letter to Paulina. Was out on mounted inspection in the PM. Had a drink of whiskey. Tim Pierce and me had a little fuss. I ask no favors of any darned man in this company. I am able to paddle my own canoe. Every man in this company wants to be the head. Now is the time of my discontent. The roads are broke up and my money all spent. Retired mighty early. E.C. Kennedy.

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Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sgt,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for Mch & Apl, 1863.
Present or absent present
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ____
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sgt,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Special Muster Roll
for April 10, 1863.
Present or absent present
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ____
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

106

Diary. March 30, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 30th, 1863

Weather pleasant. Sun shining finely all day. Up to Roll Call. Fed my horse and went to bed. Slept awhile and then got breakfast. Played a game of ball. Wrote a letter Walter Wolcott for James Shields. Was out on mounted Squadron Drill. Beat Cavanaugh playing Seven-Up. Eat my supper after the taps blew. Had some Christian tracks given me. Threw myself down to rest at ten. E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. March 31, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, March 31st, 1863

Weather snowed all forenoon. Got pea soup for breakfast. Bob Gardner on guard. Captain Farnsworth came in with fifteen Rebble Prisoners that he caught. Got ready to go on Dress Parade, but there was none. Bought two papers of smoking tobacco off the Stuttler. Read a book called "Red Jack or the Wired Cruser". Captain Forsyth got back from Washington bringing Len a pair of boots. It's now nine o'clock, so I will take a look at Paulina and go to bed. Sergeant Enos C. Kennedy.

Hard (226).

March 31st, Captain Farnsworth, with half the regiment, went on another scout after the enemy who had captured some of the Eighth New York Cavalry. Starting at midnight, after a march of two days and nights, they returned with twelve prisoners and reported two killed and several wounded. One of their brave and noble comrades, Fred Frank, fell in a desperate engagement.

Letter. April 1, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, Va., April 1st, 1863

Dear Paulina and Beloved Wife,
Yours of March 26th found its way to me tonight while on Dress Parade, and a welcome messenger it was. But I was sorry to hear that you should feel so bad in not hearing from me oftener, but I blame you not, for I know your feelings, but my being on Pignette is the reason that you did not hear from me oftener. You spoke of dreaming of me. That is something that I do about nearly every night, and would to God, that my dreams were reality.

Paulina, you know best about going to take care of John Henry's family, but I would rather that you would not. I wish you to do as little as possible for the sake of your health. I feel sorry for your sister, and would advise you to give her all the assistance in your power. Tell Celia I should like some of her fruit very much, but as my hens have quit laying, I have to abstain from the Critter.

I wish you would take charge of my old letters, and what things I have left behind, for if I never return, they are yours. Yes Paulina, give up the idea of my never returning, and look for better times for they are surely coming. This war is agoing to come to a speedy close. Men of the North has got to come out and this rebellion is got to be put down. There is no getting out of the show until it is put down.

Well, today is the first day of April and no one fooled this morning. We were aroused at daylight by the bugler sounding Boots and Saddles, so up we got and saddled up and packed up ready for a march, but we did not go, for the Third Indiana cleaned the Rebbles out without our help. We are passing the time away here very lazily here at present. Tomorrow, I am detailed to go to the landing to help get forage. Our saddles, bridles, and sabers were all condemned as not being fit for the service so in a few days, we shall get new ones. Then we shall cut a dash and cut a gash in some Rebbles.

107

Please excuse this letter as I am mighty mad. I have been holding a conversation with Tim while writing this about the war, and him and me don't agree. Neither does writing and talking politics at the same time agree.

Paulina, I wish I was at Home tonight to enjoy myself with you, and not to return, but I shall wait with patience and be contented with my lot and hope for the best. It is now time to retire, so I must prepare to lay me down and think of thee. Give my respects to all, reserving my love for yourself. This from your ever-loving and affectionate husband.
Sergeant E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 1, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 1st, 1863

Weather pleasant. Was aroused this morning at daylight by the Bugles sounding Boots and Saddles. We got ready but did not move. Our saddles, bridles and sabers were all condemned as not fit for service. Received a letter from Paulina and answered it. Read Harpers Magazine. Had my horse shod. We had a Regiment Dress Parade this afternoon at five o'clock and inspection of arms. Was detailed to go to the Landing tomorrow. It is now nine o'clock so I will prepare to go to my nest of bales. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 2, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 2nd, 1863

Weather pleasant but chilly in AM. Went to Hope Landing early in the morning. Helped to load some boxes. Then took a boat for Aquia Landing. Got grounded. Laid three hours. Then onloaded our boxes and took the boat back. Mounted my horse and rode to camp. Got supper. Drew a cap box, a cartridge box and saber knot and bridle. The wind blows awful hard while writing this. Oliver on guard. Shall sleep with Len tonight. I must eat and go to bed. Amen.
E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 3, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 3rd, 1863

Weather beautiful. Up to Roll Call. Cleaned up my arms and horse equipment for inspection. We went near General Davises headquarters and was inspected by Him. The most thorough one we ever had. Our quarters were inspected. Wrote a letter to Paulina. Cooked some fresh beef. It is now nine o'clock and I am sitting here by the fire while my meat is boiling. I must take it off and prepare to go to bed. I wish I were at home with P. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 4, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 4th, 1863

Weather cool in AM. Commenced snowing PM. We had a drill in the AM. Composed of Lieutenants and Sergeants. We were drilled by Major Medill. Bob Gardner was orderly for the Colonel. The Regiment was out on dress parade at five o'clock in PM. We kept a big fire all day it being cold and had plenty of company. Read one of Harpers Magazines and the thing pleased the Children of the Regiment. Retired at nine o'clock. E.C. Kennedy

108

Diary. April 5, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 5th, 1863

Weather stormy most of the day. Snow six inches in the morning. Up to Roll Call. Cooked a kettle of pea soup. Wrote a letter to Perry Rowland. Received one from Paulina. Read one of Harpers Magazines. We had a battle with snow balls. Our side came out best. We charged and took them Prisoners. Dick Galliger came back to the Company. Pierce got a furlough I believe. Will go to bed. E. C. Kennedy

Letter. April 6, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, Va., April 6th, 1863

My Dear Wife,
I received yours of the 22nd last evening. Glad to again read one of your comforting epistles and, as it is now nine o'clock and the Boys are all abed, I will endeavor to converse with you while it being the best way I can employ myself.

I feel very tired this evening after being in the saddle all day. We went to Falmouth early this morning with all the rest of the Cavalry of this Army to be inspected by President Lincoln. It was a splendid affair to see thirty thousand Cavalry drawn up together to be looked at by Honest Abe. I suppose that we shall go on Pickett next Wednesday. I hope so, for I am tired of this Inspection and Dress Parade. But, I will now note the contents of your letter.

I am very glad that Celia enjoys herself with my folks, but Harry ought to hire some one to do the work for the poor little is not able. She ought to be stuck in a band box, but I am glad that you're done waiting on her. It is too bad that Mother don't help to do the work. I am glad to learn that Harry is doing better. If he will only hold out, for Paulina. Liquor has fetched disgrace enough on me through the means of others and unless it is stopped, my relationship will cease. Paulina, I do not think that I shall go into the Hospital. I never will make a slave of myself for a few dollars more a month. You appear to think that if I had of stayed at Home, that you would of swelled in front by some other means than the use of beer. Now I think different. If two months wouldn't take on affect, then my efforts would be useless and you would have to resort to some other means. Paulina, I hope that you will not take it as an insult when I write such nonsense in my letters for I mean no harm by it. I am not permitted to see you, therefore, if I happen to write that which you think I ought not to, I hope you will take no affront, but be plain and tell me that it does not suit you, and I will try to improve in my language. Yes, my dear, I too think that if I was at home tonight that there would be but little sleeping done, for if you was to give me one hundred and fifty kisses, of course, I should return them and that would take up a good share of the night, and then, I should have enough to tell you to finish it.

Timmen is not sure of getting a furlough. He may get one, but I doubt it. My dear, you are greatly mistaken when you think that the South is gaining ground every day. I can't look at it in that light. I feel just as confident that we are agoing to come out victorious, this compare as I do that twice four makes eight. You may be astonished that I talk so much different than I did when at Home, but I see the thing now in a different light.

You say you never know when to stop writing when you are writing to me. Well, don't stop next time until you have filled three or four sheets of paper, for God knows, I never get tired reading your letters, but wish that they were longer and oftener. But then, I have no reasons to complain. Paulina, you may look for me in a letter just as soon as the Paymaster gives me my nine pence.

It is raining here just now as hard as it can pour down and it is leaking on me so that I shall have to stop writing and go to bed. My health is exceeding good. Also, the rest of the Lodi Boys. Give my respects to

109

all and accepting return for those sixteen kisses you sent me in your last letter, the same amount with compound interest.

It is now ten o'clock and I must retire to my lonely bed. How I wish that I could find you in it. Then the night would pass pleasantly. But, as you will not be there, I will go to bed and dream about you. I will now drop the curtain and retire. Good night and may God be with you. This from you true and loving Husband.

Enos C. Kennedy
To P. K.

Never hath absence seemed so mute as this
So filled with fancies shadows drawing near
Through tears I felt that lingering, loving kiss
And failed to give the parting words of cheer.

Diary. April 6, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 6th, 1863

Weather chilly in AM and PM. Up at daylight and got ready to go to Falmouth where we were inspected by the President. All the Cavalry of the Potomac were there. It was a nice sight. Wrote a letter to Paulina. We had guard mounting just before sundown. I sat up until ten writing, the rest of the Boys went to bed at nine. E. C. Kennedy

Diary. April 7, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 7th, 1863

Weather pleasant from chilly. Up to Roll Call. Went out on Officers drill at ten o'clock. Was drilled by Major Beverage. Went to bed after dinner and slept most of the PM. Town came back to the Company. Stops in our tent. We had Regimental Dress Parade at five o'clock. Received a letter from Harry and I should think by it that he can be called a Copperhead. (Ed. Note: Copperhead was the nickname of a member of a northern political faction that sympathized with the Confederacy during the Civil War. The name comes from the stealthy poisonous snake of the same name that gives no warning of its intended attack. The term first appeared in the New York Times on July 20, 1861.) Thus ends this ends the day of our Lord. E. C. Kennedy.

110

Diary. April 8, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 8th, 1863

Weather pleasant. Up at Roll Call. Went on Officers Drill at ten in the AM. Was at the twelve o'clock with orderlies call. We got orders for the company to be ready at sunrise to go on Pickett with everything that we wanted for the Sumners Campaign. Wrote a letter. Harry bought some tobacco and paper off the Suttler and packed up my things. Retired at ten o'clock. Then ended the day. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 9, 1863.

Picket Line, April 9th, 1863

Weather pleasant. Up at daylight and got ready to march. Went to the Pickets Lines. Then took command of the advanced guard for a scout. Went ten miles to Ashbys then to Brentsville, from there to Dumfries. Got first into the Pickets Lines but no one hurt. Got to camp at eleven, got supper, unsaddled and fed. Retired at twelve. Was mighty tired. Slept tip top with Oliver. E. C. Kennedy

Hard (227).

On the 9th of April the Eighth Illinois was again sent out on picket to relieve the Third Indiana, and in order to give some idea of what transpired from day to day on that kind of duty, I quote from the diary of Dr. Stull, who accompanied the regiment:
"At noon we were there, and have been as busy as possible preparing for the night. We relieved the Third Indiana and they have gone in". (Continued under each day).

Diary. April 10, 1863.

Pickett Line, April 10th, 1863

Weather splendid. Up rather late. Made some coffee for Oliver and myself, then we saddled and went to the Company Headquarters. I was given charge of the first relief. We went on first at five in the PM. I patrolled. Sergeant Phillip's relief; went on a scout. I tent with Town. If anyone gets hold of this book in the future and can't read it, I hope they will excuse me and lay it down. Good Night. E. C. Kennedy.

"No alarm along the pickets last night, but we had a little alarm in camp from a dispatch from General Stoneman, through Colonel Davis, to the effect that General Stuart was at Cedar Run with five thousand Cavalry! Captain Southworth took forty men and went all through that country this afternoon, but could find nothing of them."

Diary. April 11, 1863.

Pickett Line, April 11th, 1863

Weather pleasant but looked a little like rain toward night. Posted my relief at one in AM and PM. Received a letter from Paulina. Had some fresh shad for supper. Read and slept part of the time while off post. Double do I feel the truth of the old adage today that "Time and Tide Wait for No Man". No Scouts from our company today. E. C. Kennedy

"Nothing new along the line. Little squads have been scouting the country. Corporals Young and Carter had three shots at bushwhackers last night. This evening the report is that Stuart is at Hartwood Church, about ten miles from here".

111

Diary. April 12, 1863.

Camp near Hope Landing, April 12th, 1863

Weather pleasant in AM. Sprinkles in PM. Put my relief on at one. Came off at ten and took them foraging. Got a lot of chickens, potatoes and walnuts. Came to the line and we had orders to pack up and go to Camp. We started and got lost and was out most all night. Tom Brown's relief was out scouting. So ends this day. Amen. E. C. Kennedy

"This morning Captain Southworth was sent out with fifteen men to arrest a man who is accused of conveying information to General Stuart. The description sent to Major Beveridge to aid in his apprehension was as follows: He is described as an old man, gray-headed, gray beard, full red face, short and thick, with bandy legs, and usually rides a white mule with the top of one ear cut off. Lives in the pine woods, about seven miles from Dumfrees, on the Warrenton road.

This evening received an order to return to camp and prepare for a forward movement.

Diary. April 13, 1863.

Camp on the march, April 13th, 1863

Weather pleasant. We were ordered to pack up at daylight ready for a march. The regiment started leaving me and Tom Brown to get our horses shod. We mistook them about five miles from camp where we halted three hours. Then we marched until dark on the road to Warrenton where we camped. Got supper and went to bed being tired and sleepy. E. C. Kennedy

Hard (228).

The movement about to be made is known as "General Stoneman's great raid". Generals Stoneman and Pleasanton being in command of the cavalry, it was arranged to have Stoneman make a raid around the enemy's rear, cut the railroads between them and Richmond so as to prevent reinforcements from the south, and engage their cavalry, while General Hooker attacked them in front with the main army. General Pleasanton was ordered to take charge of the camps, and remain behind with only the Sixth New York, Eighth and Seventeenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and such detachment of other regiments as were necessary to care for the camp property and the sick. This arrangement was very displeasing to General Pleasanton; as an opportunity to gain military renown would thus be afforded to those who accompanied the great raid, whereas none was in prospect for those left behind. But we shall shortly see that such an idea was erroneous.

Diary. April 14, 1863.

Camp on the march, April 14th, 1863

Weather pleasant. Started on the march early in the morning. We guarded the mule train. We camped at noon being very tired. We drew Sixteen crackers for four days and three days rations of oats for our horses. We started on the march again a little before twelve at night. E. C. Kennedy.

Hard (229).

We were up and moving early, following General Averill's picket line.....accompanied Captain
Farnsworth on a scout. We took the road to Warrenton, and there had a nice little skirmish with the enemy. After the chase was over, we went to White Sulpher Springs, where we were to await orders from Colonel Davis. We remained till dark, then, Captain Farnsworth thinking it dangerous to prolong our stay, we went down and crossed the Rappahannock at a mill, obtained a lot of wheat for the horses, and

112

going back a short distance, encamped fur the night at about half past ten o'clock, so tired that we did not cook any supper.

Diary. April 15, 1863.

Camp on the march, April 15th, 1863

It rained all day as hard as it could from dawn. We halted our march at 8 o'clock and got breakfast. Then we started across the Rappahannock River. We skirmished with the Rebs for quite a distance. Took some prisoners who we drew up in line of battle. Then charged down on the rifle pits driving the Rebs out when we crossed back over the river and camped. Four of the Indiana Boys were captured. E.C. Kennedy

Hard (229).

One of the most rainy days of the season. The rain falling in torrents all day. Captain Farnsworth sent to Liberty for orders and found Captain Smith's squadron (which had been hunting us all night) with orders to cross the river where we had crossed, move down and join Colonel Davis.... Colonel Davis was ordered to recross the river, and just as the rear guard was crossing at Kelly's Ford, the rebels charged down upon them, at the same time firing upon us. Captain Farnsworth ran the line of rebel skirmishers and told Colonel Davis where we were. The Colonel said we would all he "gobbled up" unless we could cross the river immediately. The Captain made his mustang do some tall running up the river six miles and down the opposite side; and taking us by a circuitous route, we were enabled to join the brigade without loss.

Letter. April 16, 1863.

Camp on the Rappahannock, April 16th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Your kind letter of the 6th came to hand while I was on Pickett and this is the first opportunity I have had to write and I don't know when I can send this as we are some forty miles from the Army.

We have been in our saddles night and day for three days and nights. Yesterday, It rained all day as hard as it could pour down and while Averells Brigade was trying to cross the River, we went down to another ford and crossed and came up in the rear of the Rebbles and belted them like thunder. You can believe we had some lively times for awhile in the rain, but we had to cross back again as the River was rising. We are now laying on one side and the Rebs on the other.

Paulina, what Bob Gardner wrote to Susan was all a lie. When we was out, we only saw a few Rebs and then we took and there was no New York Cavalry within fifteen miles of us. I can't see the idea of his letting such a lie.

I have had fresh fish to eat as well as you. They were fresh shad but we are hard up for good eating just now. If I had times, I should like to write you a good long letter in answer to yours, but have not time. Where I shall be when I write next time, I can't say. I think that we shall leave here tonight but I can't tell where we shall go.

My health is good. I feel a little stiff after being out in the rain all day yesterday. Please excuse this poor writing as I have written this in great haste. Tell Mother to write. No more at present. This from your Husband
E.C. Kennedy

113

Note: On back of letter appears the following notation: "From K"
"From Enos to Paulina"

Diary. April 16, 1863.

Camp on the march, April 16th, 1863

Weather lousy all day. We stayed in camp till nearly evening when we pulled up and moved about a mile. I wrote a letter to Paulina, but did not send it. There were twenty of the Indiana Boys captured yesterday instead of four. E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 17, 1863.

Virginia, April 17th, 1863

Weather beautiful. Went foraging with Lieutenant Russell. Got a sack of corn. Had a gay old time with some Sesesh ladies because I looked like their brother. Went again in the PM with Lieutenant Hoyleton to the same place. Got some hay, but did not see the ladies. Retired early being very tired. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 18, 1863.

April 18th, 1863

Weather beautiful. The sun shining might warm. Packed up early in the morning and marched five miles and camped. Squadron went a foraging. We heard the Rebbles were after us and we drew up in line of battle, but they did not, so we went on and got our sacks full of corn and returned to Camp. The Women raised merry hell where we got the corn. E.C. Kennedy

Diary. April 19, 1863.

April 19th, 1863

Weather pleasant. We stayed in Camp all day. Major Beveridge sent in eleven prisoners. We drew three days rations of forage. Oliver on Pickett. We had a dress parade at sun down when we got orders to throw everything away but what we needed as we were to start on a raid. Sent a letter to Paulina. Retired early. E. C. Kennedy

Diary. April 20, 1863.

Waterloo, April 20th, 1863

It rained most of the time all day. We were up early and getting ready to march. Traded my Geimly Saddle for a McClellan. We marched most of the day and camped at Waterloo. I received two letters from Paulina. Town on guard tonight. Retired early and slept well tho it did rain like thunder. E.C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 21, 1863.

April 21st, 1863

Weather lousy, in AM but pleasant in PM. We moved Camp about a mile. Oliver was an extra guard. Went out foraging and got a wt. bundle of hay. Got to Camp just after dark. So ends this day of our Lord 1863. E.C. Kennedy

114

Piece of Letter. Approximately April 20, 1863.

Date approximately April 20, 1863

.... Well, Paulina, about two weeks ago we were orders out on a march and we have been out ever since. We are now near Warrenton. Where we shall go from there I can't say. We get no mail and no chance to send any very often. I may send this today, and I may keep it for a week. What we are agoing to do here is more than I can tell. The whole cavalry force is here. We are in the advance. We are about forty miles from Alexandria. It would all be very nice if we could only get our letters so we could hear from Home....

I had a gay old dream last night. I though I was at home with you and having a gay old time. But imagine my mistake when the bugle sounded to Horse and I woke up and found myself here in Virginia in a little wedge tent. Then I wish the War in H__L. Company A is all enjoying good health. Please excuse this miserable letter for it is the best paper I have got and my knee is my writing desk, and the ground my seat. My head is in a flutter and my hands all dirt....

Diary.April 22, 1863.

Warrenton, April 22nd, 1863

Weather pleasant. Up rather late. Packed up and moved three miles east of Warrenton. After supper, our Company went on Pickett. I had charge of the third relief. Was out with Tom Brown's relief three hours, also with Len's which left out untill twelve o'clock. There was a train of cars run up from Alexandria with forage for our horses. E. C. Kennedy

Hard (231).

The brigade moved up the river in the direction of Warrenton, where forage and rations were brought them by the railroad. One squadron was sent across the river, and while on picket a squadron of the Third Virginia Union Cavalry came up, were challenged and then allowed to pass. Coming to the Captains quarters they were mistaken for the enemy. The Captain fired a few shots and they hastily re-crossed.

Diary. April 23, 1863.

Warrenton, April 23rd, 1863

Weather tough. It rained all day like the Devil. Went on Pickett with my relief last night at half past twelve. Relieved at daylight. Was on the Pickelt line most all day. Got mighty wet. Corporal Golliher, Corporal Martin, Privates G Brown, H.C. Galliher, I. Shields, N. Corman, D. Smith, L. Huntington was on my relief. Martin and Huntington on the reserve. Retired early being sleepy and tired. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 24, 1863.

Warrenton, April 24th, 1863

It rained all day long. I had done nothing but sit around Camp until nearly night when I was given charge of fifteen men for fatigue duty. Commenced a letter to Paulina. Today is my Birthday and finds me twenty-five years old. Time flies swiftly in manhood. Drew moldy crackers today. Retired very early.
E.C. Kennedy

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Letter. April 24, 1863.

Warrenton, April 24th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Yours of the 6th, 8th, and 11th lays before me and I will endeavor in my feeble way to answer them. I am enjoying good health. It has rained here for the last two days, and is raining now.

Paulina, today is my twenty-fifth birthday and I am celebrating it writing to you. I will now reply to your letters, then write the news. I have got my ugly horse pretty cooled down so he knows me. I'm very glad you are not going to make small quilts. I think that I shall not send anything home in a letter nor worry about my good Neighbors, so you see I am not frightened.

You, like myself, entertain the ideas that there is happiness in store for us and I certainly think that you are right.

April 25th

Paulina, the reason I did not finish this yesterday is I was given charge of fifteen men on fatigue duty but I will now endeavor to finish it. Tim is detailed out of the company into the Pioneer Corps so I see but little of him lately, which does not spite me much. I do not tent with Bent as I expected to, but with a man by the name of Hanson Town. He is six foot and six inches tall. He is a lengthy bedfellow and a good one. I have again Ceceeded from the Lodi Boys. You seem to think you would like to cook for us if we could agree on the price. I am willing to give any price if I could only have your services. I feel very sorry for Celia and think that something ought to be done for her immediately, for delays are dangerous, especially in her case. Paulina, those small Scales are mine, but say nothing about it for there is a day of reckoning coming. That glass funnel is mine also. They need not fret themselves to death about my not coming back, but perhaps it is their wish. I can tell them one thing, I shall never return to Lodi to stay twenty-four hours. I shall seek out a Home for us before I return. I shall not go into the hospital department as I am as much of a slave now as I intend to be, and if God would spare my life there, he will here in the ranks.

You seem to feel uneasy whenever I am on Picket. I would rather be on Picket than doing anything else for we always live well and have plenty of fun and we have got past fearing danger. I don't think that I shall die until my time comes.

I don't know as I am under any obligation to Harry that I should (write) two letters to his one. I wrote to him last and he has more time to write than me. He is not in the saddle day and night for weeks.... (torn away).

Diary. April 25, 1863.

Warrenton, April 25th, 1863

Weather clear but windy. Was in Camp all the AM. Finished a letter to Paulina. Was detailed and given charge of twenty men to guard the Brigade forage and rations. We had plenty of coffee and soft bread while on guard. Did not sleep any during the night. Oh, when will this strife between the North and South end? E. C. Kennedy.

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Hard (231).

Captain Farnsworth went scouting and foraging. Passing through Salem into Carter Run Valley they again called on Morgan, where our Amazon woman resides. This time they only took a liberal supply of hams. They then proceeded to the late residence of John A. Washington, who was once owner of the Mount Vernon estate, and late a soldier in the rebel army. On their return they fell in with five members of the rebel cavalry, splendidly mounted, killed one and captured two men and one horse.

Diary. April 26, 1863.

Warrenton, April 26th, 1863

Weather beautiful but a little windy. Was on Guard all day. Sent my letter off on the cars. Our Company went on Picket. Ordered me to go as soon as I was relieved but could not see the point. Got relieved just at dusk by the Third Indiana. Got supper and retired very early. So ended my troubles for this date.

Diary. April 27, 1863.

Warrenton, April 27th, 1863

Weather splendid. Sun out in all its splendor asking a man to take off his underwear. Packed up and went to Warrenton where the Company was on Pickett. Done no duty while there. Had quite a talk with Mrs. Singer and other Sesesh Ladies. Warrenton is quite a pretty place and full of Reb sympathizers. Got two letters from Paulina, one from Harry and one from Mother. Also, three — We went to Camp at dark. Retired Early.

Letter. April 28, 1863.

Warrenton, April 28th, 1863

Dear Beloved Wife,
Your welcome letter of the 16th and 19th came to had last evening finding me in good health and having a little spare time. I will at once answer them. Tell Mother I should like some of her sallet when it is big enough to eat if she will feed it to me. Paulina, I should think that you would run out of tears if you cry so often, but then, it is your privilege. Don't worry Paulina, you will see me again. I feel confident of returning home. I am sorry to learn that the small pox has again made its appearance in town, and shall be anxious to hear from there until it stops.

Paulina, I do not have to stand Pickett. I only patrol from one post to another and post the Picketts. We shan't have any promotions within our Company until it is filled up. It seems to me as though you were getting rather heavy for a newly married woman. Something must have taken effect, but this in not for me to judge. You will soon be heavier than I am. I should have enjoyed myself very much had I been with you and Bridget when you were riding out, and no doubt could have interested you telling big stories. Paulina, I should like to please your sister, as I think her a very nice woman, but I never can humble myself so much as to write to a man that I never saw. Therefore, I can't write to Mr. Miner.

Father Spirit was very much mistaken when it told Harry that I was sick, for I never enjoyed better health in my life. I think the children better get married. I should like very much to be to your dance, but cannot. I hope you did not get drunk when Tommy Finder treated you to the wine punch and envelopes are scarce while on the march. Paulina, we expect to have hard fighting before we conquer the South, but we are eager to do it and this summer at that. The Army is all marching out our support and perhaps before you will hear from me again, we shall have done some pretty tall fighting. I can see bright spots warming up in the future. You must excuse this short letter, for I received one from Harry and one from Mother,

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and must answer them immediately. I should like to share your bed every night, but I shall be content until that time comes. No more just now. This from your true and loving husband,
Enos C. Kennedy.

Diary. April 28, 1863.

Kelley's Ford, April 28th, 1863

Weather beautiful. Laid in Camp all day except an hour on fatigue. Wrote a letter to Paulina and to Mother, one to Harry. Packed up at dark and marched all night. E.C. Kennedy

Diary. April 28, 1863.

Culpepper, April 29th, 1863

Weather beautiful in AM but sprinkled in PM. Arrived at Kelly's Ford at noon. Got dinner and crossed over and stopped about an hour, when we were fetched onto line of Battle and fought the Rebs till dark, loosing one and we camped near the Enemy just where we stopt fighting. E. C. Kennedy.

Hard (232).

Moved early, and near night reached and crossed the river at Kelly's Ford. Were soon attacked and quite a lively skirmish ensued, in which several horses were killed. But the enemy was forced to retire, and a sleepless and rainy night followed.

Diary. April 30, 1863.

Rapadon, April 30th, 1863

Weather pleasant in AM but rained in PM. We marched all day. Passed through Culpepper to Rapadon Ford, our Company being in advance. We took one prisoner and a four mule team loaded with corn and bacon. Pierce came back after retiring. I had my saddle, clothing and blankets all stole. We camped in the mud near Rapadon River. E. C. Kennedy.

Hard (232).

Rainy, but once more on the march. Nothing of note took place until after passing through Culpepper to Cedar Mountain. Captain Forsythe's squadron captured a Quartermaster's stock of bacon and other valuables, and a few prisoners.

Diary. May 1, 1863.

Cedar Mountain, May 1st, 1863

Weather warm. Skirmished with the Enemy all day. I was in the rear on account of losing my horse equipment. I rode a mule. Tom Brown had his horse shot. We camped near last night's camping ground. Retired rather late. Town got alot of flour. E. C. Kennedy

Hard (232).

Men from each regiment were dismounted and placed along the river at Rapidan railroad bridge to act as sharpshooters. They now came temporarily under command of General Averill, and it was expected they would cross the river, drive the handful of rebels before them and join the great raid, but a desultory fight

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only, was kept up. Near night our men made an attempt to burn the bridge, but found that the enemy had already set fire to it. Firing was distinctly heard all day in the direction of Fredericksburg, where it was supposed Hooker's army was fighting that of Lee.

Diary. May 2, 1863.

Rapadon, May 2nd, 1863

Weather pleasant. Found my equipment in possession of Lieutenant Russell of Company H. We marched to Rapadon River near where Hooker was fighting the Rebs and camped on the river back. One brigade was fired into about ten o'clock at night. We saddled up and fell back behind a hill where we remained during the night amongst the brush and stump. So ended this wonderful day. E. C. Kennedy.

Hard (232).

Orders were given to follow down the river, and after a weary march of about thirty miles, the camp was pitched near Ely's Ford, and supper being discussed, the rebels opened afire upon the camp, which was in easy range. After a short resistance, all was quiet again, not however without causing some loss to our party, for Dr. Crawford's favorite horse was shot.

Diary. May 3, 1863.

United States Ford, May 3rd, 1863

Weather splendid. Sun mighty hot. Hooker belted the Rebs like thunder today. We marched inside the lines crossing our breast works. Our Company being in ordinance, we camped near United States Ford,..unsaddled and passed the night very comfortable. E. C. Kennedy.

Hard (233).

Crossed at Ely's Ford and went down the Rappahannock to U.S. Ford, and again came under command of General Pleasanton. The Eighth were greatly disappointed at not being sent forward with General Stoneman, and being permitted to display their ability in that particular calling "raiding"

Diary. May 4, 1863.

United States Ford, May 4th, 1863

Weather very warm. Laid in camp all day. Drew three days rations. I was at the Hospital part of the day watching the Surgeons operate on the wounded soldiers. Received two letters and a paper from Paulina. Dick Gallihan went back to the Landing. E. C. Kennedy.

NOTES:
World Book Encyclopedia: May 1-4: Northern troops under Hooker were defeated in the Battle of Chancellorsville. (Vol C)

General Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker replaced Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac. By the Spring of 1863, the Army numbered 120,000. Lee, with 60,000 men, still held the Rappahannock Line. Hooker planned to keep Lee's attention at Fredericksburg while he sent another force around the town to attack the Confederate flank. The movement began April 27th, and seemed about to succeed. But Hooker hesitated, and on April 30th, withdrew his flanking troops to a defensive position at Chancellorville. The next day, Lee left a small force at Fredericksburg and moved to attack Hooker. He sent Stonewall Jackson to attack Hooker's right while he struck in front. The attack on May 2nd, cut the

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Northern Army almost in two, but Union troops managed to set up a defensive line. Hooker retreated four days later.

Diary. May 5, 1863.

Virginia, May 5th, 1863

Sun shining hot in the AM but rained very hard in the PM. Started at two o'clock last night for Falmouth where we drew three days rations of grain and then started for Kelley's Ford. Marched till nearly dark and camped. Put in a tough old night on account of the rain. E. C. Kennedy

Hard (236).

On the 5th a heavy rain storm began, rendering the roads almost impassable, but the following night all were safely withdrawn, the pontoons removed, and on the 6th the army returned to nearly their old position between Fredericksburg and Acquia Creek.

During the night of May 5th, the Eighth Illinois were ordered to Falmouth, where they loaded their jaded horses with forage and then marched via Hartwood Church to Elk Run, which was so swollen by the late rains it could not be forded. After passing a rainy night on its banks, they constructed a bridge and then marched to Kelly's Ford, where a part of the regiment was set to work making rifle-pits to defend the ford, and a part went on to Rappahannock Station, six miles above, to defend that place and protect the railroad bridge.

Diary. May 6, 1863.

Kelley's Ford May 6th, 1863

Weather bad. It rained all day. We marched to Kelly's Ford and Camped. We are here to establish a Pignette Line. Our squadron is on tonight. I have charge of the first relief. It is composed of Corporals Durant and Martin, Sergeants Fillmore, Casper, Phillips and Joseph Shield's bugler. Put in a hard night. E.C. Kennedy

Diary. May 7, 1863.

Kelley's Ford, May 7th, 1863

Weather lousy all day. We were relieved at eight by the Sixth Squadron. B. and M.Town and we got a Negro wench to bake us some biscuits for breakfast. Layed in Camp all AM. Took away some washing. Have charge of a squad of men to work on rifle pits in the PM. Stoneman's advance came across the river today. Our Boys fired on them hurting no one. Retired early being tired. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. May 8, 1863.

Kelley's Ford, May 8th, 1863

Weather not very pleasant. Stayed in Camp all day. Was detailed to help man the Rifle Pits at night, but did not go for the Regiment was ordered to march at seven. Paid fifty cents for washing clothes. We marched at nine PM for Deep Run where we stopped till morning. It has been nothing but march, march for the last thirty days and I am nearly worn out. E. C. Kennedy.

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Hard (238).

May the 8th, another squadron was sent to Norman's Ford to dig rifle-pits, which with foraging, seemed to be the business of the regiment. General Stoneman, returning from his raid, reached Kelly's Ford, but was unable to cross on account of the swollen stream. At night, orders came to return to the army again, and about sunrise, we reached Hartwood Church and during the day went into camp at Potomac Creek, almost worn out with the incessant marching which had been continued both day and night.

Diary. May 9, 1863.

Potomac Creek, May 9th, 1863

Weather might warm. We marched to Potomac Creek where we stopped and fed our horses and then went into Camp being nearly wore out. I lay in the sun and slept soundly all the afternoon. We had inspection of arms but no one had clean arms. Got a paper today, the first one for a month. It contained good news, Built a tent and retired early. Slept awful sound. This tests a man's back bone. E. C. Kennedy.

Diary. May 10, 1863.

Potomac Creek, Sunday, May 10th, 1863

Weather might warm. Got some sand paper and cleaned up my arms. Then sent to Stoneman's Switch and to the BPV and took dinner with Lieutenants Saiger and Montgomery. Then returned to the Regiment. Signed the pay roll and drew six months pay. Had a soup with George Jennings at his wagon. Had inspection of arms. Retired late to dream of the past and future. E. C. Kennedy.

Hard (238).

The paymaster made his appearance much to the joy of the men who had been without pay for many months. The men sent home about twenty-five thousand dollars, it being about thirty-two dollars to each man.

Letter. May 11, 1863.

Brooks Station, May 11th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Your letters of April 22nd and 26th I received some time ago and this is the first opportunity I could find to answer them. We have been very busy lately making raids. We enjoyed ourselves finely. Had the best living we ever had.

I wish we had nothing else to do but make raids toward Richmond. We have had a large Battle here and are all right and the troops are in fine spirits. You talk as though you could not see any prospects of the War closing very soon and quote the Times as your authority. The Times can see nothing as it should be. It is a Copperhead paper and ought not to be tolerated in any community. Things look brighter to me today than they did when I wrote last. People at Home may talk, but they know nothing about it. Let them be mean and come here and they will talk different.

I am sorry that folks should be down on Van Vlack at home for it is bad enough for us to be down on him. He left no friends in this Company. That was a lie that he told about Tom Brown. He was sick but stayed with the Company all the time they were out. It is a pity about Van Vlack and Mrs. Irwin's being found together. I knew that to be a fact long before I came into the Army. Paulina, get along the best you can until I get Home. Then you will have someone to protect you.

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Celia may talk, but I would advise her to keep her tongue in its place for she is not acquainted with me yet.

Well, I hope Mary Ann Kendall may be made (happy?) for she wants to as bad as anyone I know of. But, Angeline will be apt to lose her piety when — George gets home for he is as far the other way. Tell Bridget that tea done a powerful sight of good. I drank it after marching all night in the rain. I hope you enjoyed yourself at your May Party. I know I should if I had of been with you.

My side is perfectly sound. I enjoy the best health I have for years. Yesterday, we drew some money that is a part of our pay.

May 12th, 1863

Well Paulina, since I commenced to write this letter, I have received two more from you which I will endeavor to answer. Paulina, give yourself no uneasiness about me for we would all rather be on the go than laying in Camp. We have been in Camp now about four days. I told the Boys what you wrote about Van Vlack and they had a jubilee over it. I am very thankful for those two dollars, but do not need as I have got some of my pay. I shall send the most of it home as soon as I get a chance. I received those stamps that you sent me. We are having beautiful weather here at the present time.

Tell Mother that Captain Kennedy came and scraped acquaintance with me yesterday. He is a son of Joseph Kennedy of Meadsville. Tell her also that Captain Apple of Sagertown has lost his speech. I will now tell you the name of Van Vlacks family goes by with the Boys here in the Camp. His name is (Shabony), his wife's name is (Roderic) and the girl's is Muggins. They are known by no other name here.

I must now close and carry this to the office. Accept my love and best wishes. This from your affectionate Husband.
E.C. Kennedy

NOTE: Copperhead: A Northerner who sympathized with the South during the Civil War.

Diary. May 11, 1863.

Brooks Station, May 11th, 1863

Weather warm. Sun shinning hot. Up to Roll Call. Stayed in Camp all day and played cards most of the time. Saw Captain Kennedy of Meadville. Received a letter from Paulina with two dollars in it. Received one from Harry and one from Joseph and Wife. Had inspection of arms. Helpt get over some hay. Bought some articles off a sutter. Retired late. E. C. Kennedy

Diary. May 12, 1863.

Brooks Station, May 12th, 1863

Weather awful warm. Up early. Went to the Brooks Station and had my likeness taken side my horse. Payed two dollars for it. Bought a dollars worth of bread and returned to Camp. Wrote a letter to Paulina and one to Harry. Town on guard. Had inspection of arms. Remodeled our tent over. Retired very early being mighty sleepy. So ends the day. E. C. Kennedy.

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Letter. May 13, 1863.

Brooks Station, May 13th, 1863

Dear Paulina,
This is the best likeness I can get taken in this part of the world. I got it taken yesterday morning. You can see that I have a large horse.

Please accept this until the original is permitted to return. Please send me a few more stamps. This from your Devoted Husband.
Enos C. Kennedy.

Letter. May 16, 1863.

Brooks Station, May 16th, 1863

Dear and Beloved Wife,
This being a nice cool morning and I having my breakfast eat and ground policed around my tent and nothing to bother me at the present, I will answer your most welcome and affectionate letter of the 10th which I received last night while playing cards. I am as yet enjoying tip top health. We have laid in Camp just a week and are now ready for action again, but do not know when we shall move. We have a little better living since we got one pay. We can buy potatoes and bread which helps fill up the inner man better than crackers alone.

Paulina, it troubles me very much to see how things go on at home. Oh that I were there. Damn me if I wouldn't make things fly in a different shape. Do they take me and mine to be fools (God forbid)? My dear, I do not know what to say in reference to your going back home to stay. I would rather have you leave Lodi if you could find any other place where you would be contented. I don't know but what it would be well enough for you to leave the tavern, and if you do go home, which I don't care about. I don't want you to do the work. I would rather pay your board then you can work or play, just as you like. Never as long as I have my senses, shall you wait on Celia. I think it my duty to write Mother a letter and find out what she means. I wish to know if she intends to abuse my confidence. Paulina, you must decide for yourself because you know what you would do. I care nothing for the cost so you are contented.

I received your letter the same day that you had your May party. I hope you had a good time. You spoke about attending Church. That is something I have not done since you and me went to the Methodist church in the snow storm.

You say you don't know what to think about this War. Here are my sentiments. I hope to heaven the North will give up the idea fraught with death to so many that we must wait for the next administration to end this War. Think of the millions that will be wasted meanwhile. Think of what is worth a million times more. The thousand of lives and limbs to be sacrificed in the interest of over a year of warfare on the present tremendous scale. Such a state of feeling, if it holds any place at Home, is horrible, inhuman towards those who are now in the field ready to perish all for the country that forgets them. If those at Home cannot make up their minds to bend instantly, every energy toward putting down the Rebellion for their own sake, for Gods sake (who is for all that is good) let them for our sake. I wish the President would put his conscription in force, for one million of men, five hundred thousand to fill up old regiments and commence fighting immediately, five hundred thousand for a reserve to fill up gaps and man forts. Make putting down the rebellion the business of the Nation until it is accomplished. I don't believe in peace founded in any other basis then whipping the Rebels and their laying down their arms. Compromise, copperheadism, or any other doctrine of the weak-knee'd will ruin the nation for centuries to

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come. If the South are to lose their institutions, power, lands, heads, everything, all is the just penalty of the greatest crime committed on the greatest scale by their treason.

Look at the land that two short years ago was full of peace, flowing with milk and honey. Compare its condition then with the present. Armies, like locusts, are laying its fair borders in ruin. Deep debt is piling its burdens on the government. Death is reaping a rich harvest, spreading seeds of sorrow over North and South alike, and all, the fruit of treason there. Down with the traitors, cry I! These Paulina, are my sentiments. You can read them to Harry and see what he thinks of them.

Enclosed please find five dollars and you may expect some in every letter until I get home, what I wish to send. Write often and accept much love from your loving Husband.
E.C. Kennedy

Letter. May 28, 1863.

Camp 8th Ill Cav., May 28th, 1863

Dear Wife,
It is some time since I wrote you last and the reason is we have been on another Raid and we have had one of the best times we have had since we have been in the Service.

Our Regiment went alone. We marched in three columns from the Potomac to the Rappahannock clear to the Chesapeake Bay. We were ordered to be gone five days, but we stayed eleven. One Battalion went along the Rappahannock. We took lots of prisoners, burnt a good many boats. We captured wagon trains loaded with pork which we burnt. We captured Sutlers and all kinds of goods. I got me a nice pair of calf skin boots, jack knives, pencils, cards.

We dressed in Reb clothes and they took us for their men and would come across the River with a Boat for us, when we would take the Prisoners and burned their boats. We also captured four hundred horses. I captured two and one of them I kept to ride. He is a nice grey Horse so you see I am mounted upon a rebel horse. We had the best kind of living. Everything that we wanted, all we had to do was to go into a house and order a meal. They got it. We ate it, thanked them very kindly, and walked. If that isn't bold, what is? In fact, we done just as we was a mind to.

I went to a man by the name of Doctor Simmons, a rich planter, three or four times and got my meals. They were great friends of mine as soon as they found out that my Father was a doctor. They had two young ladies and they used to play and sing on the piano when I was there. Don't you feel bad now? There was over nine hundred Negroes followed us back to the Army. Old Joe Hooker heard that we were all captured and he sent four Regiments of Infantry and one of Cavalry after us, so you can see we are thought something of here. You ought to have heard the Army Hurrah and cheer the 8th Ill when we came inside of the lines.

When we got back, I found four letters from you and two from Harry waiting for my perusal and how eagerly did I grasp them and devour their contents. Glad to hear from you again after such a tramp.

I had very bad luck; while asleep one night, I had my pocket picked of sixty-two dollars. All the money I had. They look the money out of the pocket book and put the book back into my pocket. I tell you Paulina it is a hard blow on me. I hardly know what to do. I intended to express fifty dollars home, but it is gone. God seems to be against me since I entered this Army. They also took one of my revolver with the money. Paulina, I don't want you to send me any money for if I am in need I can get plenty of the Boys, but I feel as though I could spend no more money until this is made up.

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Hard (238, 239, 240).

...the regiment remained at Potomac Creek Station until the 17th of May, when orders came for a reconnaissance to King George and the "Northern Neck". Nothing could have pleased our men better, for from their experience in picketing that country, they knew where to find good living. The regiment left camp with five hundred men and four days rations. The region called the "Northern Neck" lies between the Rappahannock and Potomac, and during the war was the refuge of guerrillas and smugglers, the former having caused the pickets no little annoyance in various ways. It was for the purpose of inflicting summary punishment on these citizen-marauders, and breaking up the contraband trade, that the Eighth Illinois paid them a visit; and there is little doubt but that they made a lasting impression. The entire country was searched and every nook along the banks of the two rivers explored. One hundred sloops, yawls, ferry-boats &c., were burned with their contents; consisting of salt, oil, whisky, leather, stationery, wool cards, percussion caps, boots, shoes, clothing and many other articles of especial value to the rebels. About twenty thousand pounds of bacon and a large quantity of flour was also destroyed. At Leeds's Ferry it was ascertained that the ferry-boat used for smuggling was on the southern bank of the Rappahannock, and it was especially desirable that it should be destroyed. A Yankee trick was devised to induce the rebels to bring it across the river. Captain Southworth, Sergeant Cassady and four others, dressed themselves in rebel gray, and taking two of their own men along with them as prisoners, called to the men on the opposite bank to bring the boat over and take them across. The deception was so complete that the rebels brought the boat over, whereupon they were made prisoners and the boat destroyed.

On returning from this reconnaissance, the Negroes belonging to the plantations along the line of march, joined the emancipating column, coming in squads of from five to twenty, until there were finally accumulated fifteen hundred men, women and children of the contraband persuasion. They brought with them all their personal property, horses, mules, carts, clothing &c., and doubtless some that did not legitimately belong to them, but which they had confiscated from rebel masters, under the "sequestration act". We also found some very loyal citizens who rendered most valuable assistance to our troops.

Not the least important result of this expedition was the addition of five hundred valuable horses and mules; much needed in the service. These animals were with few exceptions far superior to those purchased by the Government for cavalry service. The stories invented by the rebel citizens to induce our men to leave their horses and mules, were very touching and affecting. In most cases, the men being in the rebel army, the women of the house would appear as a widow with "nine small children and this animal was the only thing on which they had to depend for support"; when, not unfrequently, three or four fine horses would be found secreted in a clump of pines nearby.

The regiment reached camp near Brooks Station on the 27th and a more ludicrous procession was never seen than this cavalcade of cavalry, Negroes, captured horses, mules, carts, wagons, oxen, rebel soldiers, trotting sulkies, top carriages, &c. Not unfrequently a small mule would be harnessed by the side of a large horse, ox or cow, and when the wheel of a cart or carriage would give out, the Negroes would "confiscate" one from the nearest plantation, whether it was smaller or twice the size of the one broken. Three or four children would be mounted on a single mule, all of which added to the laughable appearance of the procession, which was three miles long.

On reaching Belle Plain, the women, children and all but the able bodied Negro men were transferred to the steamboat, "Long Branch", and sent to Washington. Once upon the boat, their happiness knew no bounds. They cheered, laughed, cried, danced, and went into all manner of gesticulations and demonstrations of joy. They called upon God to bless us, and as the boat moved down the bay, their songs of thanksgiving were loud and long.

As a result of the expedition, we brought in one hundred prisoners, some of whom were guilty of crimes punishable by death; also three officers, a few smugglers and upward of five thousand dollars in confederate money, besides some government securities. Of the Negroes, three hundred stout field hands were assigned to the Quartermaster's department as laborers. In order to feed this large family while on

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the march, heavy levies were made upon the granaries of the sesech. The soldiers took possession of their mills and the men soon convinced the inhabitants that they were equal to almost any emergency, for they speedily transformed themselves into millers, and thus the command was abundantly supplied.

It was found that some of the wealthiest citizens on "the neck" were engaged in the smuggling business, or contributing in some way to the support of the rebellion; and these gentlemen were made to pay dearly for their secession sympathies. As their Negroes had left them it was thought but just that the soldiers should take their rations. In this manner, the "Illinois Emancipators" fared sumptuously. The official reports of the raid showed upward of one million dollars worth or rebel property destroyed aside from what was brought into camp; while the blow struck at the smuggling trade was the severest one yet dealt.

After the return of the regiment from this expedition, a few days of rest intervened, during which time the captured horses were appraised and distributed, and one fine stallion given to General Pleasanton. Orders were issued by General Hooker, requiring that all the horses and other captured property should be turned over to the Quartermaster; but upon the representation of the Colonel that the horses were needed in the regiment, they were allowed to be retained.

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Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for May & June, 1863.
Present or absent absent
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: Absent in Hospital
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

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Letter. June 3, 1863.

Camp Near Potomac Creek, June 3rd, 1863

Dear Wife,
Your welcome letter of May 27th came to hand last evening and found me eating supper. I was sorry to learn that your health was not good. I wish you could enjoy such as I do. We have splendid weather. We are all wishing for rain. It is so dusty that it nearly chokes us whenever we are out. We have but very little marching to do. Lately it is inspection and dress parade all the time. This afternoon I have had nothing to do so I thought I would write you a few lines. The Boys are all lounging around Camp. Some sleeping, some playing cards, some cleaning their arms, and others taking care of their horses. Thus do we pass away time.

Well Paulina, I think you must be coming down when Irwin and Van Vlacks won't associate with you. Dick Van V. is no man. We know him here and we know no good of him. He is a sneak and a coward and a Whore Master. These things I know you wished to know. What I think about you and Mother going East? I think it's best thing that you can do. Joseph and wife are very anxious for you to come and stay with them. There you can take comfort. I hope you won't give it up.

I am very happy to learn that you and Mother are such good friends and that she has begun to get her eyes open. You wish to know what I think about Grant. I think that he is all right and will succeed in taking Vicksburg. I have no doubt but what this Conscript Bill will make those cowardly Northerners squirm, but then they have got to come to it. Wait until they hear the whistling of bullets and they will hate it worse. I don't believe you keep as late hours as I do for I am up until twelve or one o'clock nearly every night, but I shall reform as soon as I get home with you.

We have got our Regiment pretty well fixed up. We have drew new saddles, saber, guns, horses and now we are ready for fighting, but I don't think that we will have a great deal of it to do. Our camp is in the woods so we are well shaded from the Sun.

Sergeant Pierce is promoted Second Lieutenant of our Company. That fetches me third duty Sergeant instead of fourth. I must now close and water horses. Write often. Give my love to all. This from your affectionate and loving husband.
E.C. Kennedy.

Hard (242).

On the 5th of June, heavy firing was heard above Fredericksburg. A reconnaissance was made which demonstrated what had been reported from Washington — that Lee's army was encamped in the neighborhood of Culpepper, preparing to march north. General Lee was not in favor of this movement, but their late success in repulsing the army of the Potomac under Burnside and Hooker, had emboldened them, and to appease the popular clamor, he had consented to undertake the invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania, and if possible obtain possessions of not only Washington, but Baltimore and Philadelphia. After a review of the brigade, which the soldiers considered equivalent to an order to march, on the 6th of June camp was struck and the cavalry marched, via Stafford Court House and Hartwood Church, to Catlett Station, on the Orange and Alexandria Rail Road, which place we occupied about June 7th, where rations and forage were obtained from Alexandria by railroad.

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Casualty Sheet.

Name, E. C. Kennedy
Rank, Sergt., Company, A, Regiment, 8th
Arm, Cavalry, State, Illinois
Place of casualty, Catlett Station Va.
Nature of casualty, Wounded
Date of casualty, June 9/63

From What Source This Information Was Obtained.

Report of Killed, Wounded and Missing of the 8th Ill (Cav) Regiment, ____ Brigade, ____ Division, ____ Corps, [the following section is crossed out] dated [end crossed out portion] during the year 1863, (?) G. A. Forsyth (?) 8th Ill. Cavy — (? No 1036)

E. S. Jirry
Clerk.

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CASUALTY SHEET OF WOUNDED

E. C. Kennedy
Sergt.
Company A
8th,
Regiment of Ill, Cav,
Volunteers, at the battle of
Catlett Station Va. June 9/63

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Letter. June 11, 1863.

Catlett Station, June 11th, 1863

Dear Wife,
I received yours of May 9th about a week ago and I take this the first opportunity to answer it. I am in good health and feeling first rate. Day before yesterday, we were in one of the greatest cavalry fights that ever was (Brandy Station). We fought all day. We have seventy men killed and wounded and of the Regiments. One Captain was wounded in the thigh. We had one other man wounded by the name of N. Cosman. Tim is either Killed or taken prisoner. He was engaged during the day in burying the dead. He was saw very near the Rebel line toward evening and it is all together very likely that he is killed or taken prisoner. Len Smith had his horse shot through the neck. I had some very narrow escapes, but came out all right. The Eight Illinois could be seen cutting and slashing in the thickness of the fight from early morn till late in the evening, and if our men were being driven in any place, Pleasanton was sure to send us there to check them. The Eighth New York was the first to attack the Enemy and the Enemy drove them back and they nearly ran us over, but as soon as they got back out of our way, we belted into Mr. Rebel and fought them some twenty minutes before they began to waver. Then you ought to have seen the dust fly and the yell of the Eighth Illinois as he plunged his saber into the back of some darn gray back. The reason that we crossed the river and fought the Rebbles was they had assembled some twenty thousand of their cavalry to make a raid into Pennsylvania and were to start the day that we fought them which put a stop to their fun. But they may attempt yet. We're on to them if they do. We are laying within forty miles of Alexandria, ready for them at any time, with a force of over twenty thousand, so let them come and we will give them the best the house affords.

June 12, 1863

I will now endeavor to finish this letter. I had to stop writing last night and go on guard, and this morning finds me half a mile from Camp under a big tree baiting my horse and writing to you. I wish you were here to help me compose this letter, but as you are not, I will do it to the best of my ability. Paulina, quiet your fears about me as much as possible, for the Lord seems to be on my side. I should rather be at home with you then I could take some comfort but I must be patient until that time comes. You must be patient for I think that this War is fast coming to a close. Everything looks bright and encouraging to me.

Paulina, I am happy to learn that Mother has at last got her eyes open and without help. I approve of your and Mother's going East and I hope you won't give it up. I wish Mrs. Hattie Smith luck with her new speculation. She ought not to get mad at her own fun. Paulina, if you need any money, just let me know and I will sell my watch and send you the money. I have got a very nice lumber cast watch about twice as large as the one as I had when I was a hand, and it is all that I have got left out of what was due me when I got back. If my money had not been stolen, I should feel much different. I should now of had One Hundred Dollars sent home, but as it is, you have got nothing. Tell Georgie I yet remember her, would like to see her. I must now draw to a close and go to Camp. I hope you will excuse those few nasty remarks as they are from you own true and loving Husband.
E.C. Kennedy.

(Editors Note: Brandy Station Battlefield was visited in Fall of 1991 by Louise Richardson Danton, Great Grandaughter of Enos, David William Danton, Great Great Grandson of Enos, Susan Goltra Danton, wife of David, and Matthew Evan Danton, Great, Great, Great Grandson of Enos.)

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Hard (242, 243, 244, 245)

The cavalry corps now commanded by General Pleasanton consisted of three division and a reserve brigade. An attack, or reconnaissance in force, by the whole cavalry corps was determined upon to ascertain, if possible, General Lees' exact position and intentions. The First Division and reserve brigade were to cross the Rappahannock at Beverly Ford, the Second Division at Kelly's Ford, and the Third Division at Rappahannock station. For this particular occasion the First Division was divided into two independent brigades — the first under Colonel Davis of the Eighth New York, and the second under Colonel Deven, of the Sixth New York, and both under General Buford, who also commanded the reserve brigade. We waited the coming of night to advance without being discovered. During the afternoon, the resignation of Dr. Crawford was received and accepted, to date January 6th, 1863. We marched that night to within a mile or two of the fords and awaited the approach of dawn.

Scarcely had the golden sunlight cast its rays upon the silver clouds that skirted the eastern horizon, when "boots and saddles" were sounded and the busy bustle of camp betokened work for the cavalier. The march was commenced for the ford. In consequence of the sickness and absence of the senior officers, Captain Clark of Company C., who had been appointed Major, but not yet mustered as such, commanded the Eighth Illinois. The ford was deep and the banks abrupt, and two could only cross abreast. A staff officer of Colonel Davis was stationed at the river and as each company officer came through the stream, he received the order to "draw sabers" which was obeyed. Between the river and the woods in front was an open space across which one squadron of the Eighth New York, led by Colonel Davis in person, moved rapidly; but at the edge of the woods they came upon a barricade of rails which the enemy had constructed to impede their progress. Here the pickets poured into the Eighth New York a deadly fire. Several were killed and several mortally wounded, among whom was the gallant Colonel Davis. Nothing daunted, they rushed upon the rebels with drawn sabers and drove them for a considerable distance into the woods, where meeting reinforcements, the rebels poured into their ranks a fire they could not withstand, and they fell back in confusion. On reaching the woods the Eighth Illinois returned their sabers, and drew their revolvers; and hastening forward as a part of the regiment received the enemy who were pressing hard upon the Eighth New York, with a yell accompanied by volleys of lead, so well directed as to turn the tide of battle, driving the enemy through the woods into the open field beyond, where they had a battery encamped which barely escaped falling into our hands. On reaching a hill beyond the woods where a body of the enemy were in reserve, they turned their cannon upon us and shelled the woods. They also made to attempt to turn our left, charging furiously on Company D, but were severely repulsed. To the right a large part of the enemy tried to force our cavalry back, and actually got possession of the road in our rear, but the part of the Eighth Illinois regiment not engaged in the fight, here had an opportunity to display their courage, and the conflict was severe, but the enemy were forced to yield the ground after a bloody encounter.

When the battle opened upon the right, the enemy were in possession of a stone fence, a little in front of our line, which served the purpose of rifle-pits, from which they could fire almost in safety. A squadron of the Second United States Dragoons, were sent to take the wall, and after doing so, were driven back by superior numbers, losing a Captain killed, and many of their men wounded. General Pleasanton called for a detachment of the Eighth Illinois. Volunteers from Captain Forsythe's squadron, under Sergeant Clapp, were dismounted and sent out, who attempted to flank the enemy from the right, which at least was a perilous undertaking, as nearly double the number sent to make the attack were behind the wall. Not a shot was fired, not a man visible until out boys were halfway across the field, when the enemy came over the hill in the rear of their line, to reinforce those behind the wall, opening a fire which would have been terrible had they been less excited. Sergeant Clapp led his men forward toward the enemy's right, but found that they were too strong and their fire too severe to admit of his turning their flank as easily as had been imagined.

Not content to go back without accomplishing their object, our men laid down and commenced firing so as to pay their compliments to their rebel friends to the extent of their ammunition. They remained in this position as sharp-shooters until relived by other troops forming a line in their rear, which event did not

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transpire until most of them had exhausted their ammunition, and one or two had burst their carbines from the rapid firing which their situation necessitated.

The service of the Eighth Illinois during the remainder of the day was in connection with the reserve brigade. The Eighth Illinois was among the first to advance, and the last to withdraw. In all parts of the field, the severity of the fight is without precedent in cavalry warfare. Any one who wished to witness stubborn fighting, should have seen the Eighth Illinois and Third Indiana, as they stood in line, firing constantly and maintaining their ground against a much greater number of rebels, equally as stubborn.

After being under fire twelve hours, the troops re-crossed the river, with the Eighth Illinois bringing up the rear. This without doubt was the hardest fought cavalry battle of the war, up to that time. The loss of the Eighth Illinois was severely felt — one man, James Evans of Company L, killed, and thirty-six wounded, several of whom died, some within a few days, and others weeks later. The following is a list of the wounded.

John Knapp, Company C
Captain A. Clark. Company C, afterwards died
F.B. Wakefield, Company G
Captain J. G. Smith, Company, afterwards died
John W. Lae, Company G
Captain George A, Forsythe, Company A
Sergeant J.N. Brooks, Company H
Captain D.J.Hynes, Company F
Sergeant J. Clemens, Company H
Corporal O.G. Hess, Company C
Sergeant George Hupp, Company K
Corporal George W. McKinzie, Company C
Sergeant E.R. Buckley, Company C
N. Gasman, Company A
Corporal S.D. Wessen, Company K
W.H. Shurtliff, Company B
Corporal Amos Churchill, Company M
James McCarty, Company C
George H. Fleming, Company K
Hiram H. Miller, Company C
Henry Aiken, Company L
E. Hughes, Company D
William Snively, Company L
Judson Farrer, Company E, afterwards died
Thomas Bolter Company L
Charles Sliter, Company E
Kimber L. Johns, Company M
Daniel R. Bump, Company F
George Mills, Company M
William Young, Company G
Luman V. Grant, Company M
Judson Annis, Company G
Herman Yelding, Company M
James O'Brien, Company G
George W. Ferry, Company B

The life of the last was saved by the ball striking a testament, as in the case of Pearson.

Upon the fall of Captain Clark, the command of the regiment devolved upon Captain E.J. Farnsworth. It is useless to attempt to praise any officers — all did their parts well — reflecting great credit upon themselves and the noble State they represented, and both officers and men were highly complimented by the commanding general.

The other divisions of the corps crossed the river as contemplated, and pressed the enemy in their front as far back as Brandy Station. As the enemy's cavalry was forced back upon their infantry, it became necessary to withdraw, and night found the corps where it started in the morning. A desperate battle had been fought, the loss on both sides very heavy, the position and intention of the enemy ascertained, and yet we were compelled to encamp at night upon our old ground. The usual scenes during and after a battle were enacted. The wounded were brought to a farm house where the doctors were busily engaged until late at night. June 10th the command returned to Catlett Station.

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The Mower U. S. General Hospital.

Capacity 4,000 Beds

Selecting the highest level ground within the city limits, just eastward of Chestnut Hill, where the altitude is 400 feet above the river lever, the National Government began the erection, in the fall of 1862, of another vast hospital establishment. The official in charge was Col. Charles H. Greenleaf, U.S.A., who was also Executive Officer. The space covered was 27 acres. The location was bounded by Abingdon and Springfield Avenues, the Chestnut Hill track of the Reading Railroad and County Line Road. The main frontage was opposite the station now known as Wyndmoor. This was an ideal site for the purpose. The Contractor who built the Satterlee Hospital was employed upon this work. The arrangement of the buildings was novel. From a great flatted, elliptical corridor forty-seven wards, each 175 feet long, radiated outward like the spokes of a wheel. The fence enclosed a space 912 feet wide and 1,037 feet long. The Administration and Medical Department occupied the two-story building in the center. At the far corners were the barracks of the guards. The large commissary building faced the railroad. Kitchens, dining halls, power and heating plant, guard houses and various other structures were grouped in the open central space. A roomy parade and band stand was northeast from the Medical Building. All of the buildings, like those of Satterlee Hospital, were built of wood and rough cast upon the outside. Water was supplied from the Chestnut Hill water works reservoir.

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Hospital Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
E.C. Kennedy
Srgt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Ill Cav.
Appears on
Hospital Muster Roll
of Mower U.S.A. General Hospital,
at Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa.,
for May & June, 1863.
Attached to hospital:
When ____, 186_.
How employed ______
Last paid by Maj. ______
To ________, 186_.
Bounty paid $____100; due $____100
Present or absent Present
Remarks: (illegible)
Book mark: _____
(illegible) Copyist.

A Key to the Official Records of the Military Hosptials, United States Army, Located at Philadelphia.

The unpublished reports and other documentary papers relating to these Civil War Hospitals are filed at the office of the Adjutant-General, War Department, Washington. An index of these records has been prepared by courtesy of that official for use in this book. In order that it may be permanently accessible, copies of this index have been placed in the libraries of the College of Physicians, the Library Company of Philadelphia and the Historical Society.

Tramways extended through the corridor and along the center of each ward to facilitate the carrying of patients and food. Many forms of diversion were provided for the soldiers, and here, as in the vicinity of the other hospitals, there was no lack of kindly attention upon the part of the neighboring residents. Invalid and wounded soldiers destined for the Mower Hospital were carried to the railroad station at Ninth and Green streets in fire ambulances and thence in special cars.

The Mower Hospital was opened upon January 17th, 1863. The capacity at that time was 2,820 beds for patients. The Surgeon in charge was Dr. J. Hopkinson; Consulting Surgeon, J.H.B. McClellan; Executive Officer, Col. Chas H. Greenleaf, U.S.A.; Assistant Surgeons, Isaac Norris, Henry C. Primrose, W. George Foggo, C. R. Maclean, J. M. Wallis, J. Wherry, M. L. Lauber, Robert Bolling, Horace Y. Evans, L. W. Bickley, J. A. C. Hanley, J.G. Murphy, Wm. M, Welch, E. A. Koerper, L. S. Morand, J. S. Somerville, A.H. Light, Albert Trego, Rollin T. Baker, Lewis T. Garrett, D. P. Pancoast, C. C. Bonibaugh and Chas. H. Budd.

The employees included one steward, 47 ward masters, 141 nurses and two firemen. The guard, at first, consisted of a company from Wayne County, Pa., under Capt. George W. Hubbell. A full band and drum corps furnished daily music.

Soon after the opening about 1,700 patients were brought here, mainly from a number of the small hospitals in town, which were then discontinued.

The total admissions to the end of 1864 were 17,190. The number was greatly increased near the close of the war.

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Letter. June 16, 1863.

Fairfax Seminary Hospital, June 16th, 1863

Dear Wife,
I will endeavor to write you a few lines. My health is good with the exception of a slight wound on the head caused by the kick of a horse. It entirely closed my right eye, but time will again make it as good as ever, so give yourself no uneasiness for I am well taken care of.

Tomorrow morning, I shall leave here for Philadelphia. Then I will write to you and let you know where to direct your letters. They are fighting out at the front no more at present. This from your loving Husband.
Enos

Letter. June 20, 1863.

Chestnut Hill Hospital, June 20th, 1863

Dear Wife,
I will now endeavor to write you a few lines. I am enjoying good health and my eye has too so I can see some out of again. I think that in three weeks it will be perfectly well so that I can again join my regiment. I will now tell you how I have been used since I was hurt. Dr. Crawford (at the farm house field hospital) dressed my wound. He had to sew up a gash that was cut under the eye. My tent mate, Town, sit up with me all night. I slept very little in the morning.

The Company was ordered out on a Scout Play in Camp three days and nights without anything to eat. As I was unable to chew, then I was taken to the depot (Catlett Station) where I lay all day and part of the night on the floor waiting for cars. When they came, I had to lay in a box car with dirt six inches deep. The cars got to Alexandria the next morning, and I was taken to the Fairfax Seminary Hospital where I had good care and a good bed for two days. Then the order came to send us all to Philadelphia so we were loaded like a lot of hogs into government wagons and sent to the Depot. There we were loaded into a lot of open coal cars and ran to Washington. There we were put into box cars and ran to Philadelphia, where we were received at the Citizens Volunteer Hospital. There they gave us all our dinner and the women of the city dressed our wounds. From there we were taken to Chestnut Hill Hospital, where we have good beds, good living, and the best of care. It has the name of being the best hospital in United States and I believe it is.

I am enjoying myself finally. All I have to do is to eat my meals, read the papers and sleep and I do not neglect any part of it especially the eating and sleeping part. Tell Mother and Harrison to sit down and write me a good long letter for now if ever is the time, I want to hear from them. I know that you will write a good long letter. You need not send me any money for I borrowed twenty dollars when I left the Regiment. I have had no letters from any of you for a long time, so write as soon as you get this. I shall write to the Regiment today for them to forward my letters here. The Doctors name that attends to the sick in this ward is Dr. Hanley. He is a nice man.

I should like to know what the people of Illinois think of the War. Now I can tell them what we think. That is ole Lee is a used up man. I wish to God that the Rebbles would invade Illinois and strip them of half of their property, then they would begin to open their eyes and do something, not sit at home and find fault with everything that is done. Down with the traitors and up with the Stars is my motto. I think that a dose of shot and shell would take the Copperheadism out of some of them.

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Give George my love and tell her to be a good girl. Give yourself no uneasiness about me for I am nearly right again, and I will write often while I am here. Whenever you write, give me all the news you can think of. What has become of — Kennedy? Give my respects to your sister, tell her to write.

No more at present except much love from your bunged eyed and affectionate Husband,
Enos.

Direct your letters to General Hospital, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Ward Seventeen. (On outside of folded letter)

Letter. June 23, 1863.

U.S. General Hospital, June 23rd, 1863

Dear and Beloved Wife,
Again do I pick up my pen for the purpose of writing you a few lines. My health is good, my eye is gaining slowly. I can use it a very little, but time will again restore it to me as good as ever. So rest easy and give yourself no trouble, for I am in safe quarters and likely to remain here some time. I may perhaps stop here the balance of the summer and I may not. If I do stop, I shall go into the Medical Department. It is not likely that I shall join my regiment again this summer.

I am eating a big lump of cream candy. Just step over this way and get a chunk. It is licking good Paulina. I have got one of the nicest writing material arrangements you ever saw. It cost me one dollar and contains paper, envelopes, visiting cards, needles, thread, toothpicks, thimble pens and pen holder, checkers and checkerboard, ink stand and ink, pencil, pins and looking glass. So you see, I am well supplied and the box that contains those articles makes me a writing desk. This hospital that I am in is ten miles from the city on a nice hill. I think that I shall go down to the city tomorrow. The doctor offered me a pass if I wanted to go, and as I have not been out since I came here, I think that I shall go. I wish you were here to go with me. I should enjoy it much better, but that cannot be.

Paulina, I sincerely hope that you enjoy yourself better than you did. How does Celia get along, and in fact, how does verything get along? Is Maryanne Kendall married yet? If not, is there any prospect of it? When the Fourth of July comes, you must go and enjoy yourself for the both of us. How is Harrison getting along settling the estate? What has become of everybody in Lodi? I guess you will tire answering such foolish questions, so I will rest until after dinner.

Well my dear, I am chuck full. I began with bean soup and finished with bread, meat and potatoes and then topped off with a cigar, and I had out like a small — after drinking swill and I think that I shall (want to) pretty soon.

Now then, if anyone envies me my position, they can very easily get one just like it by enlisting and going to the front. There is fifty seven men in the ward that I am in, and the most of them are wounded. We call ourselves the crippled brigade. I am the only Illinois man here. If you was here, you could not sleep with me, for my bed ain't wide enough. Our beds are made for only one. Now then, I want you to write often and I will do the same. Give my respects to all and tell them that I yet live. Hoping to hear from you often. I will close. Please accept much love, this from your loving and affectionate Husband.
Sergeant E.C. Kennedy.

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Letter. June 27, 1863.

General Hospital, June 27, 1863

Dear Wife,
Your kind letter of the 23rd found its way to me this forenoon, teaming as they always do, with love inspiring words, and such a good long letter. Those are the kind that does a man good when away from home and among strangers, for there is not a person in this Hospital that I ever saw before I came here. I was very sorry to learn that you had been suffering from Rhumati. You must keep still and not work so hard. There is no use of it. I shall soon have some more money. My health is good. I have the use of my eye again. It is a little weak yet.

I am glad that you entertain the idea that we are to spend many happy days together yet. I always thought so. I never yet thought of being killed. I have passed through fourteen pitched battles and yet my life is spared. At Beverly Ford I was in the hottest of the fight all day. There I saw men fall by my own hand. My courage never fails me.

Paulina I should feel better if you had a good place to live while I am away. If you would only go somewhere where you would be suited and let me pay your board. I don't wish you to stay with Celia. I also want you to keep good health until I return for no doubt you will have enough to do then.

It is a good joke on Tim being taken prisoner. He always made his brag that they never could take him Prisoner. He said he would die first but then he is not quite as smart as he thinks he is.

Tell Mary Ann Kendall that I want an invitation to her house before long. That is about the time that she is to be made (Happy). Wonder if she will be afraid to undress before (Reed).

The past is gone, never to be recalled and with it has gone good times. You seem to think that things look discouraging in regard to the War ending. I wish you could see it as I do. It looks bright to me. The Rebbles are making their last mighty effort — it's now or never with them.

I hardly know what to make of Harrison. He has abused my confidence and misused me in every other way, but thank God the time is coming when I can retaliate. He is my only Brother and I never looked for such conduct from him. When I get rid of the Army, me nor mine will never bother him nor his. He ought to know my disposition when once it is riled. I don't very often overlook insults and any Brother that will use another as he has me does not deserve a Brother. My God hasten the day of my freedom.

What has ever become of Bob Hardy. I suppose John will feel pretty nice in his new occupation. You want to know if I remember the old flatiron. I guess I do and the one that used to put it to my face. We were not than as we are now.

I was down to the City of Philadelphia yesterday and had a good time. Tell Mary Henrie I will go and see her Aunt, so give me the direction. You wished to know how I got kicked. I was at a well getting water. After I had filled my canteens I went to get onto my Horse and he wouldn't let me. So I thought I would give him a little flogging. I had nothing but the halter on him and when I went to whip him he ran past me and wheeled around and kicked me with both feet in the face knocking me down. I got up and walked half a mile to Camp and had it dressed. I was nearly crazy it pained me so. But now it is all right again and I feel all right.

Whether I shall stay here or not I can't say. They have ordered me three times to report to the Drug Department for duty but I don't propose in being hurried up. When I get ready I will go and see them and if I like the place, I will stay, but if I don't I will go to my Regiment. They can't fool me as they do some

139

of the Boys here. We have got a new Doctor in our Ward and he wants me to stay. I shall go and see them tonight.

It is now nearly time to send this letter out so I must stop. Tell Mother I will write to her soon. Give my love to Georgy. Write often and hug from your ever true and affectionate Husbands till death and after. Accept much love. ENOS C.KENNEDY

Letter. July 7, 1863.

Dispensary, July 7th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Your kind and welcome letter of the first came to hand yesterday and found me well and busy putting up drugs. I am sorry to learn that your health is not good. You must be careful of yourself and not work so hard. This world was not made in one day, so take it easy. I should of liked very much to of been with you to that wedding for I know that I should of had a good time. I dreamt of the cake but do not remember what I dreamt.

Paulina, I wish you was away from Lodi. Had I only a chance to get out around I should get a place for you to live near here. Then I could see you often and be more contented. Let others use you as they may, there is one who feels for you and when he once gets his liberty, things will go different. I think likely that I shall stay here the balance of my time. Next week I shall get a pass and if I can, get a place for you to live comfortable, I shall send for you to come. Then I think that some people in Lodi can bring out their eyes. Then they will see that I am not to be trifled with, for if you once come here, we never shall see Illinois again.

I am very busy all the time. We have between three and four thousand patients and only six of us to deal out their medicine, so you can see we have enough to do. But I like it well and am contented to stay. I spent the fourth here dealing out medicine all day. How different from two years ago! Then was the first time I saw you to get acquainted with you. I guess Tim has cursed that day often. But, what a change in two short years. Now we are married and many miles apart, but be of good cheer, for our day is coming.

Give my love to your sister and children. I hope you will excuse these short letters for I have to steal the time to write. I will try and write often if they are short. How well I should like to be with you. I must now close and away to duty. Accept much love and an abundance of kisses. This from your Devoted Husband. E. C. Kennedy

Letter. July 12, 1863.

July 12th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Yours of the sixth is before me, I read it with pleasure and having about fifteen spare moments, will try to spend it writing to you. To begin, my health is good and since coming here I have got my old complaint, that is, I can't get any pants large enough around for me. I have to go with them unbuttoned. That is very uncomfortable especially when the ladies call to see the dispensary. Paulina, it is impossible for me to get a certificate of disability as long as they need me here. I am too good friends with the doctors. They won't let me go. They want me to put up medicine.

140

I am glad that you had a good time on the forth and hope you will always improve such opportunities to enjoy yourself. I hope Celia will stay away it if makes Harry anymore of a man. Perhaps he is seeing the error of his ways. I like to see people brought down to their natural gait once in a while. It does them some good.

You see, I have made a botch of this letter. That is because I got up wrong and foremost this morning, I have to get up and do my writing before breakfast, so as to be ready for work as soon as it is swallowed. Paulina, I hope you will forgive me for not writing longer letters, but I will try and write often. I have not wrote to Mother yet, but shall this week. I had a dream last night. It was about you and Harry and Myself. I thought was were having great times getting ready to go to keeping house. Harry was dying to live with us, but what a mistake, and waking up, I found myself here in the hospital.

Enclosed, please find two dollars which you will place to my account. Breakfast is ready, so I must close, I shan't ask you to eat with me. Respects and love to Paulina and no one else. From your husband
Enos.

Can you read this letter

Letter. July 17, 1863.

Dispensary, July 17th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Your kind letter of the 9th I received in due time and joyfully perused its contents and I will now endeavor to answer it. I am well, so my eye. I was down day before yesterday and stayed until yesterday. I was to the Theater and saw them play "The Peep of the Day". It was a splendid play but it made me feel sad to see the men and women come in together and me there alone. My thoughts were at home more than they were on the play. What would I of given if you had only been with me. I think it is the last amusement I shall attend until I get home.

I like my place here in the Dispensary much better than I though I should. I am busy most of the time but that is what I want for when I am busy it keeps my mind from wandering to past recollections.

We have had a great deal of rain in the last two weeks, and between time it is hot enough to roast a man.

Paulina, you ought to do something for your knee. Go at once and consult some good Physician and have something done. Don't delay it a moment.

I suppose that Tim is not very anxious to be exchanged and poor fellow, he must feel bad to find his Girls all married. I have written to Mother. I have not received any letters from the Regiment not heard from it since I left. Now, what do you think about armies? I told you that I could see bright specks looming up in the future and so could every man in the Army, and yet, I can see more of them. The Rebellion must come down!

You wanted to know if you could not come and see me. Certainly you can, I can get you boarded for $2.50 cents per week. Enclosed please fine Ten Dollars, Let me know in your next (Letter) how much money you have received from me so I can tell whether is has all reached you or not.

I will now close and go to breakfast. Write after this, from your affectionate Husband. Enos.

Accept much love and a kiss.

141

Pages of Prescriptions, Mower Military Hospital

These pages of numbered prescriptions are probably from Mower Hospital where Enos spent the remaining years of the Civil War as a steward. After he was injured in action, and until he was fully discharged from the military, he lived in and worked at the Mower Hospital in Chestnut Hill, PA.

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142

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143

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144

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145

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146

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147

Muster Roll.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for July & Aug, 1863.
Present or absent absent
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: Absent in Hospl. On account of injuries received by kick of a horse.
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

148

Letter. July 19, 1863.

Dispensary, July 19th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Your kind letter of the 12th I received in due time and will now endeavor to answer it. My health is good and I am busy all the time. I was in the store last night until eleven and it is now five o'clock in the morning so you see I don't spend all of my time in bed.

Now then, I want you to attend to that knee of yours. Stop work until it gets well. It rains here most all the time. Poor Timan, it is too bad that I should of spoiled his happiness for the future but there is no use of crying for spilt milk.

Paulina, I shall try to make arrangement for you to come and stay out here where you will have no one to pout at you, but the Board is higher that I though it was. It is from four to five dollars per week, but then I will get a place for you ere long if it is in my power for I want you with me or near me. Supposing I should have to go back to my Regiment, what would you do then? We are liable to be sent away, but it is not very probable. I want you away from Lodi and with me. If I stay here until I get my discharge, it is not very likely that I shall go to Illinois in a hurry. I can do well here in a Drug Store and get my pay when I want it.

Yes, Brigget may well say that I would crowd her out if I had of been there. Give her my respect in return.

I have no doubt but Tim would like to have me killed in Battle so that he could adopt the Widow. Harry has wrote me two or three brotherly letters lately. They sound different that they did sometime ago. Today is Sunday, but I have just as much to do as any other day. I will now go to breakfast. Come and dine with me. I will soon let you know when you can come. No more just now. This from your ever loving husband. Sgt. E.C. Kennedy.

Letter. July 22, 1863.

Dispensary, July 22, 1863

Dear Wife,
I received a letter some three days ago and did not answer sooner for this reason. I wanted to get a place for you to board before I wrote. I have just come in and I have got a place for you to board and I want you to come immediately. Lay everything aside and come right away because your board is paid two weeks in advance and if you don't (torn) right away, I (torn) lose the pay. Perhaps though, you have not money enough. If not, let me know. I am in good health. When you come to Philadelphia, go to ninth street and take the cars to Chestnut Hospital and when you come to the gate, tell them that you are from Illinois, and that your husband is in the dispensary and you came to see him, and they will let you in. Then go to the reception room and they will send for me to come and see you. Now my dear, come right away if you have the means. Fetch nothing but your clothes. I shall look for you here in two weeks. Ah, how I wish you were here now. As soon as you get this letter, take the cars and come. Tell folks back there that I am sick and you are coming to see me. I will now close, hoping in a few days to clasp you to my heart, never again to part with you until death. Paulina, I feel childish with the prospects of so soon having you with me, don't let the time be long. I could write all day, but I must stop and go to work. This from your ever devoted and affectionate husband.

Enos C. Kennedy
Give my love to all

149

Letter. July 25. 1863.

Dispensary July 25th, 1863

Dear Wife,
Your more than welcome letter of the 19th came duly to hand and was carefully perused and contentedly well digested by me and after some little delay, I sit myself down to answer it. One reason that I have been negligent, this time is I expected you here so soon that I would hold back until you came and then tell it with my own tongue. Oh Paulina, I hope you will make no delay, but come immediately. Every week will seem a month until you get here I have got everything fixed for your board paid in advance, so don't delay the trip but hurry up for I am very lonesome here. I know but very few here and they are no company for me. I have got board for you about eighty rods from the hospital, so you will be close to me and I can get out to see you every other night. What do you think of that. Paulina, I think that after you get here I can make my pants fit better and reason. I wish you to hurry up as I am worried about your health. I wish you under my care and my doctor is one of the best of men and think a great deal of him and with his help I think you can be restored to health.

Well, my dear Paulina, I have kept a diary part of the time only since I left home so that you can reuse when you come. Paulina, dear, I hope that this is the last letter I shall have to write before you come to me and now as the prescriptions are piling in, I must go to work. Accept these few lines as a token of love from your husband.
E. C. Kennedy

Hurry Up.

150

Paulina's Housing at Chestnut Hill.

Paulina writes of her delight with the housing accommodations she has near Mower Army Hospital. She is close enough to walk to visit the men in the wards of the hospital. The photograph shows a typical house in the approximate area of U.S. Mower Hospital, Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania.

Enos' letter to Paulina, dated July 25, 1863, states that the accommodation he has found is "40 rods" from the hospital. (1 rod equals 5 1/2 yards, approximately two blocks).

151

Muster Rolls.

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8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for from Oct 31/62 to Feb 28, 1863.
Present or absent present
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: ____
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

152

Page Image

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for Sept & Oct, 1863.
Present or absent absent
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: Absent in Hospital on account of wounds received in action.
Book mark: _____
Long Copyist.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Muster Roll
for Nov 31 to Apl 30, 1863.
Present or absent absent
Stoppage, $___ 100; for ____
Due Gov't, $___100 for ____
Valuation of horse, $ ____100
Valuation of horse equipments, $___100
Remarks: Transferred to (?) Phila Pa Mar 16/64.
Book mark: _____
Nowlin Copyist.

153

Page Image

8 Cav. Ill.
E C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Hospital Muster Roll
of Mower U.S.A. General Hospital,
at Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa.,
for Sept & Oct, 1863.
Attached to hospital:
When ____, 186_.
How employed_____
Last paid by Maj Laggart
To Aug 31, 1863.
Bounty paid $___ 100; due $__ 100
Present or absent present
Remarks: ___
Book mark: _____
Ballow Copyist.

8 Cav. Ill.
E C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Hospital Muster Roll
of Mower U.S.A. General Hospital,
at Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa.,
for Aug 31, 1863.
Attached to hospital:
When ____, 186_.
How employed_____
Last paid by Maj ___
To June 30, 1863.
Bounty paid $___ 100; due $__ 100
Present or absent present
Remarks: On partial Descriptive list. Ward 2
Book mark: _____
H.D. Knapp Copyist.

154

Page Image

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Hospital Muster Roll
of Mower U.S.A. General Hospital,
at Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa.,
for Nov & Dec, 1863.
Attached to hospital:
When ____, 186_.
How employed_____
Last paid by Maj Taggart
To Oct 31, 1863.
Bounty paid $___ 100; due $__ 100
Present or absent present
Remarks: ___
Book mark: ____
SF Hamilton Copyist.

155

Page Image

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Sergt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on Returns as follows:
Jan 1862 returns to Hospl. from the 30th Aprl to Nov 1862. Sgt. Absent, sick
Dec. 1862 — Absent on sick leave.
Jan 1863 — Absent, sick.
June, 1863 — Absent, sick (wounded) in Hospl.
July to Sept. 1863, Absent sick, wounded June 10 Phila. Pa.
Aug to Oct 1863, Absent sick on account of wounds received in action.
Nov. 1863 — Absent sick wounded June 10 at Philadelphia Pa.
Dec. 1863 to April 1864 Absent on detached service on duty at Hospital at Philadelphia.
Transf. To I.G.L.O 104 March 21 Philada, Pa.
Book mark: Entry Cancelled.
Hamilton Copyist.

8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
____,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Appears on
Company Descriptive Book
of the organization named above.
Description
Age 23 years; height 5 feet, 7 inches.
Complexion Drk
Eyes Grey; hair Drk
Where born Crawford Pa.,
Occupation Farmer
Enlistment
When Sept 13, 1861.
Where St. Charles
By whom Wm Conklin; term 3 y'rs.
Remarks: Appointed Corporal Aug 14 1862.
Appointed sergeant Oct 1 1862.
Reduced to the rank, Dec. 1, 1863.
Transferred to the Invalid Corps Jan. 1864.
W.T. Hughes
Copyist.

156

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8 Cav. Ill.
Enos C. Kennedy
Pvt.,
Co. A, 8 Reg't Illinois Cavalry.
Age 25 years.
Appears on Co. Muster-out Roll, dated
Benton Co. Mo, July 17, 1863.
Muster-out to date ____, 186_.
Last paid to Apl 30, 1863.
Clothing account:
Last settled ___, 186_; drawn since $___100
Due soldier $ ___100; due U.S. $____100
Am't for cloth'g in kind or money adv'd $___100.
Due U.S. for arms, equipments, &c. $____100
Bounty paid $___100; due $____100
Valuation of horse, $___100
Valuation of horse equipments, $____100
Remarks: Transferred to TR Corps, April (?) 104 (?).
Book mark: _____
(?) Copyist.

157

Letter. August, 1863.

Chestnut Hill, August, 1863

Dear Friend,
Celia, good Evening. I ask to be excused for not writing to you before but I have not written to anyone but Mother since I have been here. This evening finds Enos and myself both quite well and happy as possible and I trust those few lines find you the same.

I am well pleased with my boarding place, the boarders, and also the people that I board with are very pleasant and agreeable. And this Hill is so pleasant that any person would not help liking. Here it seems more like York State here then there. It is very stony here and there is such beautiful weeping willows. They are larger than any trees anywhere near Lodi. The limbs almost touch the ground. The other night we got very frightened here. One of the ladies that was boarding here died and people never sit up with a corpse here, but go to bed and leave them. And in the night, the large watch dog began to make a fuss and one of the girls got up and looked out of the windows and there was a man walking around in the yard. She asked him what he wanted and he said, "nothing", but, of course, they knew that he was prowling around to steal the corpse. And it was not much that we slept, you better believe, the rest of the night. The corpse lay in the first room from mine. In the morning, we found out that it was a police but we think he had been paid to steal the corpse, but he did not get it. The next day, she was buried. The Boarders all went as mourners by the request of her Husband. Enos got a pass out and attended. The Bearers were soldiers and were all invited back to tea.

Celia, you can't imagine the misery there is in at the hospital. Every little while I go over and go around in the different wards, — some shot in the face and some through the arms and legs and back, and in fact, there is no part but what they are wounded. I saw one wound the other day when it was ready to dress in the shoulder. It was a horrid sight. You see Boys that do not look to be more than sixteen with their arms taken off to their shoulder. It makes my heart ache for them, especially when they talk of home.

Now, Celia, I suppose you would of liked very much to of seen the meeting between Enos and myself. Well you might, for it was a happy meeting and we both enjoyed the visit. Enos has got a very nice situation and he likes it very much. I think that he will stay some time. The bed Doctors like him. Well now, Celia, I have got almost to the bottom of my paper and must draw my letter to a close. Give my love to Mother and Harry and accept a good share for yourself. Write soon and all the news and when you are a going to be married, won't you. This from your friend and well wisher.
Paulina Kennedy

(Notes on top and side margins: Enos sends his love. Give my best wishes to Mary and James also. Tell them to write. Oh, Celia, I am troubled today with the old (granes?). Don't you see that is what is the matter? Don't let anyone see this. Celia, If you were to come here, you would never want to go back to Illinois. I do not, to live, and I do not think that Enos will ever come back there to live but will settle here. If ever you see Mrs. Griffin, you can tell her that I am here in this great City that she used to tell so much about, and think it is a beautiful city. Now Celia, I want you to get that box of things ready — those little garments, I mean, for I may need them in the course of a few months, and I think it best to have all preparations made in time, and then you know they have to be sent some distance. Enos thinks a great deal of that rag baby that you sent him, but thinks you must of been short of material and says that he hopes you won't always be troubled in that way. He says that he will try and be contented with the one that you sent until he can be dad to a better one, and is very much obliged to you for being to so much trouble.

158

THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES
Certificate Of Disability for Discharge.

Priv. E. C. Kennedy of Captain (?) Company, 34th of the 2nd Batt, (?) [the following is crossed out] Regiment of the United States [end crossed out portion] ___was enlisted by W. G. Conklin of the ____ Regiment of _____ at St. Charles on the 13th day of September 1861, to serve 3 years; he was born in Crawford Co in the State of Pennsylvania is 23 years of age, 5 feet 7 inches high, dark complexion, grey eyes, dark hair, and by occupation when enlisted a Farmer. During the last two months said soldier has been unfit for duty ___ days. The status that he has been off duty fifteen (15) months. Wounded severely Phil, Pa June 9th 1863.
Admitted here June 18th, 1863.

Station: (?)Gen. Hosp. Chestnut Hill, Philada.
Date: Sept. 21st 1864 (?)

I certify, that I have carefully examined the said E. C. Kennedy of Captain L Meyers Company, and find him incapable of performing the duties of a soldier because of Wounded right eye and expiration of terms of service. (?) one fourth (1/4) (?)

Discharged, this 29th day of (?) 1864, (?) General Hospital (?)
(?) in charge

Commanding the Reg't
Moyer Hospital

The soldier desires to be addressed at
Town Lode Station County Kane State Illinois.

[A. G. O. No. 100 & 101 — First.]
(Duplicates.)

159

Oh yes, I forgot to tell you about my room. It is in the second story front room and is as large as your parlor and kitchen put together. When you write, let me know if you have heard from Oliver lately and also if Dave Philmore has got home, and if Tim was exchanged, the reason that he went back, and everything that you can think of even if you want to since I came away. And don't forget our walk over the Gardners and what a time you had nursing the cat and then when we got almost home about your being in distress with his hands on you know where. I guess I have written as much nonsense as you will want to read.

There goes the supper bell. Goodbye.

1865.

Piece of Letter. Approximately January/February, 1865.

(From Enos to his mother)

Well, I will endeavor to write a few more lines. I will tell you how I spend my time. At half past five o'clock in the morning, I get up, build a fire and start the breakfast. Then Paulina finishes it while I tend (Baby). At seven o'clock, I get my chores done and start for the Hospital. After I get there, I read the morning's paper. Then I make preparations from eight until nine. Then the wine car is brought to the door and I deal out two hundred bottles of Porter, Four Gallons of Whiskey, Three Gallons of Wine and one of Brandy. And at half ten, the car leaves for the wards. Then I go to the Fire Alarm Battery and fix that which takes until eleven o'clock. From eleven till twelve, I have my Department put in order and then I take dinner. After diner, I smoke and talk politics for an hour, then I go to work preparing medicines and getting the liquors ready for the afternoon distribution. This keeps me busy until half past four when we take supper. After Supper, it is smoke and talk for an hour. Then, I work until seven o'clock when I go home to stay with my Dear Wife and Child. So ends the day.

Mother, we have had two weeks of beautiful sleighing and the People of this vicinity have enjoyed it finely. But today, it commenced raining and tonight the ground is bare and the rain comes down. Times are about the same as when I wrote you last. I saw John Hardy and his mother but had no talk with them as I had not time. They said that they should come and see us. Tell Harrison that he is indebted to me one letter and I begin to think that he has forgot it. Did you receive a letter from me with some postage stamps in it?

Mother, we accepted of the name you sent that is Bertha Delores. While I am writing, the baby is sleeping and Paulina is making a fly trap out of her mouth to catch bugs with. I must now stop writing as it is time to go to bed. Write us a good long letter. Tell all the news and some that is not news. Tell Georgy that we think of her. Our respect to all. We both join in sending must love to you. This from your children, EC and PE Kennedy.

Letter. January 22, 1865.

Chestnut Hill, January 22nd, 1865

Dear Mother,
I improve this present opportunity to pen a few lines to you. To begin with, we are all quite well at present. The baby has been sick but is better now, but she is some cross. Mrs. Hardy and John have been here on a visit. John stayed one night and one day. Mrs. Hardy stayed four days and I had quite a visit with them. They intend to go home the first of March.

160

I have not much news to write but if I could see you I could think of plenty to say. But I trust we shall see you in the Spring. If you were here this winter, I would be very glad. You would be so much company for me. But I am not near as lonesome since Berthy was born. Everything in the provision line continues to be very high. Eggs are 70 per dozen. What do you think of that?

I will now close and take the baby for she is crying. Write often. Accept much love. This from your affectionate daughter, Paulina E. Kennedy
Chestnut Hill, January 24th, 1865

Dear Mother
I will at last try to finish this letter. We yet enjoy good health and big appetites. The health part is all right but the big appetites are a poor thing in these hard times. Now I will tell you what it costs me to keep Paulina. That is, for a meal she will eat a fish worth 14 cents, five potatoes worth five cents apiece, fifteen buckwheat slap jacks with 12 cents, half pound butter forth 40 cents, and other articles to the amount of 50 cents, making, in all, $1.41 cents for the meal. So you can judge, I have to work to support her and worse than all, Mother, she let the baby piss on me last night. And, if she doesn't keep her corked up, I shall put her in a Gunger Rubber Boy. I just close, and if you fail to read this, blame it on Paulina for she bothers me so that I do not know what I have written. My love to you all, this from your son, E.C. Kennedy.

Now mother, you may believe as much of what Enos write about me as you like, but he failed to inform you how much it costs for his Board. He pretends to board at the hospital, but he eats three meals at the hospital and four at home. And you may believe the potatoes and buckwheats supper. He says that he believes I am telling stories about him, but I can't see it.
Paulina

Well, I see that Paulina has been having something more to say, but I am sorry to say there is not a word of truth in it. But then, I will say no more about it but quit writing, close this letter, lick her and go to bed.
Enos

NOTE Bertha Delores Kennedy was born (Chestnut Hill) on December 10, 1864.

nts

Notes

1. This organization subsequently became Co. A, 8 Reg't Ill. Cav.

2. Muster-in roll shows enrollment of all men of this company as of same date, except those enrolled subsequent to date of muster-in of company. See enrollment on subsequent card or cards.

3. Civil War Centennial Commission of Illinois, Illinois Military Units in the Civil War (Springfield, 1962, 40).

4. Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Blue, (Baton Rouge, 1964), 149.

5. Chicago Tribune, September 26, 1861.

6. St. Charles (Illinois) Historical Society. Program for Camp Kane Memorial Dedication Ceremonies (St. Charles, 1982), 3; Chicago Tribune, September 26, 1861

7. History of the Eighth Cavalry Regiment, Hard, Abner M.D., Chapter I, pp 34-37, 40-43, 46-54, 58, 59.

8. HARD: (37-41)
A few days before the regiment left for the seat of war, the horses were sent to Washington in two detachments (by railroad), and the boys began to realize that camp amusements were now to be exchanged for actual labor.

Without waiting for arms, on the 14th day of October (1861), the regiment marched to Geneva and took the cars for the seat of war. When the order was announced, considerable excitement was evidenced by the soldiers, but in due time we were on our way all in good order.

A part of the regiment arrived at Baltimore during the day, and the remainder at night. Here we found the soldiers on patrol duty, and Fort McHenry, with its heavy guns pointing their saucy muzzles right at the city, which spoke in terms too plain to be misunderstood, that otherwise violence would reign supreme. We marched up the street.

On arriving at the depot, we were furnished with very uncomfortable box or freight cars, into which we were stowed more like cattle than men. But this was unavoidable, from the fact that the road was taxed to its utmost capacity to transport troops and stores necessary for the rapidly increasing army at the capital; and this was the only railroad leading into Washington from any direction. However, we had but forty miles to travel in this manner, and although our progress was slower than at any period of our journey, we did not suffer much inconvenience. A few miles from Washington, the train moved so slowly that many took occasion to leave the cars and visit the studio of Clark Mills, where was being prepared the bronze statue of Liberty, which was intended to surmount the dome of the capital when once completed, but which, in the present unsettled state of the country, seemed far in the future.

We reached Washington early on the morning of the 18th of October. On approaching the city, the country for several miles around seemed to be almost covered with camps. Soldiers drilling, drums beating, banners flying, were to be seen and heard in every direction. Near the depot were some wooden buildings or barracks called the Soldiers Rest, where refreshments were furnished the troops as they arrived.

....the regiment had fallen into line and were marching up Pennsylvania Avenue. On arriving in front of the President's mansion, known as the "White House", President Lincoln came out upon the piazza, when the regiment gave him three hearty cheers; and it is on this occasion, it is said the President called us "Farnsworth's Big Abolition Regiment." After passing the White House it seems some of the officers mistook the direction or nearest road to our future camp, for which reason we marched several miles before reaching the place, Meridian Hill, where we were to pitch our tents. There had been recent rains which left the ground wet, though the day was very warm and sultry, equal to a July day in northern Illinois, and by the time we reached camp the men were nearly exhausted. We were now on Meridian Hill, about two miles north of the President's house, and the men went to work at once preparing supper. (for they had no dinner), unpacking their things, and pitching their tents; and it is far into the "wee sma' hours o' night", before the camp was still and the weary soldiers could find repose.

9. See enrollment on card from muster-in roll.

10. HARD (43)
The Eighth were inspired by patriotism and ready for duty; but so totally ignorant of the requirements of their present mode of life, that in order to do their duty well, they overdid it in many aspects; at least twice the number of men were put on camp guard as were necessary. Their recent journey, severe labor and change of living, tended to create sickness which rapidly filled our hospital tents. We had now been in camp long enough to have daily drill, preaching regularly on the Sabbath, and evening prayer meetings in many of the officers tents.

We had, at this time, only a sufficient number of carbines for camp guard, and were anxiously awaiting our full equipments, drilling and preparing for future action and service.

11. HARD (46)
Our men were eager and anxious to drive the enemy from in front of Washington before the winter set in, but day after day passed with about the same round of duties. Drills, roll-calls, fatigue duty (such as policing the camp, grooming, watering and feeding the horses, cleaning arms and attending the sick) were becoming irksome. It now became evident that a great mistake had been made in not having the men properly examined upon enlistment. Sickness was on the increase, and many were found either too old or otherwise physically unfit for the field, and were commenced the work of discharging such, under the direction of the Surgeon and Medical Director Tripler. It was found, too, that small-pox was making its ravages among the troops about Washington, and we at once determined to vaccinate the entire regiment. Beginning with the Colonel, none were to be exempt. In consequence of this precaution, while the disease prevailed in the camps on all sides of us, we were exempt.

12. HARD (46)
On Sunday, November 24th, if any of our friends at home could have looked in upon us, they would have seen us very busy at work, "Cleaning house", preparatory to receiving a visit from Bishop Simpson, of Illinois, and listening to one of his excellent discourses. He failed to make his appearance, however, and we had a sermon by our Chaplain, Rev, Mr. Matlack. On Monday, Bishop Simpson arrived, and delivered an eloquent address, taking his text from a passage in Ephesians, "Put on the whole armor of God."

13. HARD (47/48)
November 27th, there were seven cases of well marked typhoid fever in our camp and hospital, and quite a number were unable for duty, from the fact of their being kicked by the horses, mostly while taking them to water at Rock Creek, some half mile distant. The injury was generally received on the leg, from four to six inches below the knee, frequently laying bare the bone. Many also suffering from chafing or excretions on the inside of the thighs and legs, caused by riding, required medical attention. It was found that astringent and soothing applications were necessary; and a solution of glycerin and tannin, or glycerin and collodium (glycerin eight parts and collodium two parts) was found very useful.

14. HARD(47/48)
The duties we were now called upon to perform were apparently to so little purpose that we were becoming very dull, and any diversion was hailed with gladness. One of these now came in the shape of Thanksgiving, it being the 28th of November, 1861. We have reasons to give thanks at all times, but more especially when the future as now looked none too bright. An immense army lay about us, most of it as raw and inexperienced as ourselves, a haughty, and to some extent victorious host, lay opposed to us only a few miles distant, blockading the Potomac River and holding the "impregnable Manassas". Our Colonel had arranged a surprise for us by way of celebrating the day, and presently teams came into camp bringing eighty bushels of oysters which were divided among the different companies; and a merry Thanksgiving it proved to be. The men will long remember with gratitude the noble, generous Colonel who provided such a feast for his soldiers at his own expense. It seems that some of the men, now knowing what was in store for them, and fearing they should have a poor dinner with which to observe the day, had planned to make a raid on certain hen-roosts and beehives in the vicinity, where secessionists were know to reside, but more prudent counsels prevailed and we were spared the unpleasant duty of recording any act of violence or disorder. Although some would occasionally indulge in the use of a little too much liquor, the regiment, upon the whole, were as orderly as any we knew.

15. HARD (50)
Arrangements were at once made to have our regiment brought to the other side of Alexandria as soon as our arms and equipment's were received, for at this time, we were only partially equipped. Having selected a location for our camp, we returned to prepare for future movement across the Potomac to the "sacred soil of Virginia." Arms were not furnished as soon as anticipated. It was of no use for us to cross to the Virginia side of the river, and enter upon actual service, until we were fully equipped, consequently we did not move camp until the 13th of December, during which time the men took occasion, whenever the opportunity offered, to visit the many places of interest in and about Washington.

16. HARD (49)
One man was found sleeping upon his post upon a very cold night, and you can imagine there was quite a sensation created in camp on that occasion; but as there was no danger from the enemy, and it was the first offense, he was allowed to return to duty with a severe reprimand.

17. HARD (52-53)
At this time Washington, Georgetown and Alexandria, in fact the whole District of Columbia was like one immense military camp, so great any army had collected here, but no expedition of any importance was being prosecuted. Finally, our equipment was complete, and we received orders to be in readiness to march into Virginia the next day.

...By early dawn on the 13th, the bugles sounded and the camp was all astir. This was to be our first march fully equipped for service, and about ten o'clock AM, our baggage being fully loaded in army wagons, we started with a small advance guard preceding us about an hour. Preceded by the Colonel and staff, the regiment moved by fours down Fourteenth Street through the city to the Long Bridge, while thousands crowded the highway to see us pass, for such a body of mounted cavalry had never before marched through Washington, and our western horses made a splendid appearance of which we were proud. Crossing the Potomac on Long Bridge, and passing by the frowning forts on the Virginia side, we were soon marching through the city of Alexandria, where from every window and crevice we could see secessionists peaking out to abuse us and see what kind of appearance we made.

18. HARD (54)
We soon reached our camp about three miles west of Alexandria. It was situated on a hillside descending from the turnpike towards the south, and a beautiful view was spread out before us. Near by stood Fairfax Theological Seminary and Forts Ellsworth, Lyon, Worth and Ward. Several thousand infantry were encamped about us.

19. HARD (54)
The soil was a reddish clay loam, and the men at once went to work digging down to level the floors of their tents, and some of them even dug to the depth of eighteen inches to enlarge and make them higher. They were warned that when the rainy season began, the water would leak through this soil and make the tents very unpleasant, as well as unhealthy. Not believing this however, they persisted but sadly repented before spring. The weather was warm and pleasant: camp was soon arranged and drilling with horses, and saber exercises on foot were entered into with alacrity. We were liable to be called upon at anytime to attack the enemy or repel an invasion, and our men fully realized the situation.

20. HARD (58)
About the last of December 1861, and first of January 1862, the weather became more pleasant, and the change was hailed with joy among the soldiers. December 31st, the regiment was inspected by General French, and mustered for pay. The parade took place near Cloud's Mills, very near the spot where occurred a skirmish just previous to the Battle of Bull Run. General French complimented the regiment highly on its splendid appearance, and after returning to his quarters he told some of his officers, "If you wanted to see a regiment that is a regiment, go and look at the Eighth Illinois Cavalry."

21. HARD (58-59)
From this time the weather began to be more unsettled and stormy; our camp was becoming more muddy and unhealthy and the sick list kept increasing.

22. HARD (58-59)
During the month of January more than five hundred were on the sick list. The diseases were mostly what is termed thypo-malarial fever, while a large number of cases were genuine typhoid fever. Many of the patients were so delirious that it required considerable force and constant watching to prevent their rushing out in the rain and injuring themselves. We had but two hospital tents and consequently were obliged to send a large number to the general hospital in Alexandria, where many of them died. Thus matters grew worse from day to day.

23. HARD (67)
About this time Colonel Farnsworth received orders to remove the regiment to Alexandria where the men and horses could be sheltered in vacant Sesesh houses and shops, and on the morning of January 24th, the regiment moved to the city, except headquarters and a guard to protect the property of the camp.

24. HARD (69)
The regiment having moved into Alexandria was quartered in vacant houses as follows: Companies A and L in fine houses on Duke Street near number 75; Company B near the Wharf; Companies C and M corner of Wolf and Fairfax Streets; Companies D,G, and K on Wolf Street; Company F in the old printing office on Royal Street, Company H in Washington Street, Methodist Church South; Company I opposite the Methodist Church and Company E on Prince Street near the residence of Mayor McKenzie. As we now had comfortable quarters all those who were not sick proceeded to enjoy themselves as well as they could, with such amusements as came to hand, together with reading and writing letters home. Thus the time passed very pleasantly; brightened almost every day by receiving kind and welcome missives from their friends. The horses were as well cared for as the men.

25. HARD (69)
The regimental dispensary was located in a fine brick building on Washington Street near Wolf, the upper part of which was occupied by some of the officers and their families. This was also the house to which the remains of the rebel Jackson, who murdered Colonel Ellsworth, were taken.

26. Encyclopedia: Fort Henry was Captured by Grant in February, 1862. Center of Confederate line rested on two forts, Henry and Donelson. If Union could capture these forts, the Confederate position in Kentucky would collapse. Helped by Ironclad ships.

27. HARD(84-85)
During our stay in Alexandria the regiment was not without duty in the field. Scouting parties were sent out frequently and some companies were out on Pickett duty nearly all the time. A extract from my diary will serve to illustrate that important branch of the service: February 19th, 1862 — the return of our pickets was accompanied with some lively incidents. As a portion of "our boys" with a detachment of infantry were out viewing the rebel lines, up the Acotink, a slight skirmish took place between five members of Company H and about the same number of Sesesh, who were concealed in brush near by. The boys crossed a creek, and upon approaching a hill, dismounted while Sergeant Doud went up the hill on foot, and turned to descend when he was fired upon by the rebels on the opposite side, without effect. They then mounted and went back to the main body, but the rebels "vamoosed", yelling at every step. One of them was seen to enter a house where our party had previously been to obtain information, and a detachment was immediately sent to the house and the fellow captured.

28. HARD (84-85)
The country around Mt. Vernon, the home and grave of Washington, was among the places which the regiment was called upon to protect. Acotink Creek was the outer line in that direction, and Pohick Church, memorable for its associations with the Washington Family, was frequently visited.

29. HARD (84-85)
Refer to footnoting on previous letter.

30. HARD (88-90)
March 18th we were ordered to be in readiness to march early next morning. It was now evident something was to be done. A Winter of inactivity was about over — the country had become impatient of delay. All were anxious to take part in the forward movement, although the season was inclement; and as General Sumner came through the city at five o'clock in the morning, he was surprised to find our men in line, ready to move according to orders. He informed the Colonel that seven o'clock would be early enough, and promptly at that time, we marched out to Camp California, a distance of three miles with the rain pouring down upon us, where we arrived at the General's headquarters. There were congregated a large army, and an immense train of wagons, with ammunition and rations. We remained here for several hours, awaiting the movements of the different commands, and it was not until after ten o'clock that the army began to march. Never shall forget the appearance of that army as the men filed across the creek, over the plain, and up the ravine, winding among the hills of the opposite, a serpentine column of infantry, which was not unaptly represented by the term "Anaconda," a term long since given to it from the fact of its trying to coil itself around the enemy.

We, too, took up our line of march in due time, as escort to the wagon train. The rain continued to fall most of the day, and the mud was almost impassable, yet we plodded on, ambitious to meet the rebels in their strong-hold, the famed impregnable Manassas. At night having traveled some nineteen miles, we encamped in a field, where the camp fires made a lively scene. It was late at night, however, before the wagon train arrived (part of it being stuck in the mud), and we were obliged to make a supper of what we had in our haversacks, which was little enough. This, our first night out, passed without anything worthy of note.

Next morning, we moved forward to Sangster's Station, where we remained two nights. There we learned that the rebels had evacuated Manassas and were retreating toward Richmond. Our men were somewhat chagrined, yet believed it to be an evidence of their weakness, and not a strategic movement. On the 12th inst., about sundown, we pushed forward through the mud, by way of Fairfax Station, to Union Mills, on Bull Run, where we arrived at nine o'clock PM, and encamped for the night. Everywhere, today, did we find evidence of the enemy's hasty retreat. They had left considerable debris, and had burned some wagon and camp equipage, but nothing valuable remained. A slight skirmish had taken place between a few of the rebel Cavalry and a portion of the First New York Cavalry, at Songster's Station, just before our arrival, in which one man was said to have been shot.

31. HARD (88-90)
Centerville, Fairfax, and the country up and down Bull Run were thoroughly scoured, but no rebels found, except a few stragglers and occasionally some cavalry who kept at a respectable distance. Centerville, the famous stronghold, had its forts mounted in part with wooden guns, which frowned upon us very forebodingly, and served to create a great deal of amusement for our men. Manassas Junction a fine and thriving village, had been burned to the ground and not a building was left standing.

32. HARD (90-91)
On the 15th we were ordered to return to Fairfax Station, as it seemed impossible to forward provisions to this point. The roads were terrible — all the bridges having been burned between us and Fairfax, and the streams were so swollen that it was almost impossible to ford them. We reached Fairfax Station just before dark, with a terrible rain, pouring down upon us and many of the men sick.....The regiment encamped in a grove near the Station where they remained all night without food or sleep; trying by standing up, to expose as little as possible of their persons to the pelting and merciless rain. They made the best of it however, sang and shouted to keep up their spirits and many were the jokes passed through the camp. The horses, without forage, stamped and pawed, and next morning were found standing knee deep in mud and water.

33. HARD (90-91)
On the 17th, the army forded Bull Run and advanced to the plains of Manassas. This country was well guarded by earthworks or forts, now deserted, showing that the enemy had been as busy as ants digging and ditching, but all had been abandoned without a fight. We took possession of the rebel huts which studded the plain by thousands, and made ourselves as comfortable as possible.

34. HARD (91)
We had sixteen cases of measles in our camp besides four other sick men, and more were coming down hourly from exposure. Sending these to Alexandria, and after remaining here during the day and night we were ordered to return to Union Mills with half the regiment.

35. HARD (101-101)
April 9th broke upon a suffering camp, and I fear I shall fail to portray the conditions of the men, with nothing but their blankets to protect them from the tempest which was again raging. Weary and with scanty rations, surrounded by rivers that could not be forded, the sufferings of the soldiers was to us a reality, and not the picture which our boyish dreams had imagined. I will here quote from the diary of Dr. Stull, written upon the evening of this day: "This whole day the storm has continued, and the situation of our camp is perfectly horrible. There stand the poor horses shivering as though they would fall to pieces, and the poor men, on scanty rations, must lie down in the wet and stop with the covering of blankets only. If our friends at home knew what we are suffering, I imagine there would be many moist eyes. I could punish the rebel leaders severely now, if I had the opportunity."

But oh, what a contrast between our going out and coming in. We had left Alexandria March 10th, just one month and one day before, with high spirits, and buoyant hopes: in good health and well equipped. During that time, we had marched hundreds of miles and endured untold hardships, and now returned jaded and worn, with about two hundred less in number.

36. HARD(105)
It appears to have been the purpose of General McClellan to transfer the army of the Potomac to some point on the Peninsula, and approach Richmond by that route. All the time we were scouting upon the Rappahannock, preparations were being made and troops embarked for that point. The Potomac river was now literally filled with boats and thousands of troops were leaving daily, and we only awaited transportation.

37. HARD (105-106)
Our sick were sent to general hospital or discharged, and every preparation possible was made to put the regiment in good order for the expedition (to the Peninsula). In this we were engaged until the 24th of April, at which time we embarked, the field and staff officers on board the steamer "Emperor." Two steamboats, the "Emperor and Knickerbocker", one steam lug and twenty transports were required to take the Eighth Illinois Cavalry down the river making quite a fleet in itself. (Concise Illustrated History of the Civil War: "...121,500 soldiers, 14,592 animals, 1,200 wagons and 44 artillery batteries were transported requiring a flotilla of 389 vessels....")

Early on the morning of the 25th, we set sail for the Peninsula. That night, we anchored in the Potomac near Matthias Point, not daring to sail with so many transports in low on a stormy night. The 26th was cold and rainy, and our fleet sailed to the bay; here all anchored except the steamer "Emperor" which went as far as the mouth of the Rappahannock where she anchored for the night.

Sunday, April 27th, we sailed at dawn. Although the bay was very rough, we passed it in safely, and in the afternoon arrived at Shipping Point, where was crowded sailing crafts of every description; making a lively scene. That night and all the next day we remained on board the boats unable to disembark. Tuesday the 29th, however, we succeeded in landing a part of the regiment. Canal boats were brought up to the shore for a dock, or wharf, on which the provisions and stores were landed, but the horses were pushed into the wafer and made to swim ashore. The landing was complete on May 1st.

38. HARD (106, 107)
Shipping Point harbor is at the mouth of Cheeseman's Creek, and was the base of supplies for the army. All was hustle and activity. Hundreds of boards and lugs were continually moving, and the shriek of their numerous whistles made it seem as though some great commercial city had sprung up here as if by magic. That night Barney McGough of Company A, received a kick from a horse which fractured his lower jaw. The wound was properly cared for and next morning he was transferred to the hospital steamer, "Commodore," to be sent to Philadelphia. The country is low, but little above the level of the bay. The water used for drinking came from springs that were overflowed at high tide, and had to be procured when the tide was out. It was, at best, poor and brackish, and in twenty-four hours I could see its effects on our men, in producing diarrhea. The sick list accordingly increased, and several men had to be put on board hospital boats in the harbor, to be sent to general hospital.

It being the first of the month, and the day we were to be mustered for pay, our Chaplain introduced the subject as to how it could be accomplished. Hospital Steward, Robert Sill, ever ready for a joke, and very witty, at once procured a mustard pot from the mess-chest, and proposed that the Chaplain be "mustard" for pay immediately, to the great amusement of those present.

39. HARD (160)
On or about the 20th, Majors' Beveridge and Clendennin proceeded with half the regiment as far as Turkey Creek Bridge, in the direction of Malvern Hill, driving the rebel pickets before them. They were fired upon by a rebel battery, and withdrawing in the direction of Haxall's, they were often greeted with the "whiz" of the deadly missile. One shell burst near a picket post of Company H, and wounded Sylvanus Brott in the foot, at the same time killing his horse. They succeeded, however, in capturing a fine horse belonging to the rebels and brought in two citizens.

40. HARD (165, 166, 167)
After the last battle of Malvern Hill. (before related) the army commenced its retreat from Harrison's Landing; the Eighth Illinois Cavalry bringing up the rear.

The army crossed the Chickahominy near its mouth, on a pontoon bridge, the Eighth Illinois being the last to come across. A few minutes after it was over, the fastenings were loosed and the boats floated down the stream. A number of stragglers soon appeared on the opposite bank, and were taken on board the pontoons. Five or six smoky gunboats were just below as guards, besides several tugs used to tow the pontoons, of which there were about a hundred.

At Williamsburg, six miles distant, the regiment left the rear, and passing through town halted in a meadow to feed the horses and to refresh and rest the men. A patch of potatoes was discovered, and a skirmish at once ensued, in which the potatoes were completely vanquished. At six o'clock Wednesday morning we were on the march again, reached Yorktown about ten o'clock A.M. During the retreat the dust was very deep and rose in clouds so as to almost smother both men and horses. Everything was completely covered with it on reaching Yorktown, and numerous ablutions in York River were necessary to restore the original color. In the meantime, the work of shipping the army was proceeding and our regiment waited their turn to lake boats for Alexandria.

A new organization of the regiment had been made just previous to leaving Haxall's Landing. From right to left the companies standing as follows:

FIRST BATTALION, MAJOR CLENDENNIN
Company G Captain Medill, Commanding Squadron
Company A Captain Forsythe
Company E Captain Kelley, Commanding Squadron
Company B Captain Smith

THIRD BATTALION, MAJOR DUSTIN
Company I Captain Rapelje, Commanding Squadron
Company M Captain Martin
Company C Captain Clark, Commanding Squadron
Company L Captain Waite

SECOND BATTALION, MAJOR BEVERIDGE
Company K Captain Farnsworth, Commanding Squadron
Company D Lieutenant Verbeck in command
Company H Captain Southworth, Commanding Squadron
Company F Captain Ludlam
Lieutenant Hynes of Company G. Adjutant

While at Harrisons Landing the cavalry brigade to which the Eighth Illinois belonged, was under the command of General Pleasanton, and some of the officers of the Eighth were on the Generals staff.

The regiment shipped at Yorktown on the 30th of August, and a part arrived at Alexandria September 1st, and the remainder about noon, September 2d.

41. HARD (168, 169, 176)
Having now returned to the point from which we started for the field in March, let us lake a view of the situation. It is plain from what has transpired that the so-called Peninsula Campaign had proved a grand failure. But why, even after our retreat from before Richmond, have we been brought back to defend the Capitol? While our Army was lying on the James River, General Pope having been put in command at Washington, advanced on the line we first essayed, and when upon the Rapidan met the enemy, who, with their main army, were making rapid advances in order, if possible, to overpower him and reach Washington before he could be re-inforced by the army under General McClellan. To meet this new movement our army was withdrawn; a part reaching General Pope in time to participate in the bloody engagements which were then being fought. Generals Fitz John Porter, Kearney, Stevens and other commands, were among the troops engaged. He will not stop to argue the point as to who was to blame in these terrile battles. The second Bull Run Battle was fought while our regiment was in transit from Yorktown and that of Chantille the day before it landed in Alexandria. In these engagements the much lamented Kearney, Stevens, Taylor and Colonel Fletcher Webster (son of Daniel Webster) fell, martyrs to their country. Just at the close of these battles, and as the enemy were rushing on toward Washington, our regiment landed, and was sent to the front without a moments notice.

(some of the battles during this time period: Battle of Poolville, Battle of Barnsville, Capturing of Sugar Loan Mountain, Battle of Frederick, Battle of Middletown, Battle of South Mountain, Battle of Boonsboro, Battle of Antietam, Battle of Martinsburg)

We forded the river and pursued the retreating enemy toward South Mountain, where they again formed in line of battle. A detachment consisting of one squadron of the Eighth Illinois and a part of the Third Indiana, under command of Major Medill, went towards Harper's Ferry, and became engaged with a superior force, in which we suffered severely. Eight men belonging to our regiment were wounded and a large number of the Third Indiana. Corporal Plopper, of Company A. was mortally wounded, and George Bowes of Company F was shot through the stomach, from which would he almost miraculously recovered.

42. HARD (226)
On the 6th of April a grand review of the cavalry was had near Falmouth, at which President Lincoln and Lady, Generals Stoneman, Hooker and Pleasanton were present. It would seem that such an army of horsemen, if rightly handled, would carry dismay and discomfiture into the camps of the enemy. This being in all probability the largest body of cavalry ever reviewed or assembled on this continent. These grand reviews were always hard upon both men and horsed and this proved to be particularly so, as the roads were exceedingly muddy. The appearance of the troops and their animals were all that could have been expected, after a winter in the woods, doing hard service, and being frequently short of rations. Wearily, the different regiments returned to camp.